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Entrainment Carbonization of Texas Lignite

Description: From Abstract: "This bulletin is a detailed study of low-temperature, entrained-bed carbonization of a Texas lignite. The lignite was from the Sandow strip mine and is representative of the Rockdale formation of the Wilcox formational group.
Date: 1967
Creator: Landers, W. S.; Gomez, Manuel & Wagner, E. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lignite in Greece

Description: From Summary and Conclusions: "The objective of this investigation has been stated above in the Introduction. Studies were made of mining operations in the Athens Basin, Rafina and Oropos districts; the Kimi and Aliveri areas on the island of Euboea; and the Peloponnese in the vicinity of Kalamai. (See fig. 2). Mining practices at mines in these areas are summarized briefly in this report. Samples of lignite were shipped to Bureau of Mines experiment stations at Pittsburgh, Pa., and Golden, Colo., for washability and utilization studies."
Date: 1951
Creator: Toenges, Albert L.; Crentz, W. L.; Parks, B. C. & Abernethy, R. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production and Briquetting of Carbonized Lignite

Description: From Introduction: "The Bureau of Mines since its establishment has always taken an active interest in the utilization of lignite and in the development of the lignite deposits of the United States. Extensive lignite fields occur in the west central States, notably in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and Texas; there are smaller areas in several other Sates, some of which are widely separated."
Date: 1923
Creator: Babcock, E. J. & Odell, W. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Briquetting Tests of Lignite at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1908-9 : With a Chapter on Sulphite-Pitch Binder

Description: From Results of Briquetting Tests: "The results of the briquetting investigations conducted by the Government are expected to prove of considerable value, not only to the Government itself as the owner of extensive lignite deposits and largest single purchaser of fuel, but also to the people living in the the regions where lignite is found. The problem assumes still larger proportions when one realizes that the development of manufacturing industries in those regions depends upon the ability to obtain a cheap and satisfactory fuel. Although the results presented in this bulletin are not conclusive, they warrant the continuation of the investigators as soon as funds can be available for the purpose."
Date: 1912
Creator: Wright, Charles L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal Pretreatment and Pelletizing of North Dakota Lignite

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines investigations of "converting small particle lignite to a stable, storable fuel of relatively high heating value" (p. 1). The equipment and methods used for the study are presented. This report includes tables, maps, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: January 1958
Creator: Oppelt, W. H.; Cooney, J. P.; Golob, E. F. & Kube, W. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LIGNITE FUEL ENHANCEMENT

Description: This 3rd quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project summarizes activities from January 1st through March 31st of 2005. It also summarizes the subsequent purchasing activity and final dryer/process design.
Date: June 7, 2005
Creator: Bullinger, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LIGNITE FUEL ENHANCEMENT

Description: This 4th quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project summarizes activities from April 1st through June 30th of 2005. It also summarizes the subsequent purchasing activity and dryer/process construction.
Date: July 7, 2005
Creator: Bullinger, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium

Description: The Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium was commissioned by the Mountaintop Removal Mining/Valley Fill Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Interagency Steering Committee as an educational forum for the members of the regulatory community who will participate in the development of the EIS. The Steering Committee sought a balanced audience to ensure the input to the regulatory community reflected the range of perspectives on this complicated and emotional issue. The focus of this symposium is on mining and reclamation technology alternatives, which is one of eleven topics scheduled for review to support development of the EIS. Others include hydrologic, environmental, ecological, and socio-economic issues.
Date: June 24, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE EFFECTS OF SOLVENTS ON SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL BELOW ITS PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE

Description: The action of organic solvents on a sub-bituminous coal has been examined over the temperature range of 150-350°C. The solvents studied included benzene, tetralin, pyridine, quinoline, piperidine, and ethylenediamine. The yield of extracted material varied widely with solvent and temperature, exceeding 60% (daf) for ethylenediamine at 250°C. The extracts were anlayzed for molecular weight, elemental composition and proton aromaticity. When mixtures of strong amine-type solvents with toluene were used, the yield of extract was linearly related mol fraction of strong solvent in the mixture.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Grens III., Edward A.; Dorighi, Gary P. & Lindsey, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report, Validation of Novel Planar Cell Design for MW-Scale SOFC Power Systems

Description: This report describes the work completed by NexTech Materials, Ltd. during a three-year project to validate an electrolyte-supported planar solid oxide fuel cell design, termed the FlexCell, for coal-based, megawatt-scale power generation systems. This project was focused on the fabrication and testing of electrolyte-supported FlexCells with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the electrolyte material. YSZ based FlexCells were made with sizes ranging from 100 to 500 cm2. Single-cell testing was performed to confirm high electrochemical performance, both with diluted hydrogen and simulated coal gas as fuels. Finite element analysis modeling was performed at The Ohio State University was performed to establish FlexCell architectures with optimum mechanical robustness. A manufacturing cost analysis was completed, which confirmed that manufacturing costs of less than $50/kW are achievable at high volumes (500 MW/year).
Date: January 3, 2012
Creator: Swartz, Dr Scott L.; Thrun, Dr Lora B.; Arkenberg, Mr Gene B. & Chenault, Ms Kellie M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen bonding in asphaltenes and coal. Quarterly Report for July 1, 1978 - September 30, 1978

Description: Two coal liquid products derived from the same Kentucky hvAb coal have been separated into toluene-insoluble, asphaltene, and pentane-soluble heavy oil fractions. Viscosity and calorimetric studies are reported of the interaction between heavy oil and asphaltene(A) and its acid/neutral(AA) and base(BA) components in solvent benzene. The increase in viscosity and molar enthalpy of interaction, {Delta}H{sup 0}, in the order BA>A>AA, correlate well with the proton magnetic resonance downfield chemical shift of the OH signal of o-phenylphenol, as a function of added asphaltene (A, AA, BA) concentration in solvent CS{sub 2}· The results suggest that when asphaltene .and heavy oil are present together, hydrogen-bonding involving largely phenolic OH, is one of the mechanisms by which asphaltene-heavy oil interactions are achieved and, in part, is responsible for the viscosity increase of coal liquids.
Date: September 29, 1978
Creator: Li, N.C. & Tewari, K.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico

Description: The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.
Date: June 1, 2009
Creator: Peach, James & Starbuck, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program

Description: The "Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program" is being conducted by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) at Reliant Energy’s Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100°F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles’ Unit #1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 33 months of operation. The second and third sections remain in service and the second is expected to be removed in the fall of 2003; the last is tentatively planned for the fall of 2004. This paper describes the program; its importance; the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system; materials utilized; experience to date; and results of the evaluation of the first section.
Date: April 22, 2003
Creator: McDonald, D.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water Management Strategies for Improved Coalbed Methane Production in the Black Warrior Basin

Description: The modern coalbed methane industry was born in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama and has to date produced more than 2.6 trillion cubic feet of gas and 1.6 billion barrels of water. The coalbed gas industry in this area is dependent on instream disposal of co-produced water, which ranges from nearly potable sodium-bicarbonate water to hypersaline sodium-chloride water. This study employed diverse analytical methods to characterize water chemistry in light of the regional geologic framework and to evaluate the full range of water management options for the Black Warrior coalbed methane industry. Results reveal strong interrelationships among regional geology, water chemistry, and gas chemistry. Coalbed methane is produced from multiple coal seams in Pennsylvanian-age strata of the Pottsville Coal Interval, in which water chemistry is influenced by a structurally controlled meteoric recharge area along the southeastern margin of the basin. The most important constituents of concern in the produced water include chlorides, ammonia compounds, and organic substances. Regional mapping and statistical analysis indicate that the concentrations of most ionic compounds, metallic substances, and nonmetallic substances correlate with total dissolved solids and chlorides. Gas is effectively produced at pipeline quality, and the only significant impurity is N{sub 2}. Geochemical analysis indicates that the gas is of mixed thermogenic-biogenic origin. Stable isotopic analysis of produced gas and calcite vein fills indicates that widespread late-stage microbial methanogenesis occurred primarily along a CO{sub 2} reduction metabolic pathway. Organic compounds in the produced water appear to have helped sustain microbial communities. Ammonia and ammonium levels increase with total dissolved solids content and appear to have played a role in late-stage microbial methanogenesis and the generation of N{sub 2}. Gas production tends to decline exponentially, whereas water production tends to decline hyperbolically. Hyperbolic decline indicates that water volume is of greatest concern early in the ...
Date: October 31, 2013
Creator: Pashin, Jack; McIntyre-Redden, Marcella; Mann, Steven & Merkel, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Center for Coal-Derived Low Energy Materials for Sustainable Construction

Description: The overarching goal of this project was to create a sustained center to support the continued development of new products and industries that manufacture construction materials from coal combustion by-products or CCB’s (e.g., cements, grouts, wallboard, masonry block, fillers, roofing materials, etc). Specific objectives includes the development of a research kiln and associated system and the formulation and production of high performance low-energy, low-CO2 emitting calcium sulfoaluminate (CAS) cement that utilize coal combustion byproducts as raw materials.
Date: June 30, 2012
Creator: Jewell, Robert; Robl, Tom & Rathbone, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 3 of 3]

Description: The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small ...
Date: March 30, 2011
Creator: Bergin, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Subtask 3.9 - Direct Coal Liquefaction Process Development

Description: The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from ExxonMobil, undertook Subtask 3.9 to design, build, and preliminarily operate a bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. Fabrication and installation of the DCL system and an accompanying distillation system for off-line fractionation of raw coal liquids into 1) a naphtha�middle distillate stream for upgrading and 2) a recycle stream was completed in May 2012. Shakedown of the system was initiated in July 2012. In addition to completing fabrication of the DCL system, the project also produced a 500-milliliter sample of jet fuel derived in part from direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal, and submitted the sample to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright� Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with all U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria.
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: Aulich, Ted & Sharma, Ramesh
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III Year 6 - Activity 1.10 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen

Description: The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been conducting research on gasification for six decades. One of the objectives of this gasification research has been to maximize carbon conversion and the water–gas shift process for optimal hydrogen production and syngas quality. This research focus and experience were a perfect fit for the National Center for Hydrogen Technology ® (NCHT®) Program at the EERC for improving all aspects of coal gasification, which ultimately aids in the production and purification of hydrogen. A consortia project was developed under the NCHT Program to develop an improved predictive model for ash formation and deposition under the project entitled “Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III: Development of the CABRE III Model.” The computer-based program is now applicable to the modeling of coal and ash behavior in both entrained-flow and fluidized-bed gasification systems to aid in overall gasification efficiency. This model represents a significant improvement over the CABRE II model and runs on a Microsoft Windows PC platform. The major achievements of the CABRE III model are partitioning of inorganic transformations between various phases for specific gas cleanup equipment; slag property predictions, including standard temperature–viscosity curves and slag flow and thickness; deposition rates in gasification cleanup equipment; provision for composition analysis for all input and output streams across all process equipment, including major elements and trace elements of interest; composition analysis of deposit streams for various deposit zones, including direct condensation on equipment surfaces (Zone A), homogeneous particulate deposition (Zone B), and entrained fly ash deposition (Zone C); and physical removal of ash in cyclones based on D50 cut points. Another new feature of the CABRE III model is a user-friendly interface and detailed reports that are easily exportable into Word documents, Excel spreadsheets, or as pdf files. The user interface provides stepwise ...
Date: March 31, 2012
Creator: Stanislowski, Joshua; Azenkeng, Alexander; McCollor, Donald; Galbreath, Kevin; Jensen, Robert & Lahr, Brent
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

Description: Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, ...
Date: December 31, 2010
Creator: Miller, Bruce & Winton, Shea
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department