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L-Area Cavitation Tests Final Analysis - Limits Application

Description: The L-Area cavitation test was designed to better define the onset of cavitation in the reactor system. The onset of gas evolution in the effluent piping and pump cavitation was measured using state-of-the-art equipment to provide data with a high confidence and low uncertainty level. The limits calculated from the new data will allow an approximate two percent increase in reactor power if the reactor is effluent temperature-limited with no compromise in reactor safety.
Date: June 26, 2001
Creator: Wood, D.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mitigation alternatives for L Lake

Description: The current condition of L Lake/Steel Creek was summarized in a report to SCDHEC in June 1988 which reported that the L Lake and Steel Creek ecosystems were adequately developing towards balanced biological communities. If mitigation for L Lake inputs, specifically temperature and nutrients, are required, several viable alternatives are available. A report prepared by Spencer in 1986 discusses the various options available for cooling L-Reactor discharges. In effect, a small cooling tower is the only realistic solution to reducing effluent temperatures. Nutrient mitigation can take several approaches including upstream sewage treatment, hypolimnetic withdrawal, dilution of input water by Par Pond water, precipitation of nutrients, and sediment oxidation. None of these systems would influence the thermal regime, but would significantly reduce nutrient input into the system. One beneficial use of L-Lake thermal effluents is algaculture, the production of useful algae. A document prepared in 1988 concludes that algaculture is a technically and economically feasible mitigation alternative for L Lake and could allow L Lake to be handled under Section 318 of the Clean Water Act.
Date: November 3, 1988
Creator: Moore, D. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Summary Report on the NPH Evaluation of 105-L Disassembly Basin

Description: The L Area Disassembly Basin (LDB) is evaluated for the natural phenomena hazards (NPH) effects due to earthquake, wind, and tornado in accordance with DOE Order 420.1 and DOE-STD-1020. The deterministic analysis is performed for a Performance Category 3 (PC3) level of loads. Savannah River Site (SRS) specific NPH loads and design criteria are obtained from Engineering Standard 01060. It is demonstrated that the demand to capacity (D/C) ratios for primary and significant structural elements are acceptable (equal to or less than 1.0). Thus, 105-L Disassembly Basin building structure is qualified for the PC3 NPH effects in accordance with DOE Order 420.1.
Date: April 30, 2002
Creator: Joshi, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Dynalene Inc has developed and patented a fuel cell coolant with the help of DOE SBIR Phase I and Phase II funding (Project DE-FG02-04ER83884). However, this coolant could only be produced in lab scale (500 ml to 2 L) due to problems in the optimization and scale-up of a nanoparticle ingredient. This project optimized the nanoparticle production process in 10 L and 100 L reactors (which translates to about 5000 gallons of coolant), optimized the filtration process for the nanoparticles, and develop a high throughput production as well as quality control method for the final coolant formulation. Scale-up of nanoparticle synthesis (using emulsion polymerization) is an extremely challenging task. Dynalene researchers, in collaboration with a university partner, identified all the parameters affecting the size, charge density and coagulation characteristics of the nanoparticles and then optimized these parameters to achieve the goals and the objectives of this project. Nanoparticle synthesis was demonstrated to be reproducible in the 10 L and 100 L scales.
Date: December 21, 2011
Creator: Mohapatra, Satish
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution of radionuclides in L-Lake surface sediments phase 3

Description: Gamma-emitting radionuclides in L Lake were examined in situ with an underwater High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector and further studied by retrieving various sediment samples for analysis by HPGe gamma spectrometry. The predominant man-made radionuclide detected was cesium-137. These measurements constituted Phase 3 of a four phase strategy for characterizing L-Lake contaminants. The data provided by these studies will be utilized in the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement that evaluates the consequences of discontinuing river water pumping to the man-made cooling water reservoirs on the Savannah River Site. A site evaluation report will also be prepared for the L-Lake basin.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Dunn, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of C0-60 in Cobalt Slugs and Slabs and Radionuclides in Curium Sampler Slugs L-Reactor Disassembly Basin

Description: Co-60 was historically produced in the SRS reactors. Cobalt slugs were irradiated in the early 1970s. Post-production, remaining cobalt slugs (including slab form) were consolidated for storage. There are approximately nine hundred cobalt slugs currently stored awaiting final disposition. These slugs had historically incomplete documentation for activity rates; therefore, assaying was required in order to determine their activity levels. Since the gamma dose rate from these slugs is extremely high, the most cost effective way to shield a source of this magnitude from personnel and the radiation detector was to use the basin water in which the slugs are stored as the shield. A sodium iodide gamma detector was placed above a specially designed air collimator assembly, so that slug was at least eight feet from the detector and was shielded by the basin water. Using a sodium iodide detector and multichannel analyzer system and an underwater collimator assembly, Co-60 concentrations we re determined for Disassembly Basin cobalt slugs and slabs and 18 curium sampler slugs. The total activity of all of the assayed slugs summed to 31,783 curies. From the Co-60 concentrations of the curium sampler slugs, the irradiation flux was determined for the known irradiation time. The amounts of Pu-238, 239, 240, 241, 242; Am-241, 243; and Cm-242, 244 produced were then obtained based on the original amount of Pu-239 irradiated.
Date: January 23, 2004
Creator: Casella, V.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution of lake-bottom radionuclides measured with an underwater HPGe detector

Description: This study at Savannah River was done to assist decisions on the future of L Lake, an artificial reservoir made in 1983-5 for additional cooling for L Reactor discharges. EG&G overflight NaI mappings prior to filling indicated that most of the man-made radionuclides were {sup 60}Co and (predominantly) {sup 137}Cs in the earlier stream beds lying beneath the lake. An underwater HPGe was used in 1995 to rapidly scope the present radiation levels at 96 locations in the lake. The present levels are in reasonable agreement with the earlier overflight mappings. 1 fig, 4 figs.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Winn, W.G.; Dunn, D.L. & Bresnahan, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

Description: To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake`s macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Specht, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using historical aerial photography and softcopy photogrammetry for waste unit mapping in L Lake.

Description: L Lake was developed as a cooling water reservoir for the L Reactor at the Savannah River Site. The construction of the lake, which began in the fall of 1984, altered the structure and function of Steel Creek. Completed in the fall of 1985, L Lake has a capacity of 31 million cubic meters and a normal pool of 58 meters. When L Reactor operations ceased in 1988, the water level in the lake still had to be maintained. Site managers are currently trying to determine the feasibility of draining or drawing down the lake in order to save tax dollars. In order to understand the full repercussions of such an undertaking, it was necessary to compile a comprehensive inventory of what the lake bottom looked like prior to filling. Aerial photographs, acquired nine days before the filling of the lake began, were scanned and used for softcopy photogrammetry processing. A one-meter digital elevation model was generated and a digital orthophoto mosaic was created as the base map for the project. Seven categories of features, including the large waste units used to contain the contaminated soil removed from the dam site, were screen digitized and used to generate accurate maps. Other map features include vegetation waste piles, where contaminated vegetation from the flood plain was contained, and ash piles, which are sites where vegetation debris was burned and then covered with clean soil. For all seven categories, the area of disturbance totaled just over 63 hectares. When the screen digitizing was completed, the elevation at the centroid of each disturbance was determined. When the information is used in the Savannah River Site Geographical Information System, it can be used to visualize the various L Lake draw-down scenarios suggested by site managers and hopefully, to support evaluations of the cost effectiveness ...
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Christel, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion of aluminum cladding under optimized water conditions

Description: Experience at SRS, ORNL, BNL, and Georgia Institute of Technology involving irradiated aluminum clad fuel and target elements, as well as studies of non-irradiated aluminum indicate that some types of aluminum assemblies can be kept in a continually well-deionized water atmosphere for up to 25 years without problems. SRS experience ranges from 2.75 years for the L-1.1 charge kept in deionized D{sub 2}O{sup 1} to greater than 10 years for assemblies stored in the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuel (RBOF){sup 2}. Experience at Georgia Institute of Technology reactor in Atlanta yielded the longest value of 25 years without problems. The common denominators in all of the reports is that the water is continually deionized to approximately 2 M{Omega} (2 {times} 10{sup 6}ohms) resistivity and the containers for the water are stainless steel or other non-porous material. This resistivity value is equivalent to a value of 0.5 micromhos or microSiemens conductivity and is reagent grade II quality water.{sup 3} 4 tabs, 26 refs.
Date: July 8, 1992
Creator: Gibbs, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cs-137 concentrations in Steel Creek in 1984. Revision 1

Description: Measurement of Cs-137 concentrations in Steel Creek, 1984, have shown that L Reactor flow tests have not changed the Cs-137 concentrations and the initial phases of L Pond dam construction have only caused a slight increase in Cs-137 concentrations. The Cs-137 concentrations in 1984 were about 1 to 2 percent of the EPA drinking water concentration guide of 200 pCi/L. The concentration in Steel Creek is essentially the same as in 1980, before any major L Reactor refurbishing. The data obtained in 1984 indicate that initial Cs-137 remobilization estimates for Steel Creek are still valid.
Date: January 28, 1985
Creator: Hayes, D. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: An analytic model and calculational methodology was previously developed for P-reactor and R-reactor to quantify the radioisotopes present in Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor tanks and the surrounding structural materials as a result of neutron activation of the materials during reactor operation. That methodology has been extended to K-reactor, L-reactor, and C-reactor. The analysis was performed to provide a best-estimate source term input to the Performance Assessment for an in-situ disposition strategy by Site Decommissioning and Demolition (SDD). The reactor structure model developed earlier for the P-reactor and R-reactor analyses was also used for the K-reactor and L-reactor. The model was suitably modified to handle the larger Creactor tank and associated structures. For all reactors, the structure model consisted of 3 annular zones, homogenized by the amount of structural materials in the zone, and 5 horizontal layers. The curie content on an individual radioisotope basis and total basis for each of the regions was determined. A summary of these results are provided herein. The efficacy of this methodology to accurately predict the radioisotopic content of the reactor systems in question has been demonstrated and is documented in Reference 1. As noted in that report, results for one reactor facility cannot be directly extrapolated to other SRS reactors.
Date: September 30, 2010
Creator: Vinson, D. & Webb, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Instrument air dew point requirements -- 108-P, L, K

Description: The 108 Building dew point analyzers measure dew point at atmospheric pressure. Existing 108 Roundsheets state the maximum dew point temperature shall be less than {minus}50 F. After repeatedly failing to maintain a {minus}50 F dew point temperature Reactor Engineering researched the basis for the existing limit. This report documents the results of the study and provides technical justification for a new maximum dew point temperature of {minus}35 F at atmospheric pressure as read by the 108 building dew point analyzers.
Date: March 30, 1994
Creator: Fairchild, P. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final data report: Plenum-Nozzle Flow Characteristics Experiment

Description: A database was developed for the flow of water through a scaled nozzle of a Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor inlet plenum. The water flow in the nozzle was such that it ranged from stratified to water-solid conditions. Data on the entry of air into the nozzle and plenum as a function of water flow are of interest in loss-of-coolant studies. The scaled nozzle was 0.44 m long, had an entrance diameter of 0.095 m, an exit opening of 0.058 m {times} 0.356 m, and an exit hydraulic diameter approximately equal to that of the inlet. Within the nozzle were three flow-straightening vanes which divided the flow path into four channels. This report includes all of the data taken for the first phase of the Plenum-Nozzle and Cold-Leg Vertical Process-Pipe Flow Characteristics Experiments: Plenum-Nozzle Experiment. Those data include daily reference checks, to determine proper operation of all instrumentation before the experiment was run, and the actual data themselves in engineering units. Not included are the videographic data which are available for each test run. However, there are four (4) 3/4 in. -video tapes of visual data and the specific tape and the location on that tape are indicated for each test run on the data sheets. The database is from sixteen test modes (e.g., flow direction, location of pipe break, air-water or just water, single nozzle or three nozzle). The flow rates ranged to approximately 320 gpm ({approx}10 kgpm prototypic) for both air and water. All data were taken at steady-state, isothermal (300 K{plus_minus}1.5 K), and atmospheric pressure conditions.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Duignan, M. R. & May, C. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WSRC Reactor Tank Inspection Program (RTIP) status report

Description: Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) recently completed the initial phase of nondestructive inspections of the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) reactor tanks. This program required almost three years to be conceptualized, fabricated, and tested. An additional 20 months were required to complete the NDE inspection of the P, K and L reactor tanks. The overall cost of the program to date is approximately $25 MM. This status report will address: (1) A brief review of the RTIP program and the constraints which had to be overcome (2) A summary of the examination results of the P,K, and L Reactor tanks. (3) A projection of the future enhancements and capabilities presently in development.
Date: June 1, 1992
Creator: Loibl, M. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrologic analysis of Steel Creek and L Lake and the effects of flow reduction on Steel Creek habitat

Description: This report was prepared to support a proposal to eliminate the EIS mandated spring flow requirements in Steel Creek below L Lake. The base flow in Steel Creek below L Lake was estimated using historical data. The water balance of L Lake was studied to evaluate the effects of flow reduction on the Steel Creek hydrologic system. The base flow in Steel Creek below L Lake is estimated as 0.28 cms (10 cfs). A reduction in L Lake discharge to 0.28 cms will result in a fish community similar to the one that existed before the impoundment of L Lake.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: del Carmen, B. R. & Paller, M. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactor Restart Division trend analysis report, second quarter 1991

Description: This document provides a trend analysis for the Savannah River Reactor Restart Program. The data contained in this report is comprised of Nonconformance Report (NCR), Surveillance Reports, and Corrective Action Reports (CAR). The data trended now includes six quarters and provides the capability of looking at changing patterns in the various performance categories over time.
Date: October 7, 1991
Creator: Castles, R. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic fragility analysis of buried steel piping at P, L, and K reactors

Description: Analysis of seismic strength of buried cooling water piping in reactor areas is necessary to evaluate the risk of reactor operation because seismic events could damage these buried pipes and cause loss of coolant accidents. This report documents analysis of the ability of this piping to withstand the combined effects of the propagation of seismic waves, the possibility that the piping may not behave in a completely ductile fashion, and the distortions caused by relative displacements of structures connected to the piping.
Date: October 1, 1989
Creator: Wingo, H. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of reports associated with systems of the K, P and L reactors at the Savannah River Site

Description: Six reports associated with the structural integrity of several systems of the Savannah River Site reactors are reviewed. The focus is on the materials-related aspects of the reports and no attempt is made to address the stress analysis-related issues.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Cowgill, M. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Actuator system history of safety rod lower latch problems review of latch inspection video tapes

Description: During pre-restart testing the safety rod at position X26-YlO bound after being driven approximately two (2) feet out of the reactor. Subsequently, the rod was manually returned to it`s seated position. Inspection of the lower latch showed that the latch locking plunger button (screwed on to the bottom of the plunger shaft and retained by a pin through a hole drilled through the button and the plunger shaft) was missing. The shaft failed through the hole drilled for the retaining pin. The button, with the retaining pin intact, was found lodged between the safety rod upper adapter collar and the top of the safety rod thimble top fitting. Analysis of the safety rod latch and accompanying forest guide tube design provided assurance that this type of failure would not cause binding during the ``scramming`` of the safety rods. Inspection of all of the ``K`` safety rod lower latches revealed six other latches with missing plunger buttons, and nine with other non-conformances which required latch replacement. A history search conducted by Reactor Engineering Design, Components Handling Group, is included in this report. The history search shows that latch design modifications, as a part of initial development of the latch system and later to improve the delatching operation, were made from 1950 to 1960. These modifications created a condition where latch damage could occur. Video tapes were made during inspection of the safety rod latches in K area and control rod latches in L area. These tapes were reviewed by Reactor Engineering Design Components Handling engineers. The reviews were used for correlation of latch problems reported by the engineers/mechanics making the inspections. The K area tapes showed inspection of 65 of the 66 safety rod latches. The review of the tapes showed the plunger buttons to be missing from five latches. RED-CH ...
Date: June 24, 1992
Creator: Banks, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

Description: The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years` data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Bowers, J. A.; Toole, M. A. & van Duyn, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

Description: The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Sayers, R. E. Jr. & Mealing, H. G. III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department