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RF breakdown studies in X-Band klystron cavities

Description: RF breakdown studies are presently being carried out at SLAC with klystron cavities in a traveling wave resonator (TWR). Different kinds of fabrication methods and several kinds of semiconducting and insulating coatings have been applied to X-Band TM{sub 010} cavities. RF breakdown thresholds up to 250 MV/m have been obtained. Dark current levels were found to be depressed on TiN-coated and single-point diamond turned cavities. A new TM{sub 020} cavity with demountable electrodes has been designed and will be used to test a variety of materials, coatings, and processes. Recent tests of klystron output windows at 119 MW are also presented in this paper.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Xu, X.; Callin, R.S. & Fowkes, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PPM focused X-band klystron development at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

Description: X-band klystrons capable of 50 MW and utilizing Periodic Permanent Magnet (PPM) focusing are undergoing design and fabrication at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The klystron development is part of an effort to realize components necessary for the construction of the Next Linear Collider (NLC). The first klystron to be tested this year has a 0.6 microK beam at 465 kV, a 5 cells traveling wave output structure and a predicted efficiency of 63%. A 465 kV, 190 A beam stick with 12 periods of PPM focusing has recently operated to verify the gun optics and transmission of the beam in the absence of rf bunching. Beam transmission greater than 99.8% has been measured. Design and simulation of the beam stick and klystron are discussed, along with performance of the beam stick under confined flow and shielded conditions.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Sprehn, D.; Caryotakis, G.; Eppley, K. & Phillips, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of a relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator Prototype

Description: We are designing an experiment to study physics, engineering, and costing issues of an extended Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator (RK-TBA). The experiment is a prototype for an RK-TBA based microwave power source suitable for driving a 1 TeV linear collider. Major components of the experiment include a 2.5-MV, 1.5-kA electron source, a 11.4-GHz modulator, a bunch compressor, and a 8-m extraction section. The extraction section will be comprised of 4 traveling-wave output structures, each generating about 360 MW of rf power. Induction cells will be used in the extraction section to maintain the average beam energy at 5 MeV. Status of the design is presented.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Westenskow, G.; Caporaso, G.; Chen, Y.; Houck, T.; Yu, S.; Chattopadhyay, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report, IUT - B291527, January 1996 - March 1997

Description: The following note investigates scaling the 11.4-GHz TBNLC design of a relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator for a 30-GHz, 50-bunch accelerator design. We will refer to this point design as the RK-CLIC. We do not expect that the design will be optimal, but offer it as a starting point for discussions. In this memo, we begin with a general description of the RK-CLIC and drive beam dynamics, discuss required changes to major components, estimate the efficiency of wall plug to microwave power, and estimate costs. To be of interest the design must be such that it: (1) Can be installed at modest cost, (2) Operate with high wall plug to reconversion efficiency, and (3) Have acceptable drive beam dynamics.
Date: April 23, 1996
Creator: Henestroza, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phase loop bandwidth measurements on the advanced photon source 352 MHz rf systems

Description: Phase loop bandwidth tests were performed on the Advanced Photon Source storage ring 352-MHz rf systems. These measurements were made using the HP3563A Control Systems Analyzer, with the rf systems running at 30 kilowatts into each of the storage ring cavities, without stored beam. An electronic phase shifter was used to inject approximately 14 degrees of stimulated phase shift into the low-level rf system, which produced measureable response voltage in the feedback loops without upsetting normal rf system operation. With the PID (proportional-integral-differential) amplifier settings at the values used during accelerator operation, the measurement data revealed that the 3-dB response for the cavity sum and klystron power-phase loops is approximately 7 kHz and 45 kHz, respectively, with the cavities the primary bandwidth-limiting factor in the cavity-sum loop. Data were taken at various PID settings until the loops became unstable. Crosstalk between the two phase loops was measured.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Horan, D.; Nassiri, A. & Schwartz, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Towards a PEBB-Based Design Approach for a Marx-Topology ILC Klystron Modulator

Description: Introduced by the U.S. Navy more than a decade ago, the concept of Power Electronic Building Blocks (PEBBs) has been successfully applied in various applications. It is well accepted within the power electronics arena that this concept offers the potential to achieve increased levels of modularity and compactness. This approach is thus ideally suited for applications where easy serviceability and high availability are key, such as the ILC. This paper presents a building block approach for designing a Marx-topology ILC klystron modulator.
Date: October 17, 2009
Creator: Macken, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of beam dynamics in relativistic klystron two-beam accelerators

Description: Two-beam accelerators (TBAs) based upon free-electron lasers (FELs) or relativistic klystrons (RK-TBAs) have been proposed as efficient power sources for next generation high-energy linear colliders. Studies have demonstrated the possibility of building TBAs from X-band ({approximately}8-12 GHz) through Ka band ({approximately} 30-35 GHz) frequency regions. Provided that further prototyping shows stable beam propagation with minimal current loss and production of good quality, high-power rf fields, this technology is compatible with current schemes for electron-positron colliders in the multi-TeV center-of-mass scale. A new method of simulating the beam dynamics in accelerators of this type has been developed in this dissertation. There are three main components to this simulation. The first is a tracking algorithm to generate nonlinear transfer maps for pushing noninteracting particles through the external fields. The second component is a 3D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) algorithm that solves a set of Helmholtz equations for the self-fields, including the conducting boundary condition, and generates impulses that are interleaved with the nonlinear maps by means of a split-operation algorithm. The Helmholtz equations are solved by a multi-grid algorithm. The third component is an equivalent circuit equation solver that advances the modal rf cavity fields in time due to excitation by the modulated beam. The RTA project is described, and the simulation code is used to design the latter portions of the experiment. Detailed calculations of the beam dynamics and of the rf cavity output are presented and discussed. A beamline design is presented that will generate nearly 1.2 GW of power from 40 input, gain, and output rv cavities over a 10 m distance. The simulations show that beam current losses are acceptable, and that longitudinal and transverse focusing techniques are sufficient capable of maintaining a high degree of beam quality along the entire beamline. Additional experimental efforts are also described.
Date: November 1, 1999
Creator: Lidia, Steven M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automatic Frequency Control of Microwave Radiation Sources

Description: Resonant cavity controlled klystron frequency stabilization circuits and quartz-crystal oscillator frequency stabilization circuits were investigated for reflex klystrons operating at frequencies in the X-band range. The crystal oscillator circuit employed achieved better than 2 parts in 10 in frequency stability. A test of the functional properties of the frequency standard was made using the Stark effect in molecules.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Payne, Bobby D.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Reconfigurable high-power rf system in the APS

Description: The 352-MHz high-power system for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring and booster synchrotron has been configured to allow two to four klystrons to power the storage ring and one klystron to power the booster. A quadrature hybrid combines two klystron out-puts with two 45{degrees} phase shifters at each output of the hybrid for proper phasing at the storage ring cavities for the selected mode. The phase shifters in the hybrid outputs and three waveguide switches are used to choose an operation mode in any one of twelve possible configurations using three to five klystrons to power the storage ring and booster. The system can be configured to use one klystron as the power source of a test station.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Kang, Y.W. & Horan, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

APS injector synchrotron low-level RF system design and test

Description: We describe the control of the RF system for the injector synchrotron (booster) of the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source. The rf system consists of one klystron and four 5-cell cavities of the LEP type. A block diagram of the system is shown and the low power rf circuitry is described. Voltage and phase feedback are discussed, along with accelerating the beam to 7 GeV. The accelerating voltage is programmed with a waveform generator. Although the acceleration is constant, the power at injection is almost zero and at extraction it is near 600 kW. The power increases with beam energy to replace synchrotron radiation losses. Stability of the rf phase between the two sides of the ring are discussed. Control signals are described which synchronize the bunch during injection from an accumulator ring and for extraction to the 352-MHz bucket in the storage ring. Timing for injection into any bucket in the Storage Ring is accomplished in the rf controls interface located on the VM cards. There is only one bunch accelerated in the booster at a time, so the beam loading of the cavities is negligible. Operating experience during early commissioning efforts will also be outlined.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Stepp, J.D. & Bridges, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phase control and intra-pulse phase compensation of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linear accelerator

Description: Rf power for the APS linear accelerator is provided by five klystrons, each of which feeds one linac ``sector,`` containing accelerating structures and SLED cavities. A VXI-based subsystem measures the phase of each sector of the linac with respect to a thermally stabilized reference line. The resulting information is used to control a linearized varactor phase shifter. Error correction is done by software, using operator-controllable parameters. A second phase shifter provides an intra-pulse correction to the phase of the klystron drive pulse. When the intra-pulse correction is applied, the resulting phase is flat to within 0.5{degrees} after 2.5 {mu}sec. A second correction, made after the PSK trigger to the SLED and during the filling of the accelerating structures, resulted in an energy gain of 5 MeV from a single sector.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Grelick, A.E.; Arnold, N.; Ko, K.; Sereno, N. & White, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The pulse modulator for the mod-anode of the cluster klystron

Description: A high voltage pulse generator using a Zarem type modulator was developed. The Zarem type circuit doesn`t require a matched load, making it suitable to drive the mod-anode of the cluster klystron, which has a capacitive load. The principle and the experiments, as well as the analyses and the simulations of the observed phenomena, (ringing, pulse {open_quotes}skirt{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}deficiency{close_quotes}) are presented.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Zhao, Y.; Palmer, R. & Wang, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary design report of a relativistic-Klystron two-beam-accelerator based power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass next linear collider

Description: A preliminary point design for an 11.4 GHz power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass Next Linear Collider (NLC) based on the Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam-Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept is presented. The present report is the result of a joint LBL-LLNL systems study. consisting of three major thrust areas: physics, engineering, and costing. The new RK-TBA point design, together with our findings in each of these areas, are reported.
Date: February 22, 1995
Creator: Yu, S.; Goffeney, N. & Henestroza, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator as a power source for future linear colliders

Description: The technical challenge for making two-beam accelerators into realizable power sources for high-energy colliders lies in the creation of the drive beam and in its propagation over long distances through multiple extraction sections. This year we have been constructing a 1.2&A, l-MeV, induction gun for a prototype relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA). The electron source will be a 8.9 cm diameter, thermionic, flat-surface cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150-ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 300 pi-mm-n-n. The prototype accelerator will be used to study physics, engineering, and costing issues involved in the application of the RK-TBA concept to linear colliders. We have also been studying optimization parameters, such as frequency, for the application of the RK-TBA concept to multi-TeV linear colliders. As an rf power source the RK-TBA scales favorably up to frequencies around 35 GHz. An overview of this work with details of the design and performance of the prototype injector, beam line, and diagnostics will be presented.
Date: October 5, 1998
Creator: Anderson, D E; Eylon, S; Henestroza, E; Houck, T L; Lidia, M; Vanecek, D L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Advanced Photon Source linac modulators PSpice simulation and upgrade.

Description: The APS linac modulators provide DC pulses to Thales 35/45-MW klystrons. The modulators are pulse forming network (PFN)-type pulsers with EMI 40-kV switch-mode charging supplies. The PFN consists of two 8-cell lines connected in parallel. EEV CX1836A thyratrons are used as discharge switches. The PSpice simulation of the modulators using OrCAD release 9.1 made it possible to find appropriate parameters of RC circuits that reduce high-frequency ringing of the pulse transformer primary voltage. In order to improve pulse top flatness (originally {+-}3%), new coils were built and installed. The coils allow discrete tuning of pulse waveforms by changing the amount of used turns. The advantage of two parallel-line PFN configurations was also used. An equivalent method using a low-voltage generator was used for PFN fine tuning.
Date: June 28, 2002
Creator: Cours, A. & Smith, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RK-TBA prototype RF source

Description: A prototype rf power source based on the Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept is being constructed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to study physics, engineering, and costing issues. The prototype is described and compared to a full scale design appropriate for driving the Next Linear Collider (NLC). Specific details of the induction core tests and pulsed power system are presented. The 1-MeV, 1.2-kA induction gun currently under construction is also described in detail.
Date: April 11, 1996
Creator: Houck, T.; Anderson, D. & Giordano, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Klystron beam-bunching lecture

Description: Electron beam current modulation in a klystron is the key phenomenon that accounts for klystron gain and rf power generation. Current modulation results from the beams` interaction with the rf fields in a cavity, and in turn is responsible for driving modulation in the next rf cavity. To understand the impact of the current modulation in a klystron, we have to understand both the mechanism leading to the generation of the current modulation and the interaction of a current-modulated electron beam with an rf cavity. The cavity interaction is subtle, because the fields in the cavity modify the bunching of the beam within the cavity itself (usually very dramatically). We will establish the necessary formalism to understand klystron bunching phenomena which can be used to describe rf accelerator cavity/beam interactions. This formalism is strictly steady-state; no transient behavior will be considered. In particular, we will discuss the following: general description of klystron operation; beam harmonic current; how beam velocity modulation induced by an rf cavity leads to current modulation in both the ballistic and space-charge dominated regimes; use of Ramo`s theorem to define the power transfer between a bunched electron beam and the cavity; general cavity model with external coupling (including an external generator if needed), used to describe the input cavity, idler cavities, and the output cavity, including the definition of beam loaded-cavity impedance. Although all these are conceptually straight-forward, they represent a fair amount of physics, and to derive some elements of the formalism from first principles requires excessive steps. Our approach will be to present a self-consistent set of equations to provide a mechanism that leads to a quantifiable description of klystron behavior; derivations for moderately complex formulas will be outlined, and a relatively complex derivation of the self-consistent set of equations can be found in the ...
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Carlsten, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department