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Task 2.0 - Air Quality Assessment, Control, and Analytical Methods Subtask 2.11 - Lactic Acid FGD Additives From Sugar Beet Wastewater

Description: Organic buffers maintain the pH of the scrubber slurry in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) as the SO2 dissolves at the air-liquid interface. Inexpensive acids with an appropriate pKa are required for this application. The pKa of lactic acid (3.86) is between that of the interface and the recirculating slurry and will make soluble calcium ion available in large amounts. Currently lactic acid is somewhat expensive for this use, but this project will develop a new source of inexpensive lactate. Microbial action during the storage and processing of sugar beets forms lactic acid in concentrations as high 14 g/L in the processing water. The concentrations are lower than those occurring in conventional fermentation production of lactic acids, but since a considerable amount of water is involved in the processing of sugar beets in the Red River Valley (1 million gallons/day), a substantial amount of lactic acid or calcium lactate could be recovered as a by- product for use in FGD and other applications.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Olson, Edwin S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of the Lactate Threshold by Respiratory Gas Exchange Measures and Blood Lactate Levels During Incremental-Load Work

Description: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the change in pulmonary ventilation (V_E), ventilatory equivalent of oxygen (VE_O_2) and lactic acid (LA) in relation to oxygen uptake (V_O_2) as predictors of the lactate threshold (LT). Eight healthy male (21.9 ± 3.0 years) subjects conducted three incremental-load tests. In each test the initial work rate consisted of 4 minutes of unloaded pedaling ("0" load) followed by incremental-load work of 360 Kgm • min^-1 at 60 rpm for trial I and trial II, while during trial III the work rate consisted of 540 Kgm • min^-1 of incremental-load work at 90 rpm. Work load was increased every third minute until the subject reached voluntary exhaustion. Blood samples from a forearm vein were collected during trial II (60 rpm) and trial III (90 rpm) and analyzed for lactic acid. In our subjects the measured (x̄ ± SD) lowest VE_O_2 for O_2 in relation to V_O_2 for trial I of 22.9 ± 1.9 occurred at a V_O_2 of 1.27 ± 0.8 L • min^-1. For trial II the VE_O_2 of 22.4 ± 1.3 occurred at a V_O_2 of 1.30 ± 0.09 L • min^-1, while for trial III a VE_O_2 of 24.4 ± 2.5 occurred at a V_O_2 of 1.84 ± 0.15 L • min^-1. The lowest VE_O_2 and onset of LA accumulation as calculated from individual exponential equations relating V_E to V_O_2 yielded V_O_2 values at 1.77 ± 0.18 L • min^-1 and 1.74 ± 0.25 L • min^-1 for trial II, and 1.83 ± 0.19 L • min^-1 and 2.02 ± 0.53 during trial III. Utilizing ln[LA]-ln V_O_2 equations, the LT occurred at a V_O_2 of 1.30 ± 0.07 L • min^-1 during trial II and 1.85 ± 0.12 L • min^-1 during trial III. It was concluded that during the ...
Date: December 1987
Creator: Duvillard, Sergei Petelin von.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effect of Temperature on the Protonation of the TALSPEAK Ligands: Lactic and Diethylenetrinitropentaacetic Acids

Description: The protonation reactions of two ligands that play important roles in the TALSPEAK process for the separation of trivalent actinides from lanthanides, lactic acid and diethylenetrinitropentaacetic acid (DTPA), have been studied at variable temperatures. The protonation constants at 10-70 C were determined by titration potentiometry and the protonation enthalpies were determined at 25 C by titration microcalorimetry. The protonation constants remain essentially unchanged (25-70 C) within the experimental uncertainties, indicating that the effect of temperature on the protonation of lactate is insignificant. In contrast, the protonation constants of DTPA (log {beta}H's) generally decrease as the temperature is increased. Results from this study indicate that the effect of temperature on the protonation of DTPA could alter the speciation of metal ions (actinides and lanthanides) in the TALSPEAK system, since lower values of log{beta}H at higher temperatures suggest that the hydrogen ions would compete less strongly with the metal ions for the complexation of DTPA at higher temperatures.
Date: October 20, 2009
Creator: Tian, Guoxin & Rao, Linfeng
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Degradation of Isotopic Lactate and Acetate

Description: A scheme of glucose degradation has been validated by the use of intermediates of known isotopic composition. In this scheme: glucose {yields} lactic acid {yields} CO{sub 2} (C-3,4) + acetic acid {yields} CO{sub 2} (C-2,5) + acetone {yields} iodoform (C-1,6) + acetate (C-1,6; 2,5), it was found that (a) in the oxidation of lactic acid, approximately 4.7% of the acetic acid was oxidized to CO{sub 2}; and (b) under the conditions prescribed, BaCO{sub 3} from the degradation of Ba acetate contained approximately 1.5% of the activity of the methyl group.
Date: February 24, 1948
Creator: Aronoff, S.; Haas, V.A. & Fries, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology and economic assessment of lactic acid production and uses

Description: Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}50,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food-processing and industrial applications. Potentially, it can become a very large-volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from carbohydrates for feedstocks of biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and other intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from fermentation broths and its conversion to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. Development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, extractive and catalytic distillations, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The emerging technologies can use environmentally sound lactic acid processes to produce environmentally useful products, with attractive process economics. These technology advances and recent product and process commercialization strategies are reviewed and assessed.
Date: March 1996
Creator: Datta, R. & Tsai, S. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes & cellulosics. Final research report

Description: High strength food wastes of about 15-20 billion pounds solids are produced annually by US food producers. Low strength food wastes of 5-10 billion pounds/yr. are produced. Estimates of the various components of these waste streams are shown in Table 1. Waste paper/lignocellulosic crops could produce 2 to 5 billion gallons of ethanol per year or other valuable chemicals. Current oil imports cost the US about $60 billion dollars/yr. in out-going balance of trade costs. Many organic chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum can be produced through fermentation processes. Petroleum based processes have been preferred over biotechnology processes because they were typically cheaper, easier, and more efficient. The technologies developed during the course of this project are designed to allow fermentation based chemicals and fuels to compete favorably with petroleum based chemicals. Our goals in this project have been to: (1) develop continuous fermentation processes as compared to batch operations; (2) combine separation of the product with the fermentation, thus accomplishing the twin goals of achieving a purified product from a fermentation broth and speeding the conversion of substrate to product in the fermentation broth; (3) utilize food or cellulosic waste streams which pose a current cost or disposal problem as compared to high cost grains or sugar substrates; (4) develop low energy recovery methods for fermentation products; and finally (5) demonstrate successful lab scale technologies on a pilot/production scale and try to commercialize the processes. The scale of the wastes force consideration of {open_quotes}bulk commodity{close_quotes} type products if a high fraction of the wastes are to be utilized.
Date: June 15, 1997
Creator: Dale, M. C.; Okos, M. & Burgos, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An integrated bioconversion process for the production of L-lactic acid from starchy feedstocks

Description: The potential market for lactic acid as the feedstock for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, and specialty chemicals is significant. L-lactic acid is often the desired enantiomer for such applications. However, stereospecific lactobacilli do not metabolize starch efficiently. In this work, Argonne researchers have developed a process to convert starchy feedstocks into L-lactic acid. The processing steps include starch recovery, continuous liquefaction, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Over 100 g/L of lactic acid was produced in less than 48 h. The optical purity of the product was greater than 95%. This process has potential economical advantages over the conventional process.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Tsai, S.P. & Moon, S.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

Description: The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM&T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility.
Date: March 11, 1998
Creator: Bohnert, G.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of fermentation with continuous lactic acid removal by extraction utilizing reversible chemical complexation

Description: Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce end-product inhibition by removing fermentation products in situ or in an external recycle loop. A model is presented for fermentation with continuous lactic acid removal by extraction utilizing chemical complexation. The model is formulated considering the kinetics of cell growth and the equilibrium distribution of lactic acid between aqueous and organic phases. Simulations have been carried out for different sets of operating conditions. The choice of pH balances faster kinetics at higher pH against lower product concentrations in the solvent and more difficult regeneration. A key need is for liquid extractants or solid sorbents combining stronger uptake ability with economical regeneration and satisfactory biocompatibility.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Dai, Y. & King, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technological and economic potential of poly(lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives

Description: Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}40,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food processing and industrial applications. lactic acid h,as the potential of becoming a very large volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from renewable carbohydrates for use as feedstocks for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, plant growth regulators, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and specially chemical intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from crude fermentation broths and the conversion of tactic acid to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. The development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis (ED) with bipolar membranes, extractive distillations integrated with fermentation, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The use of bipolar ED can virtually eliminate the salt or gypsum waste produced in the current lactic acid processes. In this paper, the recent technical advances in tactic and polylactic acid processes are discussed. The economic potential and manufacturing cost estimates of several products and process options are presented. The technical accomplishments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the future directions of this program at ANL are discussed.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Datta, R.; Tsai, S. P.; Bonsignore, P.; Moon, S. H. & Frank, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

Description: Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration-based distribution ratios increase from 0.11 to 0.46 ...
Date: March 1, 1990
Creator: Poole, L.J. & King, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report for DOE Project DE-FC07-99CH11010

Description: Department of Energy award number DE-FC07-99CH11010, Enhanced Utilization of Corn Based Biomaterials, supported a technology development program sponsored by Cargill Dow LLC from September 30, 1999 through June 30, 2003. The work involved fundamental scientific studies on poly lactic acid (PLA), a new environmentally benign plastic material from renewable resources. DOE funds supported academic research at the Colorado School of Mines and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and industry cost share was directed towards applied research into new product development utilizing the fundamental information generated by the academic partners. Under the arrangement of the grant, the fundamental information is published so that other companies can utilize it in evaluating the applicability of PLA in their own products. The overall project objective is to increase the utilization of PLA, a renewable resource based plastic, currently produced from fermented corn sugar.
Date: October 22, 2003
Creator: Randall, Jed & Kean, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 2.0 -- Air quality assessment, control, and analytical methods: Subtask 2.11 -- Lactic acid FGD additives from sugar beet wastewater. Final report

Description: Organic buffers maintain the pH of the scrubber slurry in flue gas desulfurization as the SO{sub 2} dissolves at the air-liquid interface. Inexpensive acids with an appropriate pKa are required for this application. The pKa of lactic acid (3.86) is between that of the interface and the recirculating slurry and will make soluble calcium ions available in large amounts. Currently lactic acid is somewhat expensive for this, but the project work will lead to development of a new source of inexpensive lactate. Microbial action during the storage and processing of sugar beets forms lactic acid in concentrations as high as 14 g/L in the processing water. The concentrations are lower than those occurring in conventional fermentation production of lactic acids, but since a considerable amount of water is involved in the processing of sugar beets in the Red River Valley, a substantial amount of lactic acid or calcium lactate could be recovered as a byproduct for use in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and other applications. The feasibility of two novel lactate recovery schemes applicable to dilute streams was evaluated in the project.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Olson, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Consortium to develop the medical uses of NMR imaging, NMR spectroscopy, and positron emission tomography. Final technical report

Description: The goal of this work is to, perform clinically relevant studies using a new whole-body 4.1 T NMR imaging spectrometer. Initially we will develop and approach for the assessment of the severity of skeletal muscle involvement in ischemic peripheral vascular disease.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Pohost, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RECOVERY OF LACTIC ACID FROM AMERICAN CRYSTAL SUGAR COMPANY WASTEWATER

Description: This project has shown that the recovery of several valuable lactic acid products is both technically feasible and economically viable. One of the original objectives of this project was to recover lactic acid. However, the presence of a variety of indigenous bacteria in the wastewater stream and technical issues related to recovery and purification have resulted in the production of lactic acid esters. These esters could by hydrolyzed to lactic acid, but only with unacceptable product losses that would be economically prohibitive. The developed process is projected to produce approximately 200,000 lb per day of lactate esters from wastewater at a single factory at costs that compete with conventional solvents. The lactate esters are good solvents for polymers and resins and could replace acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, MIBK, and other polar solvents used in the polymer industry. Because of their low volatility and viscosity-lowering properties, they will be especially useful for inks for jet printers, alkyl resins, and high-solid paints. Owing to their efficiency in dissolving salts and flux as well as oils and sealants, lactate esters can be used in cleaning circuit boards and machine and engine parts. Unlike conventional solvents, lactate esters exhibit low toxicity, are biodegradable, and are not hazardous air pollutants. Another application for lactate esters is in the production of plasticizers. Severe health problems have been attributed to widely used phthalate ester plasticizers. The U.S. Department of Agriculture showed that replacement of these with inexpensive lactate esters is feasible, owing to their superior polymer compatibility properties. A very large market is projected for polymers prepared from lactic acid. These are called polylactides and are a type of polyester. Thermoplastics of this type have a variety of uses, including moldings, fibers, films, and packaging of both manufactured goods and food products. Polylactides form tough, orientable, self-supporting ...
Date: April 30, 2001
Creator: Stepan, Daniel J.; Olson, Edwin S.; Shockey, Richard E.; Stevens, Bradley G. & Gallagher, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternate Electrolyte Composition for Electropolishing of Niobium Surfaces

Description: Electropolishing has shown promising results for the treatment of Nb cavities to be used in particle accelerators, particularly in the attainment of high surface electric fields. In support of the CEBAF Upgrade project and as part of a longer-term R and D program, we have investigated the properties of several electrolyte recipes. A particularly promising one consists of a mixture of lactic, sulfuric, and hydrofluoric acids. Initial tests reveal that smooth Nb surfaces can be achieved with no observable grain boundaries under optical microscope. We report on the results of the investigations of the parameters that control the polishing process using this particular acid mixture.
Date: September 1, 2001
Creator: Delayen, Jean R.; Mammosser, John; Phillips, Larry & Wu, Andy T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Process of converting starch to glucose and glucose to lactic acid

Description: This document describes a method for converting starch into lactic acid of sufficient purity for use as a substrate for biodegradable plastics. The process is designed to work on industrial food waste streams such as potato wastes or cheese whey permeate. For potato waste, {alpha}-amylase and calcium chloride are added to the starch containing waste and incubated at a pH of 4--7, a temperature of 90--130{degree}C, and a pressure above 15 psi for not less than 15 minutes. At this point, glucoamylase is added and the mixture is incubated at a temperature of 50--70{degree}C and a pH below 6.5 for 4 hours. This results in the conversion of more than 90% of the starch into glucose, which is substantially free of microbial contamination. The hydrolysate is filtered, and introduced with additional nutrients to a fermentor containing a lactose producing microorganism to form a fermentation broth. This results in the fermentation of glucose to lactose, which is filtered and subjected to electrodialysis for purification. Conversion of glucose to lactic acid or lactate occurs with an efficiency of over 95%. 1 fig. (MHB)
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Tsai, TenLin; Sanville, C. Y.; Coleman, R. D. & Schertz, W. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Poly(lactic acid) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders

Description: Biochemical processes to derive value from the management of high carbohydrate food wastes, such as potato starch, corn starch, and cheese whey permeate, have typically been limited to the production of either ethanol or methane. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) believes that lactic acid presents an attractive option for an alternate fermentation end product, especially in light of lactic acids` being a viable candidate for conversion to environmentally safe poly(lactic acid) (PLA) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders. Technology is being developed at ANL to permit a more cost effective route to modified high molecular weight PLA. Preliminary data on the degradation behavior of these modified PLAs shows the retention to the inherent hydrolytic degradability of the PLA modified, however, by introduced compositional variables. A limited study was done on the hydrolytic stability of soluble oligomers of poly(L-lactic acid). Over a 34 day hold period, water-methanol solutions of Pl-LA oligomers in the 2-10 DP range retained some 75% of their original molecular weight.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Bonsignore, P. V.; Coleman, R. D. & Mudde, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhanced fermentation systems with continuous removal of inhibitory products

Description: A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids, and other fermentation products. A major limitation of microbial fermentations is the dilute aqueous product streams that result, largely due to inhibition of the microbes by the desired products. If these inhibitory products can be removed during the ongoing fermentation, the overall rates, yields, and net product formation may be increased. Simultaneous fermentation and separation have been tested with different separation techniques, such as adsorption, liquid extraction, pervaporation, membrane separations, distillation, and others. These separations can occur directly in situ within the fermentor or indirectly using a sidestream separator with recycle of the unused substrate. These approaches are briefly reviewed. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), we have investigated two modified immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) to remove the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the separation by adsorption of tactic acid, and the other uses liquid solvent extraction for the production of butanol. Keywords: extractive fermentation, in situ separation, adsorption, tactic acid, butanol.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Davison, B. H. & Kaufman, E. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals

Description: A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there are processes for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production by the removal of an inhibitory product. For example, ethanol productivity in immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) can increase more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. Two modified FBR configurations offer further improvements by removing the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. This process was demonstrated with the production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus. The second uses an immiscible organic extractant in the FBR. This increased total butanol yields in the anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.
Date: June 1, 1993
Creator: Davison, B. H. & Scott, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department