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Femtosecond laser materials processing

Description: Femtosecond lasers enable materials processing of most any material with extremely high precision and negligible shock or thermal loading to the surrounding area. Applications ranging from drilling teeth to cutting explosives to precision cuts in composites are possible by using this technology. For material removal at reasonable rates, we have developed a fully computer-controlled 15-Watt average power, 100-fs laser machining system.
Date: August 5, 1998
Creator: Stuart, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser tabbed die: A repairable, high-speed die-interconnection technology. 1994 LDRD final report 93-SR-089

Description: A unique technology for multichip module production is presented. The technology, called Laser Tabbed Die (L-TAB), consists of a method for forming surface-mount-type {open_quotes}gull wing{close_quotes} interconnects on bare dice. The dice are temporarily bonded to a sacrificial substrate which has a polymer thin film coated onto it. The gull wings are formed on the side of the die with a direct-write laser patterning process which allows vertical as well as horizontal image formation. Using the laser patterning system, trenches are formed in a positive electrodeposited photoresist (EDPR) which is plated onto a metal seed layer, allowing copper to be electroplated through the resultant mask. After stripping the resist and the metal seed layer, the polymer film on the substrate is dissolved, releasing the chip with the {open_quotes}gull wings{close_quotes} intact. The chips are then bonded onto a circuit board or permanent substrate with solder or conductive adhesive.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Malba, V. & Bernhardt, A.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free form fabrication of metallic components using laser engineered net shaping (LENS{trademark})

Description: Solid free form fabrication is one of the fastest growing automated manufacturing technologies that has significantly impacted the length of time between initial concept and actual part fabrication. Starting with CAD renditions of new components, several techniques such as stereolithography and selective laser sintering are being used to fabricate highly accurate complex three-dimensional concept models using polymeric materials. Coupled with investment casting techniques, sacrificial polymeric objects are used to minimize costs and time to fabricate tooling used to make complex metal castings. This paper will describe recent developments in a new technology, known as LENS{sup {trademark}} (Laser Engineered Net Shaping), to fabricate metal components directly from CAD solid models and thus further reduce the lead times for metal part fabrication. In a manner analogous to stereolithography or selective sintering, the LENS{sup {trademark}} process builds metal parts line by line and layer by layer. Metal particles are injected into a laser beam, where they are melted and deposited onto a substrate as a miniature weld pool. The trace of the laser beam on the substrate is driven by the definition of CAD models until the desired net-shaped densified metal component is produced.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Griffith, M.L.; Keicher, D.M. & Atwood, C.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Short-pulse laser materials processing

Description: While there is much that we have learned about materials processing in the ultrashort-pulse regime, there is an enormous amount that we don`t know. How short does the pulse have to be to achieve a particular cut (depth, material, quality)? How deep can you cut? What is the surface roughness? These questions are clearly dependent upon the properties of the material of interest along with the short-pulse interaction physics. From a technology standpoint, we are asked: Can you build a 100 W average power system ? A 1000 W average power system? This proposal seeks to address these questions with a combined experimental and theoretical program of study. Specifically, To develop an empirical database for both metals and dielectrics which can be used to determine the pulse duration and wavelength necessary to achieve a specific machining requirement. To investigate Yb:YAG as a potential laser material for high average power short-pulse systems both directly and in combination with titanium doped sapphire. To develop a conceptual design for a lOOW and eventually 5OOW average power short-pulse system.
Date: June 18, 1997
Creator: Stuart, B.C.; Perry, M.D.; Myers, B.R.; Banks, P.S. & Honea, E.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of coarsening during laser engineered Net-Shaping

Description: Laser Engineered Net-Shaping, otherwise known as LENS{trademark}, is an advanced manufacturing technique used to fabricate complex near net shaped components directly from engineered solid models without the use of dies or machining. The ultimate objective of this project is to develop predictive simulation capability which will allow the LENS{trademark} processors to determine fabrication conditions given the material, shape, and application of the final part. In this paper, the authors will present an incremental achievement to meeting the ultimate goal, a model capable of simulating the coarsening of microstructural features under the unique thermal history to which a LENS{trademark} part is subjected during processing. The simulation results show how grains of very different shapes and sizes form within the same deposition line. They also show that relatively minor changes in the dynamic temperature profile results in microstructures with vastly different characteristics. The implications of this work for LENS{trademark} fabrication is that controlling the temperature profile is essential to tailoring the microstructure of a component to its application.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Tikare, V.; Griffith, M.; Schlienger, E. & Smugeresky, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser cutting of pressed explosives: Revision 1

Description: We have used a femtosecond laser beam to make cuts through small pressed pellets of six common explosives. The laser system, which produces 100 fs pulses of 820 nm light at a repitition rate of 1 kHz, was intitially developed for cutting metal. The advantage of using a femtosecond laser for cutting is that the cutting process transfers virtually no heat to the material that is being cut and produces almost no waste. We used LX-16 explosive (96% PETN/4% FPC 461 binder) for out intial experiments because PETN is one of the most sensitve of the secondary explosives. In some of the experiments the beam first cut through the HE pellet and then through a stainless steel substrate and in other experiments the beam first cut through the stainless steel and then through the pellet. We also cut through pellets that were not backed by a substrate. No evidence of reaction was observed in any of the LX-16 pellets. In addition to LX-16 we cut pellets of LX-14 (95.5% HMX/4.5% Estane), LX-15 (95% HNS/5% Kel-F), LX-17 (92.5% TATB/7.5% Kel-F), PBX-9407 (94% RDX/6% Exon 461), and pressed TNT with no evidence of reaction. The HE was easily cut at low power levels with one or two sweeps at 0.5 W average power sufficing to cut most of the pellets. There is obvioulsy much more work to be done before laser machining of explosives becomes a reality, but the results of these intitial experiments indicate that laser machining of explosives may be an attractive option for explosives processing.
Date: May 4, 1998
Creator: Roeske, F., Jr.; Banks, R.E.; Armstrong, J.P.; Feit, M.D.; Lee, R.S.; Perry, M.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Alternative Form of Laser Beam Characterization

Description: Careful characterization of laser beams used in materials processing such as welding and drilling is necessary to obtain robust, reproducible processes and products. Recently, equipment and techniques have become available which make it possible to rapidly and conveniently characterize the size, shape, mode structure, beam quality (Mz), and intensity of a laser beam (incident power/unit area) as a function of distance along the beam path. This facilitates obtaining a desired focused spot size and also locating its position. However, for a given position along the beam axis, these devices typically measure where the beam intensity level has been reduced to I/ez of maximum intensity at that position to determine the beam size. While giving an intuitive indication of the beam shape since the maximum intensity of the beam varies greatly, the contour so determined is not an iso-contour of any parameter related to the beam intensity or power. In this work we shall discuss an alternative beam shape formulation where the same measured information is plotted as contour intervals of intensity.
Date: June 30, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultrashort-pulse laser machining

Description: A new type of material processing is enabled with ultrashort (t < 10 ps) laser pulses. Cutting, drilling, sculpting of all materials (biologic materials, ceramics, sapphire, silicon carbide, diamond, metals) occurs by new mechanisms that eliminate thermal shock or collateral damage. High-precision machining to submicron tolerances is enabled resulting in high surface quality and negligible heat affected zone.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Banks, P S; Feit, M D; Nguyen, H T; Perry, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Sefcik, J A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser micromachining of chemically altered polymers

Description: During the last decade laser processing of polymers has become an important field of applied and fundamental research. One of the most promising proposals, to use laser ablation as dry etching technique in photolithography, has not yet become an industrial application. Many disadvantages of laser ablation, compared to conventional photolithography, are the result of the use of standard polymers. These polymers are designed for totally different applications, but are compared to the highly specialized photoresist. A new approach to laser polymer ablation will be described; the development of polymers, specially designed for high resolution laser ablation. These polymers have photolabile groups in the polymer backbone, which decompose upon laser irradiation or standard polymers are modified for ablation at a specific irradiation wavelength. The absorption maximum can be tailored for specific laser emissino lines, e.g. 351, 308 and 248 nm lines of excimer lasers. The authors show that with this approach many problems associated with the application of laser ablation for photolithography can be solved. The mechanism of ablation for these photopolymers is photochemical, whereas for most of the standard polymers this mechanism is photothermal. The photochemical decomposition mechanism results in high resolution ablation with no thermal damage at the edges of the etched structures. In addition there are no redeposited ablation products or surface modifications of the polymer after ablation.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Lippert, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser micromachining of through via interconnects in active die for 3-D multichip module

Description: One method to increase density in integrated circuits (IC) is to stack die to create a 3-D multichip module (MCM). In the past, special post wafer processing was done to bring interconnects out to the edge of the die. The die were sawed, glued, and stacked. Special processing was done to create interconnects on the edge to provide for interconnects to each of the die. These processes require an IC type fabrication facility (fab) and special processing equipment. In contrast, we have developed packaging assembly methods to created vertical through vias in bond pads of active silicon die, isolate these vias, and metal fill these vias without the use of a special IC fab. These die with through vias can then be joined and stacked to create a 3-D MCM. Vertical through vias in active die are created by laser micromachining using a Nd:YAG laser. Besides the fundamental 1064 nm (infra-red) laser wavelength of a Nd:YAG laser, modifications to our Nd:YAG laser allowed us to generate the second harmonic 532 nm (green) laser wavelength and fourth harmonic 266nm (ultra violet) laser wavelength in laser micromachining for these vias. Experiments were conducted to determine the best laser wavelengths to use for laser micromachining of vertical through vias in order to minimize damage to the active die. Via isolation experiments were done in order to determine the best method in isolating the bond pads of the die. Die thinning techniques were developed to allow for die thickness as thin as 50 {mu}m. This would allow for high 3-D density when the die are stacked. A method was developed to metal fill the vias with solder using a wire bonder with solder wire.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Chu, D. & Miller, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New applications of copper vapor lasers in micromachining

Description: We have developed a copper vapor laser based micromachinig system using advanced beam quality control and precision wavefront tilting technologies. Precision microdrilling has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30-W copper vapor from running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratio up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250-W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good result. Materialographic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone.
Date: November 9, 1994
Creator: Chang, J.J.; Martinez, M.W.; Warner, B.E.; Dragon, E.P.; Huete, G. & Solarski, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultrashort-pulse lasers machining

Description: A new type of material processing is enabled with ultrashort (t &lt; 10 psec) laser pulses. Cutting, drilling, sculpting of all materials (biologic materials, ceramics, sapphire, silicon carbide, diamond, metals) occurs by new mechanisms which eliminate thermal shock or collateral damage. High precision machining to submicron tolerances is enabled resulting in high surface quality and negligible heat affected zone.
Date: January 22, 1999
Creator: Banks, P S; Feit, M D; Nguyen, H T & Perry, M D, Stuart, B C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of material removal efficiency with ultrashort laser pulses

Description: Understanding physical processes accompanying ablation is necessary for optimal use of ultrashort laser pulse (USLP) material processing. We describe the implementation of self-consistent electromagnetic propagation -energy absorption in our numerical models and estimate effect on material removal of energy, pulselength and prepulses.
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Banks, P S; Feit, M D; Komashko, A M; Perry, M D & Rubenchik, A M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medical applications of ultra-short pulse lasers

Description: The medical applications for ultra short pulse lasers (USPLs) and their associated commercial potential are reviewed. Short pulse lasers offer the surgeon the possibility of precision cutting or disruption of tissue with virtually no thermal or mechanical damage to the surrounding areas. Therefore the USPL offers potential improvement to numerous existing medical procedures. Secondly, when USPLs are combined with advanced tissue diagnostics, there are possibilities for tissue-selective precision ablation that may allow for new surgeries that cannot at present be performed. Here we briefly review the advantages of short pulse lasers, examine the potential markets both from an investment community perspective, and from the view. of the technology provider. Finally nominal performance and cost requirements for the lasers, delivery systems and diagnostics and the present state of development will be addressed.
Date: June 8, 1999
Creator: Kim, B M & Marion, J E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A method to repair mismatched or damaged components using Laser Engineered Net Shaping{sup R} (LENS) technology to apply material was investigated for its feasibility for components exposed to hydrogen. The mechanical properties of LENS bulk materials were also tested for hydrogen compatibility. The LENS process was used to repair simulated and actual mismachined components. These sample components were hydrogen charged and burst tested in the as-received, as-damaged, and as-repaired conditions. The testing showed that there was no apparent additional deficiency associated with hydrogen charging compared to the repair technique. The repair techniques resulted in some components meeting the requirements while others did not. Additional procedure/process development is required prior to recommending production use of LENS.
Date: August 5, 2011
Creator: Korinko, P. & Adams, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LDRD 102610 final report new processes for innovative microsystems engineering with predictive simulation.

Description: This LDRD Final report describes work that Stephen W. Thomas performed in 2006. The initial problem was to develop a modeling, simulation, and optimization strategy for the design of a high speed microsystem switch. The challenge was to model the right phenomena at the right level of fidelity, and capture the right design parameters. This effort focused on the design context, in contrast to other Sandia efforts focus on high-fidelity assessment. This report contains the initial proposal and the annual progress report. This report also describes exploratory work on micromaching using femtosecond lasers. Steve's time developing a proposal and collaboration on this topic was partly funded by this LDRD.
Date: August 1, 2007
Creator: Mattsson, Ann Elisabet; Mitchell, Scott A. & Thomas, Stephen W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser drilling of printed wiring boards: Final report on work sponsored by Sandia LDRD program

Description: Traditionally, electrical connections- between layers of a printed wiring board are formed by mechanically drilling holes through all layers and then plating the resulting structure to provide electrical connections between the layers. The mechanical drilling process is very capital- and labor-intensive and is often a bottleneck in board production. The goal of this program was the development of laser drilling as an alternative to mechanical drilling. Cost advantages and the ability to produce smaller holes were both of interest. Although it had initially been intended to develop all processes at Sandia, suitable emerging processes and materials were identified in industry during the course of the work. Because of these industry efforts, it was decided to terminate the LDRD efforts after the first year of work and to pursue collaborative development efforts with industrial partners. A laser drilling facility is currently being developed at Sandia to pursue this work further.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Arzigian, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computational modeling of physical processes during laser ablation

Description: A combined theoretical and experimental effort to model various physical processes during laser ablation of solids (silicon) using a variety of computational techniques is described. Currently the focus of the modeling is on the following areas: (a) rapid transformations through the liquid and vapor phases under possibly nonequilibrium thermodynamic conditions induced by laser-solid interactions, (b) breakdown of the vapor into a plasma in the early stages of ablation through both electronic and photoionization processes, (c) hydrodynamic behavior of the vapor/plasma during and after ablation, and (d) effects of initial conditions in the vapor, in particular, the nature of the initial velocity distribution, on the characteristics of subsequent vapor expansion. Results from the modeling are compared with experimental observations where possible.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Liu, C. L.; Leboeuf, J. N.; Wood, R. F.; Geohegan, D. B.; Donato, J. M.; Chen, K. R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cutting assembly

Description: A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.
Date: January 28, 1982
Creator: Packi, D.J.; Swenson, C.E.; Bencloski, W.A. & Wineman, A.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser ablative cutting of ceramics for electronics applications

Description: Pulsed, high-beam quality lasers offer unique materials processing characteristics. In processing metals, copper vapor and pulsed Nd:YAG lasers have produced micron-scale cuts and holes with submicron heat-affected zones. Since the cost of laser photons is high and average material removal rates can be slow with ablation, high value-added applications are necessary to justify processing costs. Ceramics present a special challenge for manufacturing because of their high hardness, relatively low thermal conductivity, and brittle nature. Surface damage typically limits the strength of a ceramic part to a small fraction of its bulk strength. This work investigates the use of copper vapor and pulsed diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to cut precision features in ceramic substrates. Variations in laser wavelength and power, processing speed, ceramic type, and assist gas were investigated with the goal of producing <100-{mu}m wide by 600-{mu}m deep cuts through silicon-carbide and alumina/titanium-carbide substrates for potential use in electronics. Silicon-carbide bars 250-{mu}m wide by 600-{mu}m high by 2.5-cm long were laser cut from substrates without fracture.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Warner, B. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid prototyping of a micro pump for microelectronic applications

Description: A micro electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) injection pump has been developed using laser micromachining technology. Two designs have been fabricated, tested, and evaluated. The first design has two silicon parts with KOH-etched wells which are stacked on the top of each other. The wells are etched into one side of the wafer, and gold is deposited on the other side to serve as the pump electrodes. A Nd:YAG laser is used to drill an array of circular holes in the well region of both silicon parts. This creates a grid distribution with a square pattern. Next the well regions of the silicon parts are aligned, and the parts are bonded together using a Staystik thermoplastic. Together, the bonded siliconpart form the pump. The pump unit is then mounted into a ceramic package with a large hole drilled in the bottom of the package to permit fluid flow. Aluminum ribbon wire bonds are used to connect the pump electrodes to the package leads. Isolation of the metallization and wires is achieved by filling the package cavity and coating the wires with polyimide. When a voltage is applied to the electrodes, ions are injected into the working fluid, such as an organic solvent, thus inducing flow. The second design has the silicon parts oriented {open_quote}back-to-back{close_quote} and bonded together with Stayform. A {open_quote}back-to-back{close_quote} design will decrease the grid distance so that a smaller voltage is required for pumping. Experimental results have demonstrated that this micro pump can achieved a pressure head of about 287 Pa with an applied voltage of 120 V.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Wong, C.Channy; Chu, Dahwey & Liu, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser cutting of energetic materials

Description: The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of safely and efficiently cutting and drilling metal cases containing a variety of high explosives (HE) using a Nd:YAG laser. Spectral analysis of the optical emission, occurring during the laser-induced ablation process, is used to identify the removed material. By monitoring changes in the optical emission during the cutting process, the metal-He interface can be observed in real time and the cutting parameters adjusted accordingly. For cutting the HE material itself, the authors have demonstrated that this can be safely and efficiently accomplished by means of a ultraviolet (UV) laser beam obtained from the same Nd:YAG laser using the third or fourth harmonics. They are currently applying this technology to UXO identification and ordnance demilitarization.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Rivera, T.; Muenchausen, R. & Sanchez, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department