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Interior lighting effects inspired by nature

Description: Developed in the study is the thesis that the lighting effects about us in nature can be adapted by the designer for use in interior environments. The objective of the study is to provide the designer with tools, both aesthetic and technical, with which to communicate with the engineer in achieving a luminous environment that not only is a functional environment for optimal seeing, but is an art experience as well.
Date: August 1972
Creator: Robinson, Diane L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Demonstration Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting: Philadelphia, PA

Description: For this demonstration assessment, 10 different groups of LED luminaires were installed at three sites in Philadelphia, PA. Each of the three sites represented a different set of conditions, most importantly with regard to the incumbent HPS luminaires, which were nominally 100 W, 150 W, and 250 W. The performance of each product was evaluated based on manufacturer data, illuminance calculations, field measurements of illuminance, and the subjective impressions of both regular and expert observers.
Date: September 1, 2012
Creator: Royer, Michael P.; Tuenge, Jason R. & Poplawski, Michael E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of Occupancy Sensors in LED Parking Lot and Garage Applications: Early Experiences

Description: Occupancy sensor systems are gaining traction as an effective technological approach to reducing energy use in exterior commercial lighting applications. Done correctly, occupancy sensors can substantially enhance the savings from an already efficient lighting system. However, this technology is confronted by several potential challenges and pitfalls that can leave a significant amount of the prospective savings on the table. This report describes anecdotal experiences from field installations of occupancy sensor controlled light-emitting diode (LED) lighting at two parking structures and two parking lots. The relative levels of success at these installations reflect a marked range of potential outcomes: from an additional 76% in energy savings to virtually no additional savings. Several issues that influenced savings were encountered in these early stage installations and are detailed in the report. Ultimately, care must be taken in the design, selection, and commissioning of a sensor-controlled lighting installation, else the only guaranteed result may be its cost.
Date: November 7, 2012
Creator: Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael; Royer, Michael P. & Sullivan, Greg P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Illumination of Airways and Landing Fields

Description: Different illumination systems for landing fields are presented which include fixed beacons, signal guns, and light patterns such as T's and crosses. Some of the advantages and disadvantages for each of the lighting patterns are provided.
Date: August 1922
Creator: Stadthagen, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Standard Measurement & Verification Plan for Lighting Equipment Retrofit or Replacement Projects

Description: This document provides a framework for a standard Measurement and Verification (M&V) plan for lighting projects. It was developed to support cost-effective retrofits (partial and complete replacements) of lighting systems and is intended to provide a foundation for an M&V plan for a lighting retrofit utilizing a "best practice" approach, and to provide guidance to site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations on what is essential for a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. This document provides examples of appropriate elements of an M&V plan, including the calculation of expected energy savings. The standard M&V plan, as provided, also allows for consistent comparison with other similar lighting projects. Although intended for lighting retrofit applications, M&V plans developed per this framework document may also be used for other non-lighting technology retrofits and new installations.
Date: November 4, 2009
Creator: Richman, Eric E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode Parking Structure Lighting at U.S. Department of Labor Headquarters

Description: This report documents a solid-state lighting (SSL) technology demonstration at the parking structure of the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) Headquarters in Washington, DC, in which light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires were substituted for the incumbent high-pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires and evaluated for relative light quantity and performance. The demonstration results show energy savings of 52% from the initial conversion of HPS to the LED product. These savings were increased to 88% by using occupancy sensor controls that were ultimately set to reduce power to 10% of high state operation after a time delay of 2.5 minutes. Because of the relatively high cost of the LED luminaires at their time of purchase for this project (2010), the simple payback periods were 6.5 years and 4.9 years for retrofit and new construction scenarios, respectively. Staff at DOL Headquarters reported high satisfaction with the operation of the LED product.
Date: March 1, 2013
Creator: Kinzey, Bruce R. & Myer, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spectrally Enhanced Lighting Program Implementation for Energy Savings: Field Evaluation

Description: This report provides results from an evaluation PNNL conducted of a spectrally enhanced lighting demonstration project. PNNL performed field measurements and occupant surveys at three office buildings in California before and after lighting retrofits were made in August and December 2005. PNNL measured the following Overhead lighting electricity demand and consumption, Light levels in the workspace, Task lighting use, and Occupant ratings of satisfaction with the lighting. Existing lighting, which varied in each building, was replaced with lamps with correlated color temperature (CCT) of 5000 Kelvin, color rendering index (CRI) of 85, of varying wattages, and lower ballast factor electronic ballasts. The demonstrations were designed to decrease lighting power loads in the three buildings by 22-50 percent, depending on the existing installed lamps and ballasts. The project designers hypothesized that this reduction in electrical loads could be achieved by the change to higher CCT lamps without decreasing occupant satisfaction with the lighting.
Date: August 22, 2006
Creator: Gordon, Kelly L.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Richman, Eric E. & Matzke, Brett D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of LED Technology in Ornamental Post-Top Luminaires (Host Site: Sacramento, CA)

Description: The DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium has evaluated four different LED replacements for existing ornamental post-top street lights in Sacramento, California. The project team was composed of the City and its consultant, PNNL (representing the Consortium), and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District. Product selection was finalized in March 2011, yielding one complete luminaire replacement and three lamp-ballast retrofit kits. Computer simulations, field measurements, and laboratory testing were performed to compare the performance and cost-effectiveness of the LED products relative to the existing luminaire with 100 W high-pressure sodium lamp. After it was confirmed the LED products were not equivalent to HPS in terms of initial photopic illumination, the following parameters were scaled proportionally to enable equitable (albeit hypothetical) comparisons: light output, input wattage, and pricing. Four replacement scenarios were considered for each LED product, incorporating new IES guidance for mesopic multipliers and lumen maintenance extrapolation, but life cycle analysis indicated cost effectiveness was also unacceptable. Although LED efficacy and pricing continue to improve, this project serves as a timely and objective notice that LED technology may not be quite ready yet for such applications.
Date: December 1, 2011
Creator: Tuenge, Jason R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting: NE Cully Boulevard Portland, OR

Description: A new roadway lighting demonstration project was initiated in late 2010, which was planned in conjunction with other upgrades to NE Cully Boulevard, a residential collector road in the northeast area of Portland, OR. With the NE Cully Boulevard project, the Portland Bureau of Transportation hoped to demonstrate different light source technologies and different luminaires side-by-side. This report documents the initial performance of six different newly installed luminaires, including three LED products, one induction product, one ceramic metal halide product, and one high-pressure sodium (HPS) product that represented the baseline solution. It includes reported, calculated, and measured performance; evaluates the economic feasibility of each of the alternative luminaires; and documents user feedback collected from a group of local Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) members that toured the site. This report does not contain any long-term performance evaluations or laboratory measurements of luminaire performance. Although not all of the installed products performed equally, the alternative luminaires generally offered higher efficacy, more appropriate luminous intensity distributions, and favorable color quality when compared to the baseline HPS luminaire. However, some products did not provide sufficient illumination to all areas—vehicular drive lanes, bicycle lanes, and sidewalks—or would likely fail to meet design criteria over the life of the installation due to expected depreciation in lumen output. While the overall performance of the alternative luminaires was generally better than the baseline HPS luminaire, cost remains a significant barrier to widespread adoption. Based on the cost of the small quantity of luminaires purchased for this demonstration, the shortest calculated payback period for one of the alternative luminaire types was 17.3 years. The luminaire prices were notably higher than typical prices for currently available luminaires purchased in larger quantities. At prices that are more typical, the payback would be less than 10 years. In addition to the demonstration ...
Date: June 29, 2012
Creator: Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E. & Tuenge, Jason R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lighting.

Description: Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Administration., United States. Bonneville Power
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Holographic optical elements for the extreme-ultravioletregime

Description: As the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography progresses, interest grows in the extension of traditional optical components to the EUV regime. The strong absorption of EUV by most materials and its extremely short wavelength, however, makes it very difficult to implement many components that are commonplace in the longer wavelength regimes. One such component is the diffractive optical element used, for example, in illumination systems to efficiently generate modified pupil fills. Here we demonstrate the fabrication and characterization of EUV binary phase-only computer-generated holograms allowing arbitrary far-field diffraction patterns to be generated.
Date: August 14, 2006
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick P.; Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric M. & Anderson, Erik H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE CALiPER Program, Report 20.1 Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps

Description: This report focuses on human-evaluated characteristics, including beam quality, shadow quality, and color quality. Using a questionnaire that included rank ordering, opinions on 27 of the Report 20 PAR38 lamps were gathered during a demonstration event for members of the local Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) chapter. This was not a rigorous scientific experiment, and the data should not be extrapolated beyond the scope of the demonstration. The results suggest that many of the LED products compared favorably to halogen PAR38 benchmarks in all attributes considered. LED lamps using a single-emitter design were generally preferred for their beam quality and shadow quality, and the IES members ranking of color quality did not always match the rank according to the color rendering index (CRI).
Date: October 1, 2013
Creator: Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E. & Miller, Naomi J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

Description: This GATEWAY report discusses the problems of pedestrian lighting that occur with all technologies with a focus on the unique optical options and opportunities offered by LEDs through the findings from two pedestrian-focused projects, one at Stanford University in California, and one at the Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. Incorporating user feedback this report reviews the tradeoffs that must be weighed among visual comfort, color, visibility, efficacy and other factors to stimulate discussion among specifiers, users, energy specialists, and in industry in hopes that new approaches, metrics, and standards can be developed to support pedestrian-focused communities, while reducing energy use.
Date: December 31, 2013
Creator: Miller, Naomi J.; Koltai, Rita & McGowan, Terry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

David Belasco's Naturalistic Stagecraft and Stage Lighting

Description: It is the purpose of this paper to make a general study of David Belasco's use of naturalism in the American theatre. More specifically, it is to determine Belasco's methods of achieving naturalism in his stage settings and lighting. From the study of his techniques and methods, and effort is made to establish his contributions to the naturalistic movement.
Date: January 1968
Creator: Boutwell, Ronald E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Motor-Vehicle Headlighting

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Standards discussing the improved illumination of night-time driving with the use of vehicle head-lighting. Methods of construction and adjustment information are presented. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: 1925
Creator: Carlson, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Technology Demonstration Program - Results of an Attempted Field Test of Multi-Layer Light Polarizing Panels in an Office Space

Description: An assessment of the potential energy savings associated with the use of multi-layer light polarizing panels in an office space was initiated as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP) in 1997. This project was intended to provide information on the effectiveness and application of this technology that could help federal energy managers and other interested individuals determine whether this technology had benefits for their occupied spaces. The use of an actual working office area provided the capability of evaluating the technology's effectiveness in the real world.
Date: June 14, 2001
Creator: Richman, Eric E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Technology Demonstration Program - Results of an Attempted Field Test of Full-Spectrum Polarized Lighting in a Mail Processing/Office Space

Description: An assessment of the potential energy savings associated with the use of full-spectrum polarized lighting in a work space was initiated as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP) in 1997. This project was intended to provide information on the effectiveness and application of this technology that could help federal energy managers and other interested individuals determine whether this technology had benefits for their occupied spaces. The use of an actual mail processing/office work area provided the capability of evaluating the technologies effectiveness in the real world.
Date: June 14, 2001
Creator: Richman, Eric E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Michigan State Code Adoption Analysis: Cost-Effectiveness of Lighting Requirements - ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004

Description: This report documents PNNL's analysis of the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004 if this energy code is adopted in the state of Michigan, instead of the current standard.
Date: September 29, 2006
Creator: Richman, Eric E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art

Description: The Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art in Eugene, Oregon, houses a remarkable permanent collection of Asian art and antiquities, modern art, and sculpture, and also hosts traveling exhibitions. In the winter and spring of 2011, a series of digital photographs by artist Chris Jordan, titled "Running the Numbers," was exhibited in the Coeta and Donald Barker Special Exhibitions Gallery. These works graphically illustrate waste (energy, money, health, consumer objects, etc.) in contemporary culture. The Bonneville Power Administration and the Eugene Water and Electricity Board provided a set of Cree 12W light-emitting diode (LED) PAR38 replacement lamps (Cree LRP38) for the museum to test for accent lighting in lieu of their standard Sylvania 90W PAR38 130V Narrow Flood lamps (which draw 78.9W at 120V). At the same time, the museum tested LED replacement lamps from three other manufacturers, and chose the Cree lamp as the most versatile and most appropriate color product for this exhibit. The lamps were installed for the opening of the show in January 2011. This report describes the process for the demonstration, the energy and economic results, and results of a survey of the museum staff and gallery visitors on four similar clusters of art lighted separately by four PAR38 lamps.
Date: September 1, 2011
Creator: Miller, Naomi J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department