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Environmental assessment for amendments to 10 CFR Part 835

Description: This proposed amendment will modify the scope of 10 CFR 835 to explicitly exclude the transportation of radioactive material conducted in conformance with the Department of Transportation regulations, certain activities conducted on foreign soil, add standards for area posting and sealed radioactive source control, and add a removable surface radioactivity value for tritium.
Date: February 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Public information circular for shipments of irradiated reactor fuel

Description: This circular provides information on shipment of spent fuel subject to regulation by US NRC. It provides a brief description of spent fuel shipment safety and safeguards requirement of general interest, a summary of data for 1979-1995 highway and railway shipments, and a listing, by State, of recent highway and railway shipment routes. The enclosed route information reflects specific NRC approvals that have been granted in response to requests for shipments of spent fuel. This publication does not constitute authority for carriers or other persons to use the routes described to ship spent fuel, other categories of nuclear waste, or other materials.
Date: July 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of risk due to vehicle accident for the plutonium solution transfer from H-area to F-area

Description: Transporting radioactive material onsite (intrasite transfers) via truck or train must be performed in a safe manner. Adequate safety is assured for each transfer, as documented in the corresponding Onsite Safety Assessment (OSA). One aspect of the OSA is to show that the package to be used for the transfer meets onsite acceptance criteria. The activity being analyzed in this report is the movement of plutonium solution with greater than 20 curies, all reasonable mitigative controls will be implemented to minimize the likelihood of an accidental release, and a probabilistic analysis will be used to evaluate the risk associated with the move. The purpose of this report is to document the evaluation of risk due to vehicle accident associated with transporting plutonium solution from H-area to F-area. Included in the report is a list of the required mitigative controls which reduce the predicted accident and release frequencies to those reported in the summary.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Sarrack, A.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of shipping provisions for large lithium batteries

Description: In 1990, the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the US Department of Energy (DOE) established its ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group to identify regulatory barriers to the commercialization of advanced electric vehicle (EV) battery technologies and to facilitate the removal of these barriers. As one of three sub-working groups, the Shipping Sub-working Group (SSWG) was formed to address regulatory issues associated with the domestic and international transport of new battery technologies under development for EV and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. The SSWG is currently working with DOT on a proposal, which is intended for submission and consideration at the July 1998 meeting of the UN Sub-Committee of Experts. It is their intent to secure full support for the revised proposal from both the German and French delegations prior to its submission. It is critical to obtain UN Sub-Committee approval in July 1998, so that the DOT proposal can be considered and approved by the UN Committee of Experts at their meeting in December 1998. The UN Committee of Experts meets only on even numbered years, so failure to secure their approval in December 1998 will cause a two-year delay in implementing international regulations for large EV and HEV lithium-ion and lithium-polymer batteries. Details of the DOT proposal are provided in this paper, including provisions that would relax the lithium and lithium-alloy mass restrictions in a general way, thereby providing a measure of relief for small cells and batteries.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Henriksen, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Public information circular for shipments of irradiated reactor fuel. Revision 10

Description: This circular has been prepared to provide information on the shipment of irradiated reactor fuel (spent fuel) subject to regulation by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It provides a brief description of spent fuel shipment safety and safeguards requirements of general interest, a summary of data for 1979--1994 highway and railway shipments, and a listing, by State, of recent highway and railway shipment routes. The enclosed route information reflects specific NRC approvals that have been granted in response to requests for shipments of spent fuel. This publication does not constitute authority for carriers or other persons to use the routes described to ship spent fuel, other categories of nuclear waste, or other materials.
Date: April 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Public information circular for shipments of irradiated reactor fuel. Revision 12

Description: This circular has been prepared to provide information on the shipment of irradiated reactor fuel (spent fuel) subject to regulation by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It provides a brief description of spent fuel shipment safety and safeguards requirements of general interest, a summary of data for 1979--1996 highway and railway shipments, and a listing, by State, of recent highway and railway shipment routes. The enclosed route information reflects specific NRC approvals that have been granted in response to requests for shipments of spent fuel. This publication does not constitute authority for carriers or other persons to use the routes described to ship spent fuel, other categories of nuclear waste, or other materials.
Date: October 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment for DOE permission for off-loading activities to support the movement of commercial low level nuclear waste across the Savannah River Site

Description: This environmental assessment investigates the potential environmental and safety effects which could result from the land transport of low level radioactive wastes across the Savannah River Plant. Chem-Nuclear Systems operates a low level radioactive waste burial facility adjacent to the Savannah River Plant and is seeking permission from the DOE to transport the waste across Savannah River Plant.
Date: February 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Verification of RADTRAN

Description: This document presents details of the verification process of the RADTRAN computer code which was established for the calculation of risk estimates for radioactive materials transportation by highway, rail, air, and waterborne modes.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Kanipe, F.L. & Neuhauser, K.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Critical Review of the State-of-the-Art in Autonomous Land Vehicle Systems and Technology

Description: This report describes the current state-of-the-art in Autonomous Land Vehicle (ALV) systems and technology. Five functional technology areas are identified and addressed. For each a brief, subjective, preface is first provided which envisions the necessary technology for the deployment of an operational ALV system. Subsequently, a detailed literature review is provided to support and elaborate these views. It is further established how these five technology areas fit together as a functioning whole. The essential conclusion of this report is that the necessary sensors, algorithms and methods to develop and demonstrate an operationally viable all-terrain ALV already exist and could be readily deployed. A second conclusion is that the successful development of an operational ALV system will rely on an effective approach to systems engineering. In particular, a precise description of mission requirements and a clear definition of component functionality is essential.
Date: November 1, 2001
Creator: DURRNAT-WHYTE, HUGH
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Land Transport Emergency Response Technology Report

Description: Sandia National Laboratories was tasked by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) to provide assistance in developing an emergency response plan for radioactive material transportation activities. Those tasks included compiling radioactive materials (RAM) transportation accident data from the open literature and databases, investigating emergency response plans for radioactive materials transport in the United States, and developing specific recommendations for the JNC' nuclear material transport emergency response plan, based on information gathered during the first two tasks. These recommendations include developing a RAM database, a public transparency Internet website, an emergency response infrastructure designed specifically for transportation needs, and a clear set of directives to provide authority in the case of transportation accidents or incidents involving RAM.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: DOTSON, LORI J. & PIERCE, JIM D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safe TRU waste transport system

Description: The transportation of DOE`s TRU waste is highlighted in the Defense Waste Program Management Document as one of six key elements in the effective management of TRU waste. In addition, the report of Dr. Magnus` Committee on Transportation of Nuclear Materials discusses several major needs, such as: (1) Lack of shipping container standardization. (2) Lack of uniform analytical evaluation techniques in determining package performance with respect to test (performance) criteria. (3) Lack of public acceptance and understanding of safety aspects. (4) Lack of a functional transportation data base. These can be summarized by stating that a need exists for an integrated, long-term DOE Transportation Plan.
Date: October 31, 1977
Creator: Edling, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 1, Rev. 14

Description: The condensed version of the TRUPACT-II Contact Handled Transuranic Waste Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) contains essential material required by TRUPACT-II users, plus additional contents (payload) information previously submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. All or part of the following sections, which are not required by users of the TRUPACT-II, are deleted from the condensed version: (i) structural analysis, (ii) thermal analysis, (iii) containment analysis, (iv) criticality analysis, (v) shielding analysis, and (vi) hypothetical accident test results.
Date: October 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Packaging and transportation system for K-Basin spent fuel

Description: This paper describes the cask/transportation system that was designed, procured and delivered to the Hanford K-Basin site at Richland, Washington. The performance requirements and design of the various components -- cask, trailer with cask tie-down system, and the cask operation equipment for the load-out pit -- will be discussed. The presentation will include the details of the factory acceptance testing and its results. The performance requirements for the cask/transportation system was dictated by the constraints imposed by the large number of high priority shipments and the spent fuel pool environment, and the complex interface requirements with other equipment and facility designs. The results of the testing form the basis for the conclusion that the system satisfies the site performance requirements. The cask/transportation system design was driven by the existing facility constraints and the limitations imposed by the large number of shipments over a short two-year period. This system may be useful information for other DOE facilities that may be or will be in a similar situation.
Date: March 3, 1998
Creator: Kee, A. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recommendations for preparing the criticality safety evaluation of transportation packages

Description: This report provides recommendations on preparing the criticality safety section of an application for approval of a transportation package containing fissile material. The analytical approach to the evaluation is emphasized rather than the performance standards that the package must meet. Where performance standards are addressed, this report incorporates the requirements of 10 CFR Part 71. 12 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Dyer, H.R. & Parks, C.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Key regulatory drivers affecting shipments of mixed transuranic waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

Description: A number of key regulatory drivers affect the nature, scope, and timing of Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) plans for mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which are planned to commence as soon as possible following WIPP`s currently anticipated November, 1997 opening date. This paper provides an overview of some of the key drivers at LANL, particularly emphasizing those associated with the hazardous waste component of LANL`s MTRU waste (MTRU, like any mixed waste, contains both a radioactive and a hazardous waste component). The key drivers discussed here derive from the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and its amendments, including the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAU), and from the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (NMHWA). These statutory provisions are enforced through three major mechanisms: facility RCRA permits; the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, set forth in the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 4, Part 1: and compliance orders issued to enforce these requirements. General requirements in all three categories will apply to MTRU waste management and characterization activities at both WIPP and LANL. In addition, LANL is subject to facility-specific requirements in its RCRA hazardous waste facility permit, permit conditions as currently proposed in RCRA Part B permit applications presently being reviewed by the New Mexico Environment Department (NNED), and facility-specific compliance orders related to MTRU waste management. Likewise, permitting and compliance-related requirements specific to WIPP indirectly affect LANL`s characterization, packaging, record-keeping, and transportation requirements for MTRU waste. LANL must comply with this evolving set of regulatory requirements to begin shipments of MTRU waste to WIPP in a timely fashion.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Schumann, P.B.; Bacigalupa, G.A.; Kosiewicz, S.T. & Sinkule, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radionuclides identified at a US Customs Service site

Description: The movement of radionuclides through the U.S. Customs Service port of entry at Blaine, Washington, has been studied using a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and an automated data logging system. Data covering about 10 weeks of operation were obtained and analyzed. The data-acquisition system and the site of the measurement are described. Results are reported and interpreted in light of the known traffic of radioisotopes produced at the Canadian TRIUMF facility and imported into the United States for use in radiopharmaceuticals.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Johnson, M.W.; Bounds, J.A. & Steadman, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Los Alamos National Laboratory transuranic waste characterization and certification program - an overview of capabilities and capacity

Description: The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has full capability to characterize transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for its projected opening. LANL TRU waste management operations also include facilities to repackage both drums of waste found not to be certifiable for WIPP and oversized boxes of waste that must be size reduced for shipment to WIPP. All characterization activities and repackaging are carried out under a quality assurance program designed to meet Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) requirements. The flow of waste containers through characterization operations, the facilities used for characterization, and the electronic data management system used for data package preparation and certification of TRU waste at LANL are described.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Rogers, P.S.Z.; Sinkule, B.J.; Janecky, D.R. & Gavett, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 2, Rev. 14

Description: This appendix determines the effective G values for payload shipping categories of contact handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste materials, based on the radiolytic G values for waste materials that are discussed in detail in Appendix 3.6.8 of the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package. The effective G values take into account self-absorption of alpha decay energy inside particulate contamination and the fraction of energy absorbed by nongas-generating materials. As described in Appendix 3.6.8, an effective G value, G{sub eff}, is defined by: G{sub eff} - {Sigma}{sub M} (F{sub M} x G{sub M}) F{sub M}-fraction of energy absorbed by material maximum G value for a material where the sum is over all materials present inside a waste container. The G value itself is determined primarily by the chemical properties of the material and its temperature. The value of F is determined primarily by the size of the particles containing the radionuclides, the distribution of radioactivity on the various materials present inside the waste container, and the stopping distance of alpha particles in air, in the waste materials, or in the waste packaging materials.
Date: October 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of the components of evacuation times

Description: The magnitudes of accident dose risks calculated by the RADTRAN code depend directly on the time span between an accidental release and evacuation of the affected area surrounding potential radionuclide releases. In a previous study of truck and rail transportation accidents, and other incidents requiring evacuations, a lognormal distribution of evacuation times (time span from decision to evacuate until complete) was developed, which provided a better model for this parameter than the practice of using a highly conservative value of 24 hours. However, the distribution did not account for time required for responders to arrive on the scene, to evaluate the hazards to surrounding population and to initiate an evacuation. Data from US Department of Transportation (DOT) accident statistics have been collected and their distribution functions determined. The separate distribution functions were combined into a single, comprehensive distribution which may be sampled to supply values of the RADTRAN input parameter, EVACUATION. A sample RADTRAN calculation illustrating the effect on risks of using the distribution versus the original (24 hour), conservative point-estimate are also presented.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S. & Smith, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A review of modeling issues and analysis methods for the thermal response of cargoes transported in the Safe Secure Trailer subjected to fire environments

Description: This paper discusses thermal analysis in support of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to predict the heating of cargoes shipped in vehicles like the Safe Secure Trailer. Fire environments contribute very significantly to the risk associated with ground transport of special nuclear materials. The tradeoff between thermal model complexity and the affordable number of scenarios used to represent the hazard space is discussed as it impacts PRA. The relevant heat transfer mechanisms are discussed along with the applicability of methods from the literature for analysis of these mechanisms. Many of the subject`s real problems remain too complex for affordable and rigorous analysis. Available models are generally restricted to idealizations that are quickly obviated by real effects. Approximate treatment methods, striving to produce conservative, realistic estimates are also discussed.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Howell, J.R. & Larsen, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste management facilities cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

Description: This report contains cost information on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste streams that will be addressed by DOE in the programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) project. It describes the results of the task commissioned by DOE to develop cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste. It contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled (<200 mrem/hr contact dose) and remote-handled (>200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste are estimated. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D. & Burton, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Examination of Risk Analysis Methods for MOX Land Transport in Japan

Description: This report presents background information and methodology for a risk assessment of mixed oxide (MOX) reactor fuel transport in the nation of Japan to support their nuclear energy program. This work includes an extensive literature review, a review of other MOX activities worldwide, a survey of the statutory requirements for transporting nuclear materials, a discussion of risk assessment methodology, and calculation results for specific examples. Typical risk evaluations are given to provide guidance for later risk analyses specific to MOX fuel transport in Japan. This report also includes specific information that will be required for routes, cask types, accident-rate statistics, and population densities along specified routes, along with other detailed information needed for risk analysis studies pertinent to MOX transport in Japan. This information will be used in future specific risk studies.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Hohnstreiter, Glenn Fredrick & Pierce, Jim D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic analysis to establish normal shock and vibration of radioactive material shipping packages. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1979

Description: The objective of the study is to determine the extent to which the shocks and vibrations experienced by radioactive material shipping packages during normal transport conditions are influenced by, or are sensitive to, various structural parameters of the transport system (i.e., package, package supports, and vehicle). The purpose of this effort is to identify those parameters which significantly affect the normal shock and vibration environments so as to provide the basis for determining the forces transmitted to radioactive material packages. Determination of these forces will provide the input data necessary for a broad range of package-tiedown structural assessments.
Date: July 1, 1979
Creator: Fields, S.R. & Mech, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crash test of a nuclear spent fuel cask and truck transport system

Description: Sandia Laboratories has conducted a 96 kph (60 mph) full scale truck impact test for ERDA's Environmental Control Technology Division. Rockets propelled a 20, 500-kg (22-ton) cask mounted on its shipping trailer, coupled to a conventional cab-over tractor, into a massive, heavily reinforced concrete target. This summary report describes and compares the results of the computer analysis, scale model, and full scale tests.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Huerta, M. & Yoshimura, R.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department