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Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

Description: The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawai’i and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The ...
Date: June 30, 2012
Creator: Martel, Laura; Smith, Paul; Rizea, Steven; Van Ryzin, Joe; Morgan, Charles; Noland, Gary et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting the Deployment of Larger Wind Turbines: Summary of Results

Description: There is relatively little literature that characterizes transportation and logistics challenges and the associated effects on U.S. wind markets. The objectives of this study were to identify the transportation and logistics challenges, assess the associated impacts, and provide recommendations for strategies and specific actions to address the challenges. The authors primarily relied on interviews with wind industry project developers, original equipment manufacturers, and transportation and logistics companies to obtain the information and industry perspectives needed for this study. They also reviewed published literature on trends and developments in increasing wind turbine size, logistics, and transportation issues.
Date: January 1, 2014
Creator: Cotrell, J.; Stehly, T.; Johnson, J.; Roberts, J. O.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (REFTI): Snapshot of Recent Geothermal Financing Terms, Fourth Quarter 2009 - Second Half 2011

Description: This report is a review of geothermal project financial terms as reported in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (REFTI). The data were collected over seven analysis periods from the fourth quarter (Q4) of 2009 to the second half (2H) of 2011.
Date: September 1, 2012
Creator: Lowder, T.; Hubbell, R.; Mendelsohn, M. & Cory, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review

Description: This report describes the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for a typical land-based wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011, as well as the modeled LCOE for a fixed-bottom offshore wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011. Each of the four major components of the LCOE equation are explained in detail, such as installed capital cost, annual energy production, annual operating expenses, and financing, and including sensitivity ranges that show how each component can affect LCOE. These LCOE calculations are used for planning and other purposes by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program.
Date: March 1, 2013
Creator: Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A. & Schwabe, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy: Preprint

Description: The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions.
Date: August 1, 2012
Creator: Lantz, E.; Hand, M. & Wiser, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables

Description: The expansion of wind power capacity in the United States has increased the demand for project development capital. In response, innovative approaches to financing wind projects have emerged and are proliferating in the U.S. renewable energy marketplace. Wind power developers and financiers have become more efficient and creative in structuring their financial relationships, and often tailor them to different investor types and objectives. As a result, two similar projects may use very different cash flows and financing arrangements, which can significantly vary the economic competitiveness of wind projects. This report assesses the relative impact of numerous financing, technical, and operating variables on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) associated with a wind project under various financing structures in the U.S. marketplace. Under this analysis, the impacts of several financial and technical variables on the cost of wind electricity generation are first examined individually to better understand the relative importance of each. Then, analysts examine a low-cost and a high-cost financing scenario, where multiple variables are modified simultaneously. Lastly, the analysis also considers the impact of a suite of financial variables versus a suite of technical variables.
Date: October 1, 2009
Creator: Cory, K. & Schwabe, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of Different Economic Performance Metrics on the Perceived Value of Solar Photovoltaics

Description: Photovoltaic (PV) systems are installed by several types of market participants, ranging from residential customers to large-scale project developers and utilities. Each type of market participant frequently uses a different economic performance metric to characterize PV value because they are looking for different types of returns from a PV investment. This report finds that different economic performance metrics frequently show different price thresholds for when a PV investment becomes profitable or attractive. Several project parameters, such as financing terms, can have a significant impact on some metrics [e.g., internal rate of return (IRR), net present value (NPV), and benefit-to-cost (B/C) ratio] while having a minimal impact on other metrics (e.g., simple payback time). As such, the choice of economic performance metric by different customer types can significantly shape each customer's perception of PV investment value and ultimately their adoption decision.
Date: October 1, 2011
Creator: Drury, E.; Denholm, P. & Margolis, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Technical Risk Analysis for the Geothermal Technologies Program

Description: This report explains the goals, methods, and results of a probabilistic analysis of technical risk for a portfolio of R&D projects in the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program ('the Program'). The analysis is a task by Princeton Energy Resources International, LLC (PERI), in support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on behalf of the Program. The main challenge in the analysis lies in translating R&D results to a quantitative reflection of technical risk for a key Program metric: levelized cost of energy (LCOE). This requires both computational development (i.e., creating a spreadsheet-based analysis tool) and a synthesis of judgments by a panel of researchers and experts of the expected results of the Program's R&D.
Date: March 1, 2007
Creator: McVeigh, J.; Cohen, J.; Vorum, M.; Porro, G. & Nix, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Characterization

Description: This paper documents the approach taken to characterize and represent an updated assessment of U.S. geothermal supply for use in forecasting the penetration of geothermal electrical generation in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). This work is motivated by several factors: The supply characterization used as the basis of several recent U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts of geothermal capacity is outdated; additional geothermal resource assessments have been published; and a new costing tool that incorporates current technology, engineering practices, and associated costs has been released.
Date: March 1, 2007
Creator: Petty, S. & Porro, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

Description: The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.
Date: November 1, 2010
Creator: Tidball, R.; Bluestein, J.; Rodriguez, N. & Knoke, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department