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Passage of Solid Particles Through Rotary Cylindrical Kilns

Description: Technical paper issued by the Bureau of Mines over studies conducted on rotary kilns. As stated in the introduction, "the object of this study was to determine the factors that influence the rate of progress of crushed materials through a kiln" (p. 1). This paper includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: 1927
Creator: Sullivan, John D.; Maier, Charles G. & Ralston, Oliver C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Climbing kiln]

Description: Photograph of a climbing kiln in Shigaraki, Japan. A section of the kiln is visible in the foreground underneath a wooden roof. A hole in the kiln wall is visible in the center foreground.
Date: 1978
Creator: Gough, Ray
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

[Kiln opening]

Description: Photograph of a kiln in Shigaraki, Japan. The opening to a kiln is visible in the foreground. The opening is an archway made of bricks.
Date: 1978
Creator: Gough, Ray
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

Description: This report provides information on the energy savings, costs, and carbon dioxide emissions reductions associated with implementation of a number of technologies and measures applicable to the cement industry. The technologies and measures include both state-of-the-art measures that are currently in use in cement enterprises worldwide as well as advanced measures that are either only in limited use or are near commercialization. This report focuses mainly on retrofit measures using commercially available technologies, but many of these technologies are applicable for new plants as well. Where possible, for each technology or measure, costs and energy savings per tonne of cement produced are estimated and then carbon dioxide emissions reductions are calculated based on the fuels used at the process step to which the technology or measure is applied. The analysis of cement kiln energy-efficiency opportunities is divided into technologies and measures that are applicable to the different stages of production and various kiln types used in China: raw materials (and fuel) preparation; clinker making (applicable to all kilns, rotary kilns only, vertical shaft kilns only); and finish grinding; as well as plant wide measures and product and feedstock changes that will reduce energy consumption for clinker making. Table 1 lists all measures in this report by process to which they apply, including plant wide measures and product or feedstock changes. Tables 2 through 8 provide the following information for each technology: fuel and electricity savings per tonne of cement; annual operating and capital costs per tonne of cement or estimated payback period; and, carbon dioxide emissions reductions for each measure applied to the production of cement. This information was originally collected for a report on the U.S. cement industry (Worrell and Galitsky, 2004) and a report on opportunities for China's cement kilns (Price and Galitsky, in press). The information provided ...
Date: January 31, 2008
Creator: Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina & Price, Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar lumber kiln. Final report

Description: The purpose of this project was to establish design parameters for the construction of small scale (1000 board foot capacity) lumber drying kiln which derives its thermal energy from the sun. Results of a six month monitoring period are presented, as well as second generation design considerations and simplified control logic. (LEW)
Date: January 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aluminum: Aluminum Scrap Decoater

Description: NICE3 and the Philip Services Corporation are cost-sharing a demonstration project to decoat metal using indirect-fired controlled-atmosphere (IDEX) kilns, which can both process solid organics such as rubber and plastics, and minimize dust formation and emission of volatile organic compounds. The publication explains how this cost-effective, two-step system operates.
Date: January 29, 1999
Creator: Blazek, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated thermal treatment system study. Phase 2. Addendum system A8

Description: This is an addendum to the Integrated Treatment System Study - Phase 2 Results report. This addendum describes the technology and the operation of System A-8, Rotary Kiln, Air Combustion Gas, Dry-Wet APC, and Grout Stabilization. A process flow diagram, functional allocation diagrams, and plan views and perspective views for this system are attached. Detailed cost information for this subsystem is reported in Appendix A of this addendum.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Biagi, C.; Teheranian, B.; Quapp, W.J. & Schwinkendorf, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial Evaporation and Drying of Fruits

Description: This bulletin gives methods and instructions for drying and evaporating fruits. Among the methods discussed are drying by kiln, artificial heat, and the sun. Details for market preparation are also provided. Apples, peaches, pears, cherries, prunes, apricots, and berries are fruits which may be dried.
Date: 1917
Creator: Beattie, James H. (James Herbert), b. 1882 & Gould, H. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: During this reporting period, the debinding and off-gassing furnace was switched from a vacuum furnace to a conventional kiln to solve the HIP can expansion problem during high temperature off-gassing, which caused disc distortion. Two 6.5 inch discs were produced. Both looked acceptable and one was machined. It was found that the disc hub section was little bit thin and micro cracks were seen along the disc radial directions.
Date: March 22, 2004
Creator: Huang, Xiaodi & Gertsch, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carpet As An Alternative Fuel in Cement Kilns

Description: Approximately 5 billion lbs of carpet will be removed from buildings in the US each year for the foreseeable future. This carpet is potentially a valuable resource because it contains plastic in the face of the carpet that can be re-used. However, there are many different types of carpet, and at least four major different plastics used to make the face. The face is woven through a backing fabric and held in place by a “glue” that is in most cases a latex cross-linked polymer which is heavily loaded with chalk (calcium carbonate). This backing has almost no value as a recycled material. In addition, carpet is a bulky material that is difficult to handle and ship and must be kept dry. It would be of significant benefit to the public if this stream of material could be kept out of landfills and some of its potential value unlocked by having high volume alternatives for recycled carpet use. The research question that this project investigated was whether carpet could be used as a fuel in a cement kiln. If this could be done successfully, there is significant capacity in the US cement industry to absorb carpet and use it as a fuel. Cement kilns could serve as a way to stimulate carpet collection and then side streams be taken for higher value uses. The research demonstrated that carpet was technically a suitable fuel, but was unable to conclude that the overall system could be economically feasible at this time with the constraints placed on the project by using an existing system for feeding the kiln. Collection and transportation were relatively straightforward, using an existing collector who had the capacity to collect high volumes of material. The shredding of the carpet into a suitable form for feeding was more challenging, but ...
Date: February 6, 2007
Creator: Realff, Matthew J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar kiln demonstraction project. Semi-annual progress report. [Lumber dryer]

Description: Drawings for the solar lumber predrier demonstration project for Sherwood Forest products Corp. in Waverly, Ohio, are presented. Drawings are included for the site plan, foundation plan, floor plan, framing plan, and structural plan. Project status is outlined: site development work was initiated during the late fall of 1980 and some materials for the project have been acquired. (WHK)
Date: January 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reverse engineering the ancient ceramic technology based on X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy

Description: We present results of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe analyses of ancient ceramic cross-sections aiming at deciphering the different firing protocols used for their production. Micro-focused XRF elemental mapping, Fe chemical mapping and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy were performed on pre-sigillata ceramics from southern Gaul, and terra Sigillata vessels from Italy and southern Gaul. Pieces from the different workshops and regions showed significant difference in the starting clay material, clay conditioning and kiln firing condition. By contrast, sherds from the same workshop exhibited more subtle differences and possible misfirings. Understanding the precise firing conditions and protocols would allow recreation of kilns for various productions. Furthermore, evolution and modification of kiln design would shed some light on how ancient potters devised solutions to diverse technological problems they encountered.
Date: July 6, 2011
Creator: Sciau, Philippe; Leon, Yoanna; Goudeau, Philippe; Fakra, Sirine C.; Webb, Sam & Mehta, Apurva
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Space Heaters, Computers, Cell Phone Chargers: How Plugged In AreCommercial Buildings?

Description: Evidenceof electric plug loads in commercial buildings isvisible everyday: space heaters, portable fans, and the IT technician'stwo monitors connected to one PC. The Energy Information Administrationestimates that office and miscellaneous equipment together will consume2.18 quads in 2006, nearly 50 percent of U.S. commercial electricity use.Although the importance of commercial plug loads is documented, its verynature (diverse product types, products not installed when buildinginitially constructed, and products often hidden in closets) makes itdifficult to accurately count and categorize the end use.We auditedsixteen buildings in three cities (San Francisco, Atlanta, Pittsburgh)including office, medical and education building types. We inventoriedthe number and types of office and miscellaneous electric equipment aswell as estimated total energy consumption due to these product types. Intotal, we audited approximately 4,000 units of office equipment and 6,000units of miscellaneous equipment and covered a diverse range of productsranging from electric pencil sharpeners with a unit energy consumption(UEC) of 1 kWh/yr to a kiln with a UEC of 7,000 kWh/yr. Our paperpresents a summary of the density and type of plug load equipment foundas well as the estimated total energy consumption of the equipment.Additionally, we present equipment trends observed and provide insightsto how policy makers can target energy efficiency for this growing enduse.
Date: February 28, 2007
Creator: Sanchez, Marla; Webber, Carrie; Brown, Richard; Busch, John; Pinckard, Margaret & Roberson, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

Description: China's cement industry, which produced 1,388 million metric tons (Mt) of cement in 2008, accounts for almost half of the world's total cement production. Nearly 40% of China's cement production is from relatively obsolete vertical shaft kiln (VSK) cement plants, with the remainder from more modern rotary kiln cement plants, including plants equipped with new suspension pre-heater and pre-calciner (NSP) kilns. Shandong Province is the largest cement-producing Province in China, producing 10% of China's total cement output in 2008. This report documents an analysis of the potential to improve the energy efficiency of NSP kiln cement plants in Shandong Province. Sixteen NSP kiln cement plants were surveyed regarding their cement production, energy consumption, and current adoption of 34 energy-efficient technologies and measures. Plant energy use was compared to both domestic (Chinese) and international best practice using the Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-Cement). This benchmarking exercise indicated an average technical potential primary energy savings of 12% would be possible if the surveyed plants operated at domestic best practice levels in terms of energy use per ton of cement produced. Average technical potential primary energy savings of 23% would be realized if the plants operated at international best practice levels. Energy conservation supply curves for both fuel and electricity savings were then constructed for the 16 surveyed plants. Using the bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency potential for the studied cement plants in 2008 is estimated to be 373 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 16% of total electricity use in the 16 surveyed cement plants in 2008. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 915 GWh, which accounts for 40% of total electricity use in the studied plants in 2008. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows the total technical fuel efficiency potential equal to 7,949 ...
Date: October 1, 2009
Creator: Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lu, Hongyou & Wang, Lan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Develop apparatus and process for second-stage drying. Final technical report, September 26, 1994--September 27, 1996

Description: The final technical report for this project contains detailed technical results for the various tasks performed in the projects. The project scope was to develop an apparatus and process for second-stage drying of softwoods, such as southern yellow pine, for construction lumber. The focus of the project was on increasing the efficiency of high-temperature drying. The project tasks were: (1) computer simulation refinement and extension of the theory to commercial-sized kilns, (2) detailed heat exchanger equipment design, (3) pilot-scale design and fabrication, (4) experimental evaluation of the pilot-scale system, and (5) preliminary design of a prototype system. The effort on this project has been continuous and productive in gaining a better understanding of the processes involved in the drying of softwoods. 19 refs., 41 figs., 13 tabs.
Date: January 3, 1997
Creator: Taylor, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

Description: This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining.
Date: October 22, 2001
Creator: Keiser, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The objective of the project entitled ''Utilization of Lightweight Materials Made from Coal Gasification Slags'' was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of manufacturing low-unit-weight products from coal gasification slags which can be used as substitutes for conventional lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates. In Phase I, the technology developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates from slag (termed SLA) was applied to produce a large batch (10 tons) of expanded slag using pilot direct-fired rotary kilns and a fluidized bed calciner. The expanded products were characterized using basic characterization and application-oriented tests. Phase II involved the demonstration and evaluation of the use of expanded slag aggregates to produce a number of end-use applications including lightweight roof tiles, lightweight precast products (e.g., masonry blocks), structural concrete, insulating concrete, loose fill insulation, and as a substitute for expanded perlite and vermiculite in horticultural applications. Prototypes of these end-use applications were made and tested with the assistance of commercial manufacturers. Finally, the economics of expanded slag production was determined and compared with the alternative of slag disposal. Production of value-added products from SLA has a significant potential to enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are considered.
Date: July 1, 2001
Creator: Choudhry, Vas; Kwan, Stephen & Hadley, Steven R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department