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Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts - appendix

Description: This detailed appendix presents the results of direct coal liquefaction studies performed by the contractor. Several hundred tables summarizing the chemical compostion for runs of a bench scale reactor are presented.
Date: July 1, 1994
Creator: Berger, D. J.; Parker, R. J. & Simpson, P. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solvent tailoring in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, April-June 1984

Description: Although the numerous functions of the solvent during liquefaction are not completely understood, the provision for (and the maintenance of) an effective process solvent is necessary for effective coal liquefaction. In this project, the function of the process solvent regarding vapor-liquid equilibrium, hydrogen donation, and catalyst activity has been explored. In previously reported work, a number of donor compounds were evaluated for their relative efficiency in converting coal to cresol solubles. Attempts to correlate the relative efficiency of the various donor compounds were made on the basis of thermodynamic stability and structural features of the molecules. Currently, work is underway with selected donor compounds to determine if the chemical nature of the compound influences the product distribution obtained during coal liquefaction as well as affecting the amount of conversion obtained. The product distribution, which is being used to evaluate the liquefaction products, is based upon extraction of the products into different solvents. The products are divided into oil, pentane soluble material; asphaltenes, pentane insoluble, benzene soluble material; preasphaltenes, benzene insoluble, methylene chloride/methanol soluble material; and insoluble organic matter, methylene chloride/methanol insoluble material. The effectiveness of the hydrogen donor solvent will be measured by the amount of higher quality material (oil and asphaltenes) obtained as well as by the amount of coal converted.
Date: July 1, 1984
Creator: Tarrer, A.R.; Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A. & Williams, D.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: 2012 State of Technology and Projections to 2017

Description: This report summarizes the economic impact of the work performed at PNNL during FY12 to improve fast pyrolysis oil upgrading via hydrotreating. A comparison is made between the projected economic outcome and the actual results based on experimental data. Sustainability metrics are also included.
Date: August 27, 2013
Creator: Jones, Susanne B. & Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Special Equipment in the Coal-Hydrogenation Demonstration Plant

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over the equipment used in coal hydrogenation demonstration plants. Detailed descriptions of the equipment and machinery are presented. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: January 1950
Creator: Markovits, J. A.; Braun, K. C.; Donovan, J. T. & Sandaker, J. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on the Investigation of the Fire at the Liquefaction, Storage, and Regasification Plant of the East Ohio Gas Co., Cleveland Ohio, October 20, 1944

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over investigations conducted on the 1944 fire at the East Ohio Gas Company. Descriptions of the plant, and construction of the gas tanks are listed. A detailed description of the disaster, and its aftermath are also presented. This report includes tables, maps, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: February 1946
Creator: Elliott, M. A.; Seibel, C. W.; Brown, F. W.; Artz, R. T. & Berger, L. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Power recovery system for coal-liquefaction process. [Patent application]

Description: Method and apparatus for minimizing energy required to inject reactant such as coal-oil slurry into a reaction vessel, using high pressure effluent from the latter to displace the reactant from a containment vessel into the reaction vessel with assistance of low pressure pump. Effluent is degassed in the containment vessel, and a heel of the degassed effluent is maintained between incoming effluent and reactant in the containment vessel.
Date: April 24, 1981
Creator: Horton, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1992

Description: This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: Summaries of the final reports produced by Lehigh University, West Virginia University, and Vander Sande Associates under the Participants Program are presented. Analytical data produced by CONSOL are provided in Appendix I for all samples employed in the Participants Program and issued with the samples to research groups in the Participants Program. A paper was presented at the 1992 US Department of Energy Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Liquefaction Contractors` Review Conference, held in Pittsburgh September 23--24, 1992, entitled ``The Chemical Nature of Coal Liquid Resids and the Implications for Process Development``. It appears as Appendix 2 in this report.
Date: November 1, 1992
Creator: Brandes, S. D.; Winschel, R. A. & Burke, F. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microbial recovery of metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Quarterly report, October 1993--December 1993

Description: The project objectives outlined in the previous reports involved defining conditions and cultures best suited to achieve the most effective metal release from spent coal liquefaction catalysts by microbial processes. The continuity of the research program was maintained during the period of principal investigator replacement. This transition period allowed the project data to be reviewed and research plans were formulated to gain new insights into the mechanisms involved in metals release. Various microbiological and physiochemical parameters which may be important in microbial release of metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts continue to be investigated so that this technology can be optimized. Mo release from spent coal liquefaction catalysts has been shown to be dependent upon many parameters, but release is dominated by microbial growth. The microbial Mo release is a rapid process requiring less than one week for 90% of the releasable Mo to be solubilized from whole washed (THF) catalyst. It could be expected that the rates would be even greater with crushed catalyst. Efforts are now centering on optimizing the parameters that stimulate microbial growth and action.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Sandbeck, K. A. & Joffe, P. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, July--September 1993

Description: In this quarter, progress has been made in the following two aspects: (1) spectroscopic and chemical reaction studies on the effects of drying and mild oxidation of a Wyodak subbituminous coal on its structure and pretreatment/liquefaction at 350{degrees}C; and (2) effects of dispersed catalyst and solvent on conversion and structural changes of a North Dakota lignite. Drying and oxidation of Wyodak subbituminous coal at 100-150{degrees}C have been shown to have significant effects on its structure and on its catalytic and non-catalytic low-severity liquefaction at 350{degrees}C for 30 min under 6.9 MPa H{sub 2}. Spectroscopic analyses using solid-state {sup 13}C NMR, Pyrolysis-GC-MS, and FT-IR revealed that oxidative drying at 100-150{degrees}C causes the transformation of phenolics and catechol into other related structures (presumably via condensation) and high-severity air drying at 150{degrees}C for 20 h leads to disappearance of catechol-like structure. Increasing air drying time or temperature increases oxidation to form more oxygen functional groups at the expense of aliphatic carbons. Such a clearly negative impact of severe oxidation is considered to arise from significantly increased oxygen functionality which enhances the cross-link formation in the early stage of coal liquefaction. Physical, chemical, and surface physicochemical aspects of drying and oxidation and the role of water are also discussed. A North Dakota lignite (DECS-1) coal was studied for its behaviors in non-catalytic and catalytic liquefaction. Reactions were carried out at temperatures between 250 and 450{degrees}C. Regardless the reaction solvents and the catalyst being used, the optimum temperature was found to be 400{degrees}C. The donor solvent has a significant effect over the conversion especially at temperatures higher than 350{degrees}C.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Song, C.; Saini, A. K.; Huang, L.; Schobert, H. H. & Hatcher, P. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993

Description: In this quarter, progress has been made in the following two aspects: The influences of temperature, dispersed Mo catalyst, and solvent on the liquefaction conversion and composition of products from low-rank coals; and the hydrous pyrolysis of a lignite and spectroscopic characterization of its structural transformation during the hydrous pyrolysis. The analytical work described in this quarter also represents molecular-level characterization of products. The purpose of the first part of the work described in this quarter is to study the influences of temperature, solvent and dispersed Mo catalyst on the liquefaction conversion and chemical composition of the products. Many specialty chemicals, including one- to four-ring aromatics, could potentially be produced by liquefying coal. To achieve this goal, not only a high coal conversion but also a desirable product distribution is necessary. Therefore, it is of great importance to understand the structural changes of the coal during reaction and to investigate the conditions under which the aliphatics or aromatics can be removed from the macromolecular structure of coal. This quarterly report also describes the hydrous pyrolysis of Potapsco lignite and spectroscopic characterization of its structural transformation during the hydrous pyrolysis. This work has some implications both on the structural changes of low-rank coals during pretreatment and on the geochemical reactions during coalification stage. Vitrinite, a major component of most coals, is derived from degraded wood in ancient peat swamps. Organic geochemical studies conducted on a series of coalified wood samples derived mostly from gymnosperms have allowed the development of a chemical reaction series to characterize the major coalification reactions which lignin, the major coal-producing component of wood, undergoes.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Song, C.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K. A.; Hatcher, P. G. & Schobert, H. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bench-scale demonstration of biological production of ethanol from coal synthesis gas. Quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

Description: This project describes a new approach to coal liquefaction, the biological conversion of coal synthesis gas into a liquid fuel, ethanol. A new bacterium, Clostridium Ijungdahlii, strain PETC, has been discovered and developed for this conversion, which also produces acetate as a by-product. Based upon the results of an exhaustive literature search and experimental data collected in the ERI laboratories, secondary and/or branched alcohols have been selected for ethanol extraction from the fermentation broth. 2,6 Methyl 4-heptanol has a measured distribution coefficient of 0.44 and a separation factor of 47. Methods to improve the results from extraction by removing water prior to distillation are under consideration. Several runs were performed in the two-stage CSTR system with Clostridium Ijungdahlii, strain PETC, with and without cell recycle between stages. Reduced gas flow rate, trypticase limitation and ammonia limitation as methods of maximizing ethanol production were the focus of the studies. With ammonia limitation, the ethanol:acetate product ratio reached 4.0.
Date: December 31, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initial study of coal pretreatment and coprocessing

Description: This document describes research performed in accordance with task 3.3.1 in the 1989--1990 annual research plan under cooperative agreement number DE-FC21-86MC11076. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for enhancing liquid yields by integrating coal pretreatment and coprocessing technologies. The process tested involved pretreatment of coal to a very low moisture content and partial decarboxylation in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor by contact with hot C0{sub 2} or a C0{sub 2} and superheated steam mixture. The pretreated coal was then coprocessed with a heavy, coal-derived oil in a 2-inch screw pyrolysis reactor to produce dried coal with a higher calorific value and an upgraded oil. Six pretreatment tests and seven coprocessing tests were conducted independently with two separate systems being utilized: one system for the pretreatment tests and the other system for the coprocessing tests. The test program included evaluating alternative pretreatment gases, temperatures, and residence times in combination with different coprocessing temperatures and residence times. Pretreatment and coprocessing studies were performed on Herrin Results of the integrated pretreatment and coprocessing operations were evaluated and compared with the coprocessing of raw coal. The results indicate that a solid product is formed with a higher calorific content than the starting coal and that an upgraded oil is generated.
Date: September 1, 1991
Creator: Vaillancourt, M.; Turner, T. F. & Fahy, L. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Gold tube carbonization and reflectance microscopy

Description: This study demonstrated the use of the gold tube carbonization technique and reflectance microscopy analysis for the examination of process-derived materials from direct coal liquefaction. The carbonization technique, which was applied to coal liquefaction distillation resids, yields information on the amounts of gas plus distillate, pyridine-soluble resid, and pyridine-insoluble material formed when a coal liquid sample is heated to 450{degree}C for one hour at 5000 psi in an inert atmosphere. The pyridine-insolubles then are examined by reflectance microscopy to determine the type, amount, and optical texture of isotropic and anisotropic carbon formed upon carbonization. Further development of these analytical methods as process development tools may be justified on the basis of these results.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Mitchell, G.; Davis, A.; Burke, F. P.; Winschel, R. A. & Brandes, S. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction. Quarterly report No. 8, July 1, 1993--October 1, 1993

Description: In the last report the effects of water, tetralin, and argon were discussed as media during the heating of Illinois No. 6 coal. In studies in which the temperature was ramped from ambient to 460{degrees}C at 30{degrees}C/min particles were observed to shrink in the case of both water and tetralin, and first swell and then collapse back to particles with their starting shapes in the case of argon. The result with tetralin was expected, but that for water was not. Similarly, the results in argon were not in accord with some models of coal pyrolysis which suggest that coals fully liquefy when heated (Solomon, et al.). The work described here includes discussion of additional work with Illinois No. 6 coal with argon and water, and new work with n-undecane as medium.
Date: October 14, 1993
Creator: Ross, D. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of reactor configuration in coal liquefaction. Ninth quarterly report, 1 October 1993--31 December 1993

Description: This quarterly report covers the activities of Optimization of Reactor Configuration in Coal Liquefaction during the Period October 1 to December 31, 1993, at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. in Lawrenceville and Princeton, New Jersey. This DOE Contract Period was from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1993 and has recently been extended to March 31, 1994. The overall objective of this program is to achieve a new approach to liquefaction that generates an all distillate product slate at a reduced cost of about $25 per barrel of crude oil equivalent. This quarterly report covers work on laboratory Support, Laboratory-scale Studies and Project Management.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Lee, L. K.; Pradhan, V. R.; Johanson, E. S.; Comolli, A. G. & Stalzer, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration plant supplementary technical studies section 10-confidence analysis. SRC-II demonstration project, phase zero, task number 1, deliverable number 3

Description: The Gulf Management Sciences Group (GMSG) in Pittsburgh was asked to provide assistance in performing a confidence analysis for the SRC-II demonstration plant as required by the Department of Energy. Specifically, the contract says to discuss confidence levels for plant operating and capital costs; plant operability and technical risk. It was decided that the best way to obtain estimates for these variables would be through interviews of people with substantial experience in the field. Each subject was first asked what modifications he envisioned being made to the current plant design. Discussion was limited to major systems that might require partial redesign and comments concerning the plant in general. The interviewees were next asked to estimate the probability of success for the project, given that the modifications they envisioned were in fact made. The modes of the combined distributions of the interview results indicate that the respondents in general felt that the base case estimates represented the most probable outcomes with the possible exception of the capital cost estimate. On the other hand, the respondents consistently judged that there is a chance that the demonstration plant will perform significantly worse than the base case for each of the variables that were projected. This conclusion is supported by the skewness of the distributions. These distributions can be expected to narrow and some of the skewness will disappear as the final design of the plant is determined. A detailed analysis of the methodology employed is presented. (LTN)
Date: July 31, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling the fluid dynamics of the H-coal reactor. [Cold flow]

Description: A key feature of the H-coal process is the use of an ebullated bed for achieving good mixing between slurried coal, hydrogen, and extruded catalyst particles. The H-coal reactor can be modeled as a four-phase fluid bed system containing liquid, fines, gases, and catalyst particles. In order to study the hydrodynamic behavior of this gas/slurry/catalyst system, a cold flow model was constructed consisting of a glass reactor 15.24 cm in ID and 6 m long. A recycle cup located in the upper part of the reactor is used for the partial separation of gas from the slurry before part of the slurry is recycled to the bottom of the reactor. The layout and dimensions of this unit are very similar to a 3 T/D coal liquefaction process development unit (PDU) successfully operated by Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI). Using kerosene, pulverized coal char, and nitrogen, it has been found that at ambient conditions the bed expansion of cylindrical catalyst extrudates 1.6 mm in diameter and 4.8 mm in length closely simulates the behavior of the H-coal reactor. Operating conditions which favor the distribution of the gas phase in the stable ideal bubbly regime are also described.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Vasalos, I A; Bild, E M & Tatterson, D F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Well installation and boring report for the proposed SRC-1 facility at Newman, Kentucky

Description: Dames and Moore conducted a geohydrologic investigation at the proposed Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC-I) Demonstration Plant Site. Task 1 involved drilling 14 borings to aid in further determining the location and extent of a clay body known to lie along the floodplain at the southern edge of the site. Task 2 included installation of 13 stainless steel groundwater observation wells throughout the site in order to expand the groundwater flow information provided by 10 existing wells.
Date: January 1, 1984
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel supports for coal liquefaction catalysts

Description: Cold model studies of the liquid fluidized bed microreactor are essentially complete. This report documents experimental data obtained for the optimum (60{degrees} blade angle) axial flow impeller in Gas/Liquid/Solid service. Dimensionless correlations are presented for the critical stirrer speeds corresponding to incipient fluidization, S{sub 1}, and particle carryover, S{sub 2}. Under some circumstances bed expansion ceases prior to particle carryover due to cavitation in the impeller. A correlation is developed for S{sub 3}, the stirrer speed at which cavitation is first observed, and by comparing S{sub 2} and S{sub 3} it is possible to establish whether the bed can be fully expanded. Construction of the stainless steel vessel and internals was completed during the last quarter, and assembly of the CCLM unit is underway. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.
Date: December 26, 1989
Creator: Haynes, Jr., H. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supporting research and development on separations technology. Final report

Description: Separations technology was studied for coal conversion systems. During the first year, the work focused on alternative methods for accomplishing the solid-liquid separations that are required for liquefaction processes. The first phase, completed January 18, 1975, consisted of the review and evaluation of available data. Phase II, reviewed June 30, 1975, consisted of characterization tests of selected process streams and scouting tests for some alternate separations methods. A third phase, which included bench-scale development of agglomeration--settling separations techniques, verification of methods to significantly improve current process filtration rates, and selected characterization and aging tests, ends with this report. Funding in this area was discontinued September 30, 1976. 24 tables, 34 figures.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Rodgers, B. R.; Katz, S. & Westmoreland, P. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal liquefaction catalyst development. Quarterly progress report No. 2, July 1-September 30, 1979

Description: The thermal and catalytic baseline runs continued with HDS-1442A as the reference catalyst and toluene soluble conversion as the basis for liquefaction performance. Results from these experiments suggested that a 30-minute run time should be selected for screening experiments. No promising candidates for testing in the continuous aging unit were identified. Catalyst Aging Tests: Eastern Coal was centered around evaluation of the new SRC II slurry oil as a liquefaction solvent as well as a design change in the catalyst basket for the continuous aging unit. Uncertainties in Run 5188 clouded the assessment of the slurry oil effect. Subsequent runs with the new SRC II solvent indicated that slurry oil effects are small. Catalyst Aging Tests: Western Coal concentrated on ascertaining the liquefaction behavior of a Western Coal such as Wyodak with AMOCAT type catalysts. Simplifications were made in the composition of our synthetic coal feed to improve analytical and kinetic accuracy. Using SRC II heavy distillate as the slurry oil and Illinois No. 6 coal feed, the results from the aging test are quite clear. The recently prepared 500 pound batch of AMOCAT 1A is good quality and exhibits highly improved performance over the H-Coal catalyst, HDS-1442A. Benzene and hexane soluble conversion are markedly higher with hexane soluble conversion declining less rapidly with time. The highly improved catalyst should be considered for future evaluation in the larger H-Coal process development unit.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Kim, D. K.; Pellet, R. J.; Robinson, K. K. & Mahoney, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of multiphase flow useful to understanding scaleup of coal-liquefaction reactors. Technical progress report, September 1, 1981-November 30, 1981

Description: The major portion of the time spent on this project for this quarter involved specifying and ordering the equipment required to construct the 13 inch inside diameter column. The superstructure has been constructed in the laboratory and all major equipment has been ordered. In addition a series of dynamic gas disengagement experiments have been performed using the six inch inside diameter column. The major objective of these experiments was to determine whether the distribution has any effect on the bubble rise velocities. No major difference was found when the data for a porous plate and a sieve plate was compared.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Knickle, H.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department