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Overview of Funding Mechanisms in the Federal Budget Process, and Selected Examples

Description: This report explains various funding mechanisms used to fund federal programs and activities including timelines for budgetary decisionmaking and processes (e.g., committees); it illustrates the mechanisms with examples of how they have been applied in practice. How a particular funding mechanism is structured requires tradeoffs between the frequency of congressional review and the predictability of funding for the program.
Date: August 4, 2016
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continuing Resolutions: Overview of Components and Recent Practices

Description: The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the components of Continuing Resolutions (CRs) and a longitudinal analysis of recent congressional practices. Consequently, the data and analysis in this report are inclusive of all appropriations acts entitled or otherwise designated as providing continuing appropriations. The first section of this report explains six of the possible main components of CRs: coverage, duration, funding rate, restrictions on new activities, anomalies, and legislative provisions. The second section discusses the enactment of regular appropriations prior to the start of the fiscal year and the number of regular appropriations bills enacted through a CR since FY1977. The third section analyzes variations in the number and duration of CRs enacted each fiscal year since FY1997, the most recent fiscal year that all regular appropriations were enacted on time. Finally, the fourth section of this report discusses the features of the 15 CRs that provided funding through the remainder of the fiscal year since FY1977. A list of all CRs enacted between FY1977 and FY2016 is provided at the end of this report in Table 4.
Date: January 14, 2016
Creator: Saturno, James V. & Tollestrup, Jessica
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind Is Used

Description: This report briefly describes the process by which Congress seeks to pass a law. During this process Congress uses a bill or joint resolution, which must be passed by both houses in identical form, that is then presented to the President for his approval or disapproval.
Date: December 7, 2004
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amendments in Disagreement

Description: This report briefly summarizes the process of amendments between the House of Representatives and the Senate, which occurs if the House and Senate approve differing versions of a measure. The House and Senate must approve an identical version of a measure before it may be presented for the President's approval or veto. If the House and Senate approve differing versions of a measure, the differences must first be resolved.
Date: November 3, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legislative History Research: A Guide to Resources for Congressional Staff

Description: This report provides an overview of federal legislative history research, the legislative process, and where to find congressional documents. The report also summarizes some of the reasons researchers are interested in legislative history, briefly describes the actions a piece of legislation might undergo during the legislative process, and provides a list of easily accessible print and electronic resources.
Date: August 16, 2013
Creator: Taylor, Julia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legislative History Research: A Basic Guide

Description: This report provides an overview of federal legislative history research, the legislative process, and where to find congressional documents. The report also summarizes some of the reasons researchers are interested in legislative history, briefly describes the actions a piece of legislation might undergo during the legislative process, and provides a list of easily accessible print and electronic resources.
Date: June 15, 2011
Creator: Taylor, Julia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Obtaining a Record Vote on the House Floor

Description: The House of Representatives uses two kinds of votes in which the names and positions of individual Members are recorded: (1) the recorded vote, used chiefly in Committee of the Whole, though also in order in the House, and (2) the yea and nay vote, in order only in the House proper. Both kinds together are referred to as record votes or, more informally, as “roll call votes,” and both are normally taken by electronic device. This report illustrates forms commonly used for obtaining each kind of vote.
Date: December 8, 2006
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automatic Continuing Resolutions: Background and Overview of Recent Proposals

Description: This report begins by providing background on the historic frequency of federal funding gaps. Then, four major features of automatic continuing resolution (ACR) proposals since the 1980s -- time frame, funding level, activities, and duration -- are explained. This is followed by a summary of the major arguments for and against the enactment of an ACR. Finally, the last three sections of the report review congressional action that has taken place on ACR proposals, describe ACR proposals that have been introduced but not enacted during the 112th and 113th Congresses, and provide brief analysis of P.L. 113-39.
Date: October 28, 2013
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legislative History: A Basic Guide For Constituents

Description: This report provides an overview of legislative history of federal legislation. The report briefly outlines the legislative process and then suggests where to find materials that describe or document a piece of legislation's progress through Congress.
Date: March 22, 2002
Creator: Gurevitz, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Introduction to the Legislative Process in the U.S. Congress

Description: This report introduces the main steps through which a bill (or other item of business) may travel in the legislative process--from introduction to committee and floor consideration to possible presidential consideration. However, the process by which a bill can become law is rarely predictable and can vary significantly from bill to bill. In fact, for many bills, the process will not follow the sequence of congressional stages that are often understood to make up the legislative process.This report presents a look at each of the common stages through which a bill may move, but complications and variations abound in practice.
Date: April 7, 2017
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How Measures Are Brought to the Senate Floor: A Brief Introduction

Description: This report describes the two procedures by which a measure may be introduced on the Senate floor. These two methods are the Senate either unanimously approving a motion brought the majority leader or agreeing to a motion by the majority leader which allows for debate.
Date: April 6, 2017
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Introduction to the Legislative Process in the U.S. Congress

Description: This report introduces the main steps through which a bill (or other item of business) may travel in the legislative process--from introduction to committee and floor consideration to possible presidential consideration. This report outlines each of the common stages through which a bill may move, with references to sources of additional information regarding complications and variations that occur in practice.
Date: January 10, 2018
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department