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Holographic optical elements for the extreme-ultravioletregime

Description: As the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography progresses, interest grows in the extension of traditional optical components to the EUV regime. The strong absorption of EUV by most materials and its extremely short wavelength, however, makes it very difficult to implement many components that are commonplace in the longer wavelength regimes. One such component is the diffractive optical element used, for example, in illumination systems to efficiently generate modified pupil fills. Here we demonstrate the fabrication and characterization of EUV binary phase-only computer-generated holograms allowing arbitrary far-field diffraction patterns to be generated.
Date: August 14, 2006
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick P.; Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric M. & Anderson, Erik H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strong-Strong Simulation of Long-Range Beam-Beam Effects atRHIC

Description: As the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography progresses, interest grows in the extension of traditional optical components to the EUV regime. The strong absorption of EUV by most materials and its extremely short wavelength, however, makes it very difficult to implement many components that are commonplace in the longer wavelength regimes. One such component is the diffractive optical element used, for example, in illumination systems to efficiently generate modified pupil fills. Here we demonstrate the fabrication and characterization of EUV binary phase-only computer-generated holograms allowing arbitrary far-field diffraction patterns to be generated.
Date: June 25, 2007
Creator: Qiang, Ji; Fischer, W. & Sen, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Ignition Facility computational fluid dynamics modeling and light fixture case studies

Description: This report serves as a guide to the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a design tool for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) program Title I and Title II design phases at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In particular, this report provides general guidelines on the technical approach to performing and interpreting any and all CFD calculations. In addition, a complete CFD analysis is presented to illustrate these guidelines on a NIF-related thermal problem.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Martin, R.; Bernardin, J.; Parietti, L. & Dennison, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study Equipment Testing at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility

Description: This report provides a summary of the cold tests performed on the equipment to be used in the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study. The testing was performed from June 1996 to May 1997 at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility located at the 7600 complex at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Testing of specific equipment grouped into the following sections: (1) Modified Light-Duty Utility Arm Testing, (2) Remotely Operated Vehicle Testing, (3) Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System and Balance of Plant Equipment Testing, (4) Camera and Lighting System Testing, and (5) Characterization End-Effector Testing. Each section contains descriptions of a series of tests that summarize the test objectives, testing performed, and test results. General conclusions from the testing are also provided.
Date: February 27, 2001
Creator: Burks, BL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Delight2 Daylighting Analysis in Energy Plus: Integration and Preliminary User Results

Description: DElight is a simulation engine for daylight and electric lighting system analysis in buildings. DElight calculates interior illuminance levels from daylight, and the subsequent contribution required from electric lighting to meet a desired interior illuminance. DElight has been specifically designed to integrate with building thermal simulation tools. This paper updates the DElight capability set, the status of integration into the simulation tool EnergyPlus, and describes a sample analysis of a simple model from the user perspective.
Date: April 26, 2005
Creator: Carroll, William L. & Hitchcock, Robert J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China Green Lights Program: A Review and Recommendations

Description: This report reviews the development of China's Green Lights Program in the last two years, and discusses the remaining barriers to the widespread adoption of efficient lighting technologies in China: chiefly quality, high initial costs, and lack of accurate information. A variety of policy options are recommended for the future expansion of China's Green Lights Program.
Date: June 10, 1999
Creator: Lin, Jiang
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lighting recommendations for the Social Security Administration Frank Hagel Federal Building in Richmond CA

Description: Specific recommendations are made to improve the lighting quality and energy efficiency of the lighting system at the Social Security Administration Frank Hagel Building in Richmond, CA. The main recommendation is to replace the recessed fluorescent lighting system in the general office area with indirect lighting. Indirect lighting will improve lighting quality, will provide an energy efficient solution and will be about the same cost as the direct lighting system originally proposed.
Date: October 25, 1999
Creator: Rubinstein, Francis M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Assessment of the U.S. Residential Lighting Market

Description: This report provides background data upon which residential lighting fixture energy conservation programs can be built. The current stock of residential lighting is described by usage level, lamp wattage, fixture type, and location within the house. Data are discussed that indicate that 25% of residential fixtures are responsible for 80% of residential lighting energy use, and that justify targeting these fixtures as candidates for retrofit with energy-efficient fixtures. Fixtures determined to have the highest energy use are hardwired ceiling fixtures in kitchens, living/family rooms, dining rooms, and outdoors. An assessment of the market for residential fixtures shows that nearly half of new residential fixtures are imported, 61% of new fixtures sold are hardwired, and about half of all new fixtures sold are for ceiling installation.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Jennings, Judy; Brown, Rich; Moezzi, Mithra; Mills, Evan & Sardinsky, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advancing lighting and daylighting simulation: The transition from analysis to design aid tools

Description: This paper explores three significant software development requirements for making the transition from stand-alone lighting simulation/analysis tools to simulation-based design aid tools. These requirements include specialized lighting simulation engines, facilitated methods for creating detailed simulatable building descriptions, an automated techniques for providing lighting design guidance. Initial computer implementations meant to address each of these requirements are discussed to further elaborate these requirements and to illustrate work-in-progress.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Hitchcock, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U-values of flat and domed skylights

Description: Data from nighttime measurements of the net heat flow through several types of skylights is presented. A well-known thermal test facility was reconfigured to measure the net heat flow through the bottom of a skylight/light well combination. Use of this data to determine the U-factor of the skylight is considerably more complicated than the analogous problem of a vertical fenestration contained in a test mask. Correction of the data for heat flow through the skylight well surfaces and evidence for the nature of the heat transfer between the skylight and the bottom of the well is discussed. The resulting measured U-values are presented and compared with calculations using the WINDOW4 and THERM programs.
Date: October 1, 1999
Creator: Klems, Joseph H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relighting demonstration project Robins Air Force Base, Georgia

Description: Significant energy savings are available through relighting with modern, energy efficient systems. As a demonstration, a relighting project was recently completed at Robins Air Force Base, Warner-Robins, Georgia. The project was designed to overcome a reluctance to pursue large scale relighting of the entire facility due to prior unfavorable experiences and an unusually large non-office working environment. The project followed contemporary lighting design practices, with the added dimension of involving building occupants in the process. Involving building occupants promoted their acceptance of the project and provided needed critical feedback. Their involvement helped secure their assistance in resolving special design concerns involving radio frequency interference and glare. Although often cited as simple, relighting projects are commonly confronted with problems. This document describes problems, foreseen and unforeseen, encountered by this relighting demonstration, and their solutions.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Larson, L.L.; Purcell, C.W.; McKay, H. & Harris, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field analysis of occupancy sensor operation: Parameters affecting lighting energy savings

Description: A field study of the actual lighting savings achievable from occupancy sensor use was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The study involved two seperate field assessments. The objective of the first test was to assess and effectively quantify the potential ``wasted-light`` hours associated with different occupant and space types associated with occupancy sensor control installations. These quantities are the primary factor in determining actual lighting energy savings associated with occupancy lighting control. The second test was conducted to explore the potential additional savings from more sensitive sensor equipment or better equipment adjustment that might reduce the need for delay timers. This information provides quantitative insight into the energy savings lost because of the limitations of current sensing equipment.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Richman, E.E.; Dittmer, A.L. & Keller, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An analysis of buildings-related energy use in manufacturing

Description: This report presents research by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop improved estimates of buildings-related energy use in US manufacturing facilities. The research was supported by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), US Department of Energy (DOE). The research scope includes only space conditioning and lighting end uses. In addition, this study also estimates the energy savings potential for application of selected commercial buildings technologies being developed by the BTS office to manufacturing and other industrial process facilities. 17 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Niefer, M.J. & Ashton, W.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Basic Research Needs for Solid-State Lighting. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solid-State Lighting, May 22-24, 2006

Description: The workshop participants enthusiastically concluded that the time is ripe for new fundamental science to beget a revolution in lighting technology. SSL sources based on organic and inorganic materials have reached a level of efficiency where it is possible to envision their use for general illumination. The research areas articulated in this report are targeted to enable disruptive advances in SSL performance and realization of this dream. Broad penetration of SSL technology into the mass lighting market, accompanied by vast savings in energy usage, requires nothing less. These new ?good ideas? will be represented not by light bulbs, but by an entirely new lighting technology for the 21st century and a bright, energy-efficient future indeed.
Date: May 24, 2006
Creator: Phillips, J. M.; Burrows, P. E.; Davis, R. F.; Simmons, J. A.; Malliaras, G. G.; So, F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

Description: Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.
Date: March 3, 2006
Creator: Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat & Lee, Eleanor
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An In-Situ Photometric and Energy Analysis of a Sulfur LampLighting System

Description: This paper describes the results of a photometric and energy analysis that was conducted on a new light guide and sulfur lamp system recently installed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Forrestal Building. This novel system couples two high lumen output, high efficiency sulfur lamps to a single 73 m (240 ft.) hollow light guide lined with a reflective prismatic film. The system lights a large roadway and plaza area that lies beneath a section of the building. It has been designed to completely replace the grid of 280 mercury vapor lamps formerly used to light the space. This paper details the results of a field study that characterizes the significant energy savings and increased illumination levels that have been achieved. Comparisons to modeled HID lighting scenarios are also included.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Crawford, Doug; Gould, Carl; Packer, Michael; Rubinstein,Francis & Siminovitch, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the calibration and commissioning of lighting controls

Description: Lighting controls have the potential to capture significant energy savings in commercial buildings if properly specified, installed, commissioned and maintained. Proper commissioning is often absent in lighting projects and the lack of commissioning can significantly reduce a project`s energy savings potential. The paper focuses on the importance of good commissioning practice for obtaining satisfactory performance from lighting control systems and discusses the difficulties of commissioning today`s systems. Some practical suggestions for commissioning lighting controls is offered as well as advice to specifiers and early adopters to aid them in selecting controls that are most appropriate to their requirements.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Rubinstein, F.; Avery, D.; Jennings, J. & Blanc, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, site development and roads, subproject W-505

Description: This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the site development, construction of new roads and improvements at existing road intersections, habitat mitigation, roadway lighting, and construction power needed for the construction of two Private Contractor (PC) Facilities. Approximately 50 hectare (124 acres) land parcel, east of the Grout Facility, is planned for the PC facilities.
Date: June 5, 1997
Creator: Singh, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integral CFLs performance in table lamps

Description: This paper focuses on performance variations associated with lamp geometry and distribution in portable table luminaires. If correctly retrofit with compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), these high use fixtures produce significant energy savings, but if misused, these products could instead generate consumer dissatisfaction with CFLs. It is the authors assertion that the lumen distribution of the light source within the luminaires plays a critical role in total light output, fixture efficiency and efficacy, and, perhaps most importantly, perceived brightness. The authors studied nearly 30 different integral (screw-based) CFLs available on the market today in search of a lamp, or group of lamps, which work best in portable table luminaires. The findings conclusively indicate that horizontally oriented CFLs outperform all other types of CFLs in nearly every aspect.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Page, E.; Driscoll, D. & Siminovitch, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department