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Discharge coefficients for combustor-liner air-entry holes 2: flush rectangular holes, step louvers, and scoops

Description: Experimental discharge coefficients for various types of combustor-liner air-entry holes are presented as a function of a dimensionless flow parameter. In general, scoops and step louvers have higher discharge coefficients and wider flow ranges than flush holes. The effects of size or shape of a given type of hole are small. The proximity of multiple flush holes or the wall inclination of a convergent duct has a negligible effect on discharge coefficient.
Date: April 1958
Creator: Dittrich, Ralph T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operating Temperatures of I-40-5 Turbojet Engine Burner Liners and the Effect of Temperature Variation on Burner-Liner Service Life

Description: Report presenting an investigation of burner liners in a turbojet engine to determine the principal factors limiting the burner-liner service life. The investigation covered a range of engine speeds and testing was conducted to determine whether bare, ceramic-coated, or shielded thermocouples would give the most correct temperature readings.
Date: August 23, 1948
Creator: Wilsted, H. D.; Duffy, Robert T. & Grey, Ralph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Graphical Big Picture for Tank Technologies

Description: A graphical method is presented for comparing different tank technologies and evaluating scalability, over wide ranges of volume and pressure. Mass contours are plotted on log-log graphs of pressure versus volume, using either theory or data points representing hardware. The simple theoretical case for infinitely scaleable tanks made of a single isotropic material has a constant value of PV/m over the entire plot, and results in straight diagonal mass contours. The contours become more complicated as a result of practical considerations. The latter include minimum wall thickness limits and non-pressure structural loads, as well as minimum thicknesses for the liner and composite over-wrap of multi-layered tank walls. Given a requirement for a tank at a particular volume and pressure, a set of plots representing different technologies can be used to estimate tank masses and select one or more technologies that would meet the need.
Date: June 15, 2007
Creator: Whitehead, J C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of internal configuration on afterburner shell temperatures

Description: From Summary: "A brief investigation was conducted in the altitude wind tunnel to determine the extent to which the afterburner shell cooling problem could be alleviated by internal configuration changes. Data were obtained with and without a cooling liner installed and for variations in the radial fuel distribution and in the radial distribution in flame-seat area. Consideration is given to the effects on both shell temperature and afterburner performance."
Date: January 8, 1952
Creator: Conrad, E. William & Jansen, Emmert T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Fuel Injectors and Liner Design on Performance of an Annular Turbojet Combustor With Vapor Fuel

Description: Memorandum presenting a direct-connect duct investigation conducted with a one-quarter segment of a 25.5 inch diameter annular combustor which had been previously developed for liquid fuel injection. The combustor was modified by changing the fuel injectors and the liner design for vapor fuel injection. Results regarding accuracy and reproducibility, combustion efficiency, combustor-outlet temperature profiles, and pressure losses are provided.
Date: April 6, 1953
Creator: Norgren, Carl T. & Childs, J. Howard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ProTec Tear-Offs: A Preliminary Assessment

Description: The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has conducted a series of ''scoping'' tests (referred to as Phase 1) to assess the potential use of a Mylar{reg_sign} tear-off system as a primary or secondary protective barrier to minimize acid etching (''frosting''), accidental scratching, and/or radiation damage for shielded cells windows. Conceptually, thin, multi-layered sheets of Mylar (referred to as a ''tear-off'' system) could be directly applied to the Lexan{reg_sign} sheet or glovebox/hood sash window to serve as a secondary (or primary) barrier. Upon degradation of visual clarity due to accidental scratching, spills/splatters, and/or radiation damage, the outer layer (or sheet) of Mylar could be removed ''refreshing'' or restoring the view. Due to the multi-layer aspect, the remaining Mylar layers would provide continued protection for the window from potential reoccurrences (which could be immediate or after some extended time period). Although the concept of using a tear-off system as a protective barrier was conceptually enticing, potential technical issues were identified and addressed as part of this Phase 1 feasibility study. These included resistance to: (1) acid(s) (concentrated (28.9 M) HF, concentrated (15.9M) HNO{sub 3}, 6M HCl, and 0.6M H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), (2) base (a simulated sludge with pH of 12.9), (3) gamma radiation (cumulative dose of {approx}200,000 rad), and (4) scratch resistance (simulating accidental scratching with the manipulators). Not only can these four factors play a significant role in determining the visual clarity of the integrated system, they can also contribute to the mechanical integrity issues which could dictate the ability to remove the outer layer when visual clarity has degraded. The results of the Phase 1 study clearly indicate that the Mylar tear-off concept (as a primary or secondary protective barrier) is a potential technical solution to prevent or retard excessive damage that would result from acid etching, base damage (as ...
Date: September 1, 2005
Creator: Peeler, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CANMET Gasifier Liner Coupon Material Test Plan

Description: The test plan detailed in this topical report supports Task 1 of the project titled ''Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Coal Energy Resources - Advanced Gasification Systems Development (AGSD)''. The purpose of these tests is to verify that materials planned for use in an advanced gasifier pilot plant will withstand the environments in a commercial gasifier. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed and designed the cooled liner test assembly article that will be tested at CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC-O) in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (CETC-O). The Test Plan TP-00364 is duplicated in its entirety, with formatting changes to comply with the format required for this Topical Report. The table of contents has been modified to include the additional material required by this topical report. Test Request example and drawings of non-proprietary nature are also included as appendices.
Date: October 30, 2005
Creator: Fitzsimmons, Mark; Darby, Alan & Widman, Fred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gelcasting of aluminum titanate. Final report

Description: This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to assess the applicability of the gelcasting process for forming automotive exhaust port liner green bodies using Golden Technologies` proprietary aluminum titanate powder composition. A gelcasting process, specifically tailored to Golden Technologies` powder, was developed and used successfully to form green bodies for property evaluation. Using appropriate milling and firing conditions, it was found that the gelcast material had properties which compared favorably with Golden Technologies` baseline material. Tubular gelcast samples simulating exhaust port liners were prepared and shipped to Golden Technologies for final process evaluation.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Nunn, S.D. & Stephan, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A hydrogen rich, low density liquid, contained within the internal volume of a cylindrical liner, was requested of the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division for one of the last liner driven experiments conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus facility. The experiment was a continuation of the Raleigh-Taylor hydrodynamics series of experiments and associated liners that have been described previously [1,2].
Date: June 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sample push out fixture

Description: This invention generally relates to the remote removal of pelletized samples from cylindrical containment capsules. V-blocks are used to receive the samples and provide guidance to push out rods. Stainless steel liners fit into the v-channels on the v-blocks which permits them to be remotely removed and replaced or cleaned to prevent cross contamination between capsules and samples. A capsule holder securely holds the capsule while allowing manual up/down and in/out movement to align each sample hole with the v-blocks. Both end sections contain identical v-blocks; one that guides the drive out screw and rods or manual push out rods and the other to receive the samples as they are driven out of the capsule.
Date: February 22, 2000
Creator: Biernat, John L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Core Sampling in Support of the Vadose Zone Transport Field Study

Description: Over 130 soil samples were collected from three soil borings in support of the VZFTS. The first boring was sampled just prior to the first injection test. The other two borings were sampled after completion of the injection tests. These soil samples were collected using a 7.6 cm (3 in) ID splitspoon sampler, with internal 15 cm (6 in.) long Lexan? liners. The samples ranged in depth from 4 to 17 m (13.5 to 56.5 ft), and were submitted to various laboratories for hydraulic property characterization and/or geochemical/tracer analyses. Preliminary results indicate that the major concentration front of the bromide tracer reached a relative depth of 5 m (below the injection point) 8 days after the final water injection and had migrated to a relative depth of about 7 m, 4 days later.
Date: March 9, 2001
Creator: Last, George V & Caldwell, Todd G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On improving the penetration of commercial shaped charge perforators

Description: Computational analysis demonstrated that the penetration of a shaped charge jet could be substantially enhanced by imploding the liner in a high pressure light gas atmosphere. The gas pressure helps confine the jet on the axis of penetration in the latter stages of formation. A light gas, such as helium or hydrogen, is required in order to keep the gas density low enough so as not to inhibit liner collapse. The computational analysis has now been experimentally confirmed.
Date: April 1, 1999
Creator: Glenn, L A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monitoring of Refractory Wall recession using high temperature impact echo instrumentation

Description: Regression of refractory linings of furnaces occurs due to a variety of mechanisms. The specific mechanism selected for investigation during this program is the regression of refractories which are in direct contact with a liquid corrodant. Examples include the melting of glass, the production of pig iron and steel, and the melting of aluminum. The rates of regression to a wall thickness which requires reline or extensive reconstruction vary widely, from less than a year to over ten years depending on the specific service environment. This program investigated the feasibility of measuring refractory wall thickness with an impact-echo method while at operating temperature (wall temperatures exceeding 500 C). The impact-echo method uses the impact of a small sphere with the surface of the test object to send a stress wave into the object. In a plate-like structure, the stress wave reflects back to the front surface, reverberating in the structure and causing a periodic surface displacement whose frequency is inversely proportional to the thickness of the test object. Impact-echo testing was chosen because it requires access to only one side of the test object and could be performed during the operation of a refractory structure. Commercially-available impact-echo instrumentation is available for room temperature use for a variety of tests on concrete. The enabling technology for this work was to use a high-temperature piezoelectric material, aluminum nitride, as the receiving sensor for the stress waves, allowing its use on refractories during furnace operation.
Date: April 30, 2004
Creator: Dayton, University of
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This report documents the determination of the cause of pressurization that led to bulging deformation of a 55 gallon wastewater drum stored in L-Area. Drum samples were sent to SRNL for evaluation. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.
Date: November 30, 2007
Creator: Vormelker, P; Cynthia Foreman, C; Zane Nelson, Z; David Hathcock, D & Dennis Vinson, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Gasifier Pilot Plant Concept Definition

Description: This report presents results from definition of a preferred commercial-scale advanced gasifier configuration and concept definition for a gasification pilot plant incorporating those preferred technologies. The preferred commercial gasifier configuration was established based on Cost Of Electricity estimates for an IGCC. Based on the gasifier configuration trade study results, a compact plug flow gasifier, with a dry solids pump, rapid-mix injector, CMC liner insert and partial quench system was selected as the preferred configuration. Preliminary systems analysis results indicate that this configuration could provide cost of product savings for electricity and hydrogen ranging from 15%-20% relative to existing gasifier technologies. This cost of product improvement draws upon the efficiency of the dry feed, rapid mix injector technology, low capital cost compact gasifier, and >99% gasifier availability due to long life injector and gasifier liner, with short replacement time. A pilot plant concept incorporating the technologies associated with the preferred configuration was defined, along with cost and schedule estimates for design, installation, and test operations. It was estimated that a 16,300 kg/day (18 TPD) pilot plant gasifier incorporating the advanced gasification technology and demonstrating 1,000 hours of hot-fire operation could be accomplished over a period of 33 months with a budget of $25.6 M.
Date: August 31, 2005
Creator: Fusselman, Steve; Darby, Alan & Widman, Fred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Elementary Treatment of Gamma-Ray Heating and Gamma-Ray Dosage in Inhomogeneous Reactors

Description: An analysis is made of the heat produced by the absorption of gamma rays in a sample placed into a reactor. It is clearly shown that enormous local (space) variations in gamma flux exist in current reactors. An application to the Hanford reactors is treated in some detail. Although the estimates obtained may be good to but a factor of two, it is clearly shown that in most cases the major portion of the heating is due to (n, {gamma}) reactions within the sample itself, and in some cases to the gamma rays generated in liners and cans, and not from the gamma rays generated in fission, nor from the moderator. Some implications of these results are discussed, among the most important being their application to radiation chemistry in reactors. Several mathematical results for absorption and generation of gamma rays in various bodies which should be useful in estimating dosage rates for samples irradiated in reactors are given (Appendix II). A method for making the calculations for an arbitrary absorption law are given (Appendix III). This method may be used with the true absorption law for gamma rays or even for the calculation of the absorption of the energy of particles possessing a range law of absorption, e.g., {gamma}-rays or protons.
Date: October 27, 1952
Creator: Primak, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CANMET Gasifier Liner Coupon Material Test Report

Description: This report provides detailed test results consisting of test data and post-test inspections from Task 1 ''Cooled Liner Coupon Development and Test'' of the project titled ''Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Coal Energy Resources--Advanced Gasification Systems Development (AGSD)''. The primary objective of this development and test program is to verify that ceramic matrix composite (CMC) liner materials planned for use in an advanced gasifier pilot plant will successfully withstand the environments in a commercial gasifier. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) designed and fabricated the cooled liner test assembly article that was tested in a slagging gasifier at CANMET Energy Technology Center (CETC-O) in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The test program conducted in 2006 met the objective of operating the cooled liner test article at slagging conditions in a small scale coal gasifier at CETC-O for over the planned 100 hours. The test hardware was exposed to at least 30 high temperature excursions (including start-up and shut-down cycles) during the test program. The results of the testing has provided valuable information on gasifier startup and required cooling controls in steady state operation of future advanced gasifiers using similar liners. The test program also provided a significant amount of information in the areas of CMC materials and processing for improved capability in a gasifier environment and insight into CMC liner fabrication that will be essential for near-term advanced gasifier projects.
Date: January 31, 2007
Creator: Fitzsimmons, Mark; Grimmett, Dave & McEnerney, Bryan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Mud System for Microhole Coiled Tubing Drilling

Description: An advanced mud system was designed and key components were built that augment a coiled tubing drilling (CTD) rig that is designed specifically to drill microholes (less than 4-inch diameter) with advanced drilling techniques. The mud system was tailored to the hydraulics of the hole geometries and rig characteristics required for microholes and is capable of mixing and circulating mud and removing solids while being self contained and having zero discharge capability. Key components of this system are two modified triplex mud pumps (High Pressure Slurry Pumps) for advanced Abrasive Slurry Jetting (ASJ) and a modified Gas-Liquid-Solid (GLS) Separator for well control, flow return and initial processing. The system developed also includes an additional component of an advanced version of ASJ which allows cutting through most all materials encountered in oil and gas wells including steel, cement, and all rock types. It includes new fluids and new ASJ nozzles. The jetting mechanism does not require rotation of the bottom hole assembly or drill string, which is essential for use with Coiled Tubing (CT). It also has low reactive forces acting on the CT and generates cuttings small enough to be easily cleaned from the well bore, which is important in horizontal drilling. These cutting and mud processing components and capabilities compliment the concepts put forth by DOE for microhole coiled tubing drilling (MHTCTD) and should help insure the reality of drilling small diameter holes quickly and inexpensively with a minimal environmental footprint and that is efficient, compact and portable. Other components (site liners, sump and transfer pumps, stacked shakers, filter membranes, etc.. ) of the overall mud system were identified as readily available in industry and will not be purchased until we are ready to drill a specific well.
Date: December 1, 2008
Creator: Oglesby, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and MHD modeling of ATLAS experiments to study friction

Description: Transverse shear at the interface of two solids occurs when these solids move at different velocities. This frictional phenomenon is being studied in a series of experiments on the ATLAS capacitor bank at Los Alamos. Cylindrical targets to test friction force models are composed of alternating regions of high- and low-shock speed materials. When the target is impacted by a cylindrical, magnetically-accelerated aluminum liner, the differential shock velocity in the two materials establishes the desired shear at the interface. One- and two-dimensional MHD calculations have been performed to design liners with suitable properties to drive these 'friction-like' ATLAS experiments. A thick impactor allows the shock to be maintained for several microseconds. The ATLAS experiments use a liner that is approximately 10 mm thick at impact, with an inner surface velocity of {approx} 1.4-1.5 km/s. Interaction of this thick liner with the electrodes, or glide planes, results in significant deformation of the hardened stainless steel electrodes. Data from the ATLAS experiments and comparisons with the calculations will be presented, along with plans for future experiments.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Faehl, R. J. (Rickey J.) & Hammerberg, J. E. (James E.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid butane filled load for a liner driven Pegasus experiment.

Description: A hydrogen rich, low density liquid, contained within the internal volume of a cylindrical liner, was requested of the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division for one of the last liner driven experiments conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus facility. The experiment (Fig.1) was a continuation of the Raleigh-Taylor hydrodynamics series of experiments and associated liners that have been described previously.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Salazar, M. A. (Mike A.); Armijo, E. V. (Elfino V.); Anderson, W. E. (Wallace E.); Atchison, W. L. (Walter L.); Bartos, J. J. (Jacob J.); Garcia, F. (Fermin) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Inspection of United States-Department of Energy (US-DOE) model 9975 nuclear materials shipping package revealed corrosion of the lead shielding that was induced by off-gas constituents from organic components in the package. Experiments were performed to determine the corrosion rate of lead when exposed to off-gas or degradation products of these organic materials. The results showed that the room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant was the most corrosive organic species used in the construction of the packaging, followed by polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glue. Fiberboard material, also used in the construction of the packaging induced corrosion to a much lesser extent than the PVAc glue and RTV sealant, and only in the presence of condensed water. The results indicated faster corrosion at temperatures higher than ambient and with condensed water. In light of these corrosion mechanisms, the lead shielding was sheathed in a stainless steel liner to mitigate against corrosion.
Date: July 18, 2008
Creator: Subramanian, K; Kerry Dunn, K & Joseph Murphy, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of the current and symmetry of the impact liner on the NTLX experiments

Description: A series of four liner implosion experiments, denoted the Near Tern Liner Experiments (NTLX) was recently conducted on the Shiva Star capacitor bank at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Measurement of the driving currents in these experiments is required for postshot analysis of the liner implosion and experiments conducted in the target cylinder. A Faraday rotation measurement was fielded on Shiva Star to measure the current and compare with the current measured by a Rogowski coil technique. The Faraday rotation technique measured the 16 MA currents in these experiments with better than 1% precision. In addition, six B-dot probes were fielded at equal angles around a circle in the powerflow channel outside the liner to measure the symmetry of the liner impact on the target cylinder. The B-dot probes measure the local Idot, which has a jump when the liner impacts the target cylinder. A high-pass filter allows one to measure this jump more accurately. From the relative timing of the jump signals, the offset of the liner axis and the circularity of liner are inferred.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Stokes, J. L. (John L.); Tabaka, L. J. (Leonard J.); Parker, J. V. (Jerald V.); Anderson, D. N.; Corrow, R.; Pritchett, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department