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Hydrogeology of a Landfill, Pinellas County, Florida

Description: Abstract: The Pinellas County landfill site is on a flat, coastal area characterized by a nearsurface water table. Part of the site is subject to tidal flooding; altitudes within the study area range from 8 to 12 feet above sea level. Three geohydrologic units underlie the landfill site. In descending order, these are: a surficial aquifer about 19 feet thick composed of sand and shell, a confining bed about 35 feet thick composed of marl and clay, and the Floridan aquifer composed of limestone. Landfill operations have not altered surface-water quality. Although leachate movement downward into the Floridan _aquifer is not indicated, vertical movement through the confining bed is about 0.005 foot per year. The rate of lateral movement of ground-water away from the site is about 1.2 feet per year; . however, the rate of movement along the boundary from the oldest section of the landfill through the surficial aquifer is about 20 feet per year. Peaks in concentration of selected chemical parameters and flow-rate analysis of water from trenches indicate the possibility of intermittent release of leachate from the landfill.
Date: March 1983
Creator: Fernandez, Mario, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uranium-lead isotope systematics of Mars inferred from the basaltic shergottite QUE 94201

Description: Uranium-lead ratios (commonly represented as {sup 238}U/{sup 204}Pb = {mu}) calculated for the sources of martian basalts preserve a record of petrogenetic processes that operated during early planetary differentiation and formation of martian geochemical reservoirs. To better define the range of {mu} values represented by the source regions of martian basalts, we completed U-Pb elemental and isotopic analyses on whole rock, mineral and leachate fractions from the martian meteorite Queen Alexandra Range 94201 (QUE 94201). The whole rock and silicate mineral fractions have unradiogenic Pb isotopic compositions that define a narrow range ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 11.16-11.61). In contrast, the Pb isotopic compositions of weak HCl leachates are more variable and radiogenic. The intersection of the QUE 94201 data array with terrestrial Pb in {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb-{sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb-{sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb compositional space is consistent with varying amounts of terrestrial contamination in these fractions. We calculate that only 1-7% contamination is present in the purified silicate mineral and whole rock fractions, whereas the HCl leachates contain up to 86% terrestrial contamination. Despite the contamination, we are able to use the U-Pb data to determine the initial {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb of QUE 94201 (11.086 {+-} 0.008) and calculate the {mu} value of the QUE 94201 mantle source to be 1.823 {+-} 0.008. This is the lowest {mu} value calculated for any martian basalt source, and, when compared to the highest values determined for martian basalt sources, indicates that {mu} values in martian source reservoirs vary by at least 100%. The range of source {mu} values further indicates that the {mu} value of bulk silicate Mars is approximately three. The amount of variation in the {mu} values of the mantle sources ({mu} {approx} 2-4) is greater than can be explained by igneous processes involving silicate phases alone. We suggest the possibility that ...
Date: December 22, 2006
Creator: Gaffney, A M; Borg, L E & Connelly, J N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical characterization of ash generated from alfalfa stem gasification: Agricultural and environmental implications. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

Description: This progress report provides results of Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedures (TCLP) and Synthetic Leachate Test Procedure (SLTP) for the alfalfa stem ash. The TCLP simulates solute leaching in landfill by using acetic acid as a solvent and SLTP simulates potential for leaching from synthetic acid rain. This report also provides information on detailed chemical characterization of organic and inorganic constituents of the ash. The analysis performed includes information on compounds that may represent a potential risk to human or animal health and those constituents that may have beneficial use as soil amendments and conditioners. A sample of the fly (filter) ash from the test burn conducted in Finland was received in May 1997 and used for initial investigation. Three additional fly ash samples and one sample of bottom ash (reactor bed ash) were received in June 1997. The samples were either tested at the University of Minnesota or sent to a reputable laboratory, and various tests were conducted according to the standard methods. The result of the comprehensive tests conducted in May 1997 (report submitted previously) were used as a screening procedure for conducting tests on June 1997 samples. To provide a more comprehensive representation of ash characteristics the results for fly ash received in May are presented along with results from fly ash samples received in July. The average, range and coefficient of variation (CV) are provided. The TCLP and SLTP tests conducted in the laboratory indicated that the concentration of heavy metals were below or close to the detection limits for fly and bottom ash samples (Tables 1 and 2). The ash was also characterized for a number of classes of organic compounds that may pose potential environmental or health risks. These are polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total and individual dioxin and furan compounds.
Date: October 30, 1997
Creator: Rosen, C.; Mozaffari, M.; Russelle, M. & Nater, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

Description: The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.
Date: February 1, 2001
Creator: Augenstein, Don
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Test to Illustrate the Effects of ECOSAFE on the Movement of Oil in Contaminated Soils

Description: An ECOSAFE{trademark} solution was tested at 1 part to 100 milliliters of de-ionized water against a control set using de-ionized water only. Each soil column received five and one-quarter treatments of either ECOSAFE{trademark} solution or de-ionized water over two and one-half days. Air was injected following saturation of the columns and leachate recovery. Soil samples were collected from each column on the final day. The total volume of water added to the Control Column was 6.150 milliliters. The laboratory homogenized 2500 ml of water and removed 75 ml of free crude oil product before analysis. Of that, 1,000 milliliters was analyzed for TPH content and 1,000 milliliters was analyzed for Diesel Range Organics using EPA Method 1664 and 8015 Modified, respectively. The sample contained 17 mg/L of TPH and 34 mg/L of Diesel Range Organics. The total volume of water added to the Test Column was 5,850 milliliters. The samples were analyzed for TPH content and Diesel Range Organics using EPA Method 1664 and 8015 Modified, respectively. The sample contained 15 mg/L of TPH and 500 mg/L of Diesel Range Organics.
Date: March 4, 2002
Creator: Jackson, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BUNCOMBE COUNTY WASTEWATER PRE-TREATMENT AND LANDFILL GAS TO ENERGY PROJECT

Description: The objective of this project was to construct a landfill gas-to-energy (LFGTE) facility that generates a renewable energy source utilizing landfill gas to power a 1.4MW generator, while at the same time reducing the amount of leachate hauled offsite for treatment. The project included an enhanced gas collection and control system, gas conditioning equipment, and a 1.4 MW generator set. The production of cleaner renewable energy will help offset the carbon footprint of other energy sources that are currently utilized.
Date: March 13, 2012
Creator: Creighton, Jon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Speciation and Attenuation of Arsenic and Selenium at Coal Combustion By-Product Management Facilities

Description: The overall objective of this project was to evaluate the impact of key constituents captured from power plant air streams (principally arsenic and selenium) on the disposal and utilization of coal combustion products (CCPs). Specific objectives of the project were: (1) to develop a comprehensive database of field leachate concentrations at a wide range of CCP management sites, including speciation of arsenic and selenium, and low-detection limit analyses for mercury; (2) to perform detailed evaluations of the release and attenuation of arsenic species at three CCP sites; and (3) to perform detailed evaluations of the release and attenuation of selenium species at three CCP sites. Each of these objectives was accomplished using a combination of field sampling and laboratory analysis and experimentation. All of the methods used and results obtained are contained in this report. For ease of use, the report is subdivided into three parts. Volume 1 contains methods and results for the field leachate characterization. Volume 2 contains methods and results for arsenic adsorption. Volume 3 contains methods and results for selenium adsorption.
Date: December 31, 2005
Creator: Ladwig, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CHARACTERIZATION OF TANK 5F VERTICAL COOLING COIL LEACHATES FOR SELECT RADIONUCLIDES 2011

Description: Two twenty-four inch samples of vertical sections of the cooling coils from Tank 5F, taken from Riser 1, were made available to SRNL by SRR for leaching and characterization of the leachates for select radionuclide trapped in the corrosion layer on the exterior of the cooling coils. One piece of cooling coil sample was obtained from a section of a vertical cooling coil located above the 45-inch elevation from the tank floor and the other also from a vertical section of a cooling coil located below the 45-inch elevation from the tank floor of Tank 5F. Analysis results from both cooling coils show that the predominant radionuclides contributing to the activity in both coils are strontium-90 and cesium-137. The activities for strontium-90 and cesium-137 in the Tank 5F vertical cooling coil located above the 45-inch elevation of the tank and designated as sample 5-R1-A45 averaged 1.34E-02 {+-} 1.12E-03 and 7.27E-04 {+-} 4.46E-05 Ci/ft{sup 2}, respectively, while the activities for the vertical cooling coil located below the 45-inch elevation of the tank and designated as sample 5-R1-B45 averaged 8.93E-03 {+-} 8.25E-04 for Sr-90 and 8.10E-04 {+-} 6.36E-05 Ci/ft{sup 2} for Cs-137. Other significant activity contributing radionuclides are americium-241 and europium-154/155. With the exception of the analysis result for Pu-241 in the 5-R1-A45 cooling coils samples, the target detection limits for the other radionuclides were met in both cooling coil samples. The detection limits for Pu-241 analyses result in coil sample 5-R1-A45 were not met consistently because of possible background changes during counting.
Date: August 17, 2001
Creator: Oji, L. & Diprete, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

Description: This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.
Date: September 25, 2000
Creator: BURBANK, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical assistance to Ohio closure sites; Technologies to address leachate from the on-site disposal facility at Fernald Environmental Management Project, Ohio

Description: On August 6-7, 2002, a Technical Assistance Team (''Team'') from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) met with Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) personnel in Ohio to assess approaches to remediating uranium-contaminated leachate from the On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF). The Team was composed of technical experts from national labs, technology centers, and industry and was assembled in response to a request from the FEMP Aquifer Restoration Project. Dave Brettschneider of Fluor Fernald, Inc., requested that a Team of experts be convened to review technologies for the removal of uranium in both brine ion exchange regeneration solution from the Advanced Wastewater Treatment facility and in the leachate from the OSDF. The Team was asked to identify one or more technologies for bench-scale testing as a cost effective alternative to remove uranium so that the brine regeneration solution from the Advanced Waste Water Treatment facility and the leachate from the OSDF can be discharged without further treatment. The Team was also requested to prepare a recommended development and demonstration plan for the alternative technologies. Finally, the Team was asked to make recommendations on the optimal technical solution for field implementation. The Site's expected outcomes for this effort are schedule acceleration, cost reduction, and better long-term stewardship implementation. To facilitate consideration of the most appropriate technologies, the Team was divided into two groups to consider the brine and the leachate separately, since they represent different sources with different constraints on solutions, e.g., short-term versus very long-term and concentrated versus dilute contaminant matrices. This report focuses on the technologies that are most appropriate for the leachate from the OSDF. Upon arriving at FEMP, project personnel asked the Team to concentrate its efforts on evaluating potential technologies and strategies to reduce uranium concentration in the leachate.
Date: August 26, 2002
Creator: Hazen, Terry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Town of Colonie sanitary landfill leachate management system. Final report for 1992 and 1993 spraying season

Description: The development, construction, and operation of the Colonie Landfill Leachate Management System (LLMS) was first conceived as a two-year project in 1987, but took more than six years to reach the final reporting stage, during which time substantial regulatory hurdles were encountered and overcome. During the summer of 1987, a work plan for the project was developed. It was determined that a pilot leachate-spraying study should be undertaken to provide additional information on the potential environmental impacts due to surface runoff and moisture front penetration through the landfill cap. To achieve this, a {1/4}-acre (100` x 100`) test area was prepared and equipped with a single leachate spray head, a collection point for runoff, a rain gage, and four pan lysimeters (at depths of 6 inch, 12 inch, 18 inch, and 24 inch) to measure moisture advancement through the cap. A similarly equipped control area, minus the spray head, was prepared nearby.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Reis, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mercury separation from concentrated potassium iodide/iodine leachate using Self-Assembled Mesoporous Mercaptan Support (SAMMS) technology

Description: A study was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel adsorber, the Self-Assembled Mesoporous Mercaptan Support (SAMMS) material to remove mercury (Hg) from potassium iodide/iodine (KI/I{sub 2}) waste streams. This study included investigations of the SAMMS material`s binding kinetics, loading capacity, and selectivity for Hg adsorption from surrogate and actual KI/I{sub 2} waste solutions. The kinetics data showed that binding of Hg by the adsorber material occurs very rapidly, with 82% to 95% adsorption occurring within the first 5 min. No significant differences in the rate of adsorption were noted between pH values of 5 and 9 and at Hg concentrations of {approximately}100 mg/1. Within the same range of pH values, an approximate four-fold increase in initial Hg concentration resulted in a two-fold increase in the rate of adsorption. In all cases studied, equilibrium adsorption occured within 4 h. The loading capacity experiments in KI/I{sub 2} surrogate solutions indicated Hg adsorption densities between 26 to 270 mg/g. The loading density increased with increasing solid: solution ratio and decreasing iodide concentrations. Values of distribution coefficients (1.3x10{sup 5} to >2.6x10{sup 8} ml/g) indicated that material adsorbs Hg with very high specificity from KI/I{sub 2} surrogate solutions. Reduction studies showed that compared to metallic iron (Fe), sodium dithionite can very rapidly reduce iodine as the triiodide species into the iodide form. Adsorption studies conducted with actual KI/I{sub 2} leachates confirmed the highly specific Hg adsorption properties (K{sub d}>6x10{sup 7} to>1x10{sup 8} ml//g) of the adsorber material. Following treatment, the Hg concentrations in actual leachates were below instrumental detection limits (i.e., < 0.00005 mg/l), indicating that the KI solutions can be recycled.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Mattigod, S.V.; Feng, X. & Fryxell, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes

Description: The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the U.S. and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loading of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing. 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Yim, Sung Paal; Kalb, P. D. & Milian, L. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 23 - background report on subsurface environmental issues relating to natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Topical report, February 1, 1994--February 28, 1996

Description: This report describes information pertaining to environmental issues, toxicity, environmental transport, and fate of alkanolamines and glycols associated with natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Waste management associated with the operations is also discussed.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Sorensen, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Hybrid Hydrologic-Geophysical Inverse Technique for the Assessment and Monitoring of Leachates in the Vadose Zone

Description: The objective of this study is to develop and field test a new, integrated Hybrid Hydrologic-Geophysical Inverse Technique (HHGIT) for characterization of the vadose zone at contaminated sites. This new approach to site characterization and monitoring can provide detailed maps of hydrogeological heterogeneity and the extent of contamination by combining information from 3D electric resistivity tomography (ERT) and/or 2D cross borehole ground penetrating radar (XBGPR) surveys, statistical information about heterogeneity and hydrologic processes, and sparse hydrologic data. Because the electrical conductivity and dielectric constant of the vadose zone (from the ERT and XBGPR measurements, respectively) can be correlated to the fluid saturation and/or contaminant concentration, the hydrologic and geophysical measurements are related.
Date: June 15, 1999
Creator: ALUMBAUGH,DAVID L.; YEH,JIM; LABRECQUE,DOUG; GLASS,ROBERT J.; BRAINARD,JAMES & RAUTMAN,CHRIS
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ASSESSMENT OF THE SUBSURFACE FATE OF MONOETHANOLAMINE

Description: Burial of amine reclaimer unit sludges and system filters has resulted in contamination of soil at the CanOxy Okotoks decommissioned sour gas-processing plant with amines, amine byproducts, and salts. A three-phase research program was devised to investigate the natural attenuation process that controls the subsurface transport and fate of these contaminants and to apply the results toward the development of a strategy for the remediation of this type of contamination in soils. Phase I experimental activities examined interactions between monoethanolamine (MEA) and sediment, the biodegradability of MEA in soils at various concentrations and temperatures, and the biodegradability of MEA sludge contamination in a soil slurry bioreactor. The transport and fate of MEA in the subsurface was found to be highly dependant on the nature of the release, particularly MEA concentration and conditions of the subsurface environment, i.e., pH, temperature, and oxygen availability. Pure compound biodegradation experiments in soil demonstrated rapid biodegradation of MEA under aerobic conditions and moderate temperatures (&gt;6 C). Phase II landfarming activities confirmed that these contaminants are readily biodegradable in soil under ideal laboratory conditions, yet considerable toxicity was observed in the remaining material. Examination of water extracts from the treated soil suggested that the toxicity is water-soluble. Phase II activities led to the conclusion that landfarming is not the most desirable bioremediation technique; however, an engineered biopile with a leachate collection system could remove the remaining toxic fraction from the soil. Phase III was initiated to conduct field-based experimental activities to examine the optimized remediation technology. A pilot-scale engineered biopile was constructed at a decommissioned gas-sweetening facility in Okotoks, Alberta, Canada. On the basis of a review of the analytical and performance data generated from soil and leachate samples, the biopile operation has successfully removed all identified amines and removed significant amounts of organic nitrogen and ...
Date: May 1, 2000
Creator: Sorensen, James A.; Gallagher, John R. & Kays, Lori G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Hybrid Hydrologic-Geophysical Inverse Technique for the Assessment and Monitoring of Leachates in the Vadose Zone

Description: The objective of this study is to develop and field test a new, integrated Hybrid Hydrologic- Geophysical Inverse Technique (HHGIT) for characterization of the vadose zone at contaminated sites. This new approach to site characterization and monitoring can provide detailed maps of hydrogeologic heterogeneity and the extent of contamination by combining information from 3D electric resistivity tomography (ERT) and/or 2D cross-borehole ground penetrating radar (XBGPR) surveys, statistical information about heterogeneity and hydrologic processes, and sparse hydrologic data. Because the electrical conductivity and dielectric constant of the vadose zone (from the ERT and XBGPR measurements, respectively) can be correlated to the fluid saturation and/or contaminant concentration, the hydrologic and geophysical measurements are related.
Date: June 1, 2000
Creator: Alumbaugh, David L.; Yeh, Jim; LaBrecque, Doug & Glass, Robert J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Speciation and Attenuation of Arsenic and Selenium at Coal Combustion By-Product Management Facilities

Description: Following completion of contracting activities, sites were identified for the field leachate characterization study. Sampling and Analyses Plans (SAPs) and Site Access Agreements (SAAs) were developed for each site. A total of ten sites were sampled during this reporting period. Among the trace constituents, boron, silicon, and strontium were present in highest concentrations, with median values above 1 mg/L (1,000 {micro}g/L). Work on the first of three sites for the detailed arsenic and selenium adsorption studies began in 2002, prior to completion of the final DOE award. Kd values ranged from 100 to 12,000 L/kg for arsenic (V), 15 to 160 L.kg for As(III), and 5 to 25 L/kg for Se(VI).
Date: October 18, 2005
Creator: Ladwig, K.; Hensel, B.; Wallschlager, D.; Lee, L. & Murarka, I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department