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NAD+-Dependent 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase from Swine Kidney: Characterization and Kinetic Mechanism

Description: Cytoplasmic 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase from swine kidney was purified to specific activity of 1.2 U per mg protein, by chromatographic techniques. Native molecular weight of enzyme was estimated at 45,000. Enzyme was inhibited by sulfhydryls, diuretics, and various fatty acids. Substrate studies indicated NAD+ specificity and ability to catabolize prostaglandins, except prostaglandin B and thromboxane B. Initial velocity studies gave intersecting plots conforming to a sequential mechanism. 15-keto-prostaglandin exhibited linear noncompetitive production inhibition with respect to either prostaglandin or NAD+; NAD yielded linear competitive production inhibition with respect to NADH. Results, and those of dead-end inhibition and alternated substrate studies, are consistent with an ordered Bi-Bi mechanism: NAD+ is added first, then prostaglandin; then 15-keto-rostaglandin is released, then NADH.
Date: December 1979
Creator: Kung-Chao, Diana T.-Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries


Description: Accelerated heavy particles are candidates for use in cancer therapy. The primary purpose of this investigation was to study the dose-effect relationships for asynchronous human kidney T-1 cells at various values of residual range for monoenergetic beams of carbon 9400 MeV/amu), neon (425 MeV/amu), and argon (570 MeV/amu. The 'track segment' method of exposure was used to minimize variations in the distribution of energy transfer events; secondary fragments produced by the particles in their passage through matter were, however, unavoidably included.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Blakely, E.A.; Tobias, C.A.; Yang, T.C.H.; Smith, K.C. & Lyman, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Autofluorescence dynamics during reperfusion following long-term renal ischemia in a rat model

Description: Optical properties of near-surface kidney tissue were monitored in order to assess response during reperfusion to long (20 minutes) versus prolonged (150 minutes) ischemia in an in vivo rat model. Specifically, autofluorescence images of the exposed surfaces of both the normal and the ischemic kidneys were acquired during both injury and reperfusion alternately under 355 nm and 266 nm excitations. The temporal profile of the emission of the injured kidney during the reperfusion phase under 355 nm excitation was normalized to that under 266 nm as a means to account for changes in tissue optical properties independent of ischemia as well as changes in the illumination/collection geometrical parameters in future clinical implementation of this technique using a hand-held probe. The scattered excitation light signal was also evaluated as a reference signal and found to be inadequate. Characteristic time constants were extracted using fit to a relaxation model and found to have larger mean values following 150 minutes of injury. The mean values were then compared with the outcome of a chronic survival study where the control kidney had been removed. Rat kidneys exhibiting longer time constants were much more likely to fail. This may lead to a method to assess kidney viability and predict its ability to recover in the initial period following transplantation or resuscitation.
Date: February 8, 2008
Creator: Raman, R N; Pivetti, C D; Matthews, D L; Troppmann, C & Demos, S G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The sequence and analysis of duplication rich human chromosome 16

Description: Human chromosome 16 features one of the highest levels of segmentally duplicated sequence among the human autosomes. We report here the 78,884,754 base pairs of finished chromosome 16 sequence, representing over 99.9% of its euchromatin. Manual annotation revealed 880 protein-coding genes confirmed by 1,637 aligned transcripts, 19 tRNA genes, 341 pseudogenes, and 3 RNA pseudogenes. These genes include metallothionein, cadherin, and iroquois gene families, as well as the disease genes for polycystic kidney disease and acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Several large-scale structural polymorphisms spanning hundreds of kilobase pairs were identified and result in gene content differences among humans. While the segmental duplications of chromosome 16 are enriched in the relatively gene poor pericentromere of the p-arm, some are involved in recent gene duplication and conversion events likely to have had an impact on the evolution of primates and human disease susceptibility.
Date: April 6, 2005
Creator: Martin, J; Han, C; Gordon, L A; Terry, A; Prabhakar, S; She, X et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preparation of Single Cells for Imaging Mass Spectrometry

Description: Characterizing chemical changes within single cells is important for determining fundamental mechanisms of biological processes that will lead to new biological insights and improved disease understanding. Imaging biological systems with mass spectrometry (MS) has gained popularity in recent years as a method for creating precise chemical maps of biological samples. In order to obtain high-quality mass spectral images that provide relevant molecular information about individual cells, samples must be prepared so that salts and other cell-culture components are removed from the cell surface and the cell contents are rendered accessible to the desorption beam. We have designed a cellular preparation protocol for imaging MS that preserves the cellular contents for investigation and removes the majority of the interfering species from the extracellular matrix. Using this method, we obtain excellent imaging results and reproducibility in three diverse cell types: MCF7 human breast cancer cells, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts. This preparation technique allows routine imaging MS analysis of cultured cells, allowing for any number of experiments aimed at furthering scientific understanding of molecular processes within individual cells.
Date: October 24, 2007
Creator: Berman, E S; Fortson, S L; Kulp, K S; Checchi, K D; Wu, L; Felton, J S et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isolation and Characterization of Two Enzyme Proteins Catalyzing Oxido-Reduction at C-9 and C-15 of Prostaglandins from Swine Kidney

Description: Two swine kidney proteins (PI 4.8 and 5.8) both possessing 9-prostaglandin ketoreductase (9-PGKR) and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) activities were purified to homogeneity. Purification increased specific activities in parallel. Molecular weight, subunit size, amino acid composition, coenzyme and substrate specificity and antigenicity of both proteins were similar. Gel filtration and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis molecular weights of 29,500 and 29,000, respectively, suggested a single subunit. Although a variety of prostaglandins served as substrates, the best for 15-PGDH was PGB, while PGA_1-GSH showed the lowest Km for 9-PGKR. Rabbit antibody against the PI 5.8 protein crossreacted with both purified renal enzymes and with extracts from rat spleen, lung, heart, aorta, and liver.
Date: December 1980
Creator: Chang, David Guey-Bin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Permeability of the Kidney Capillaries to Narrow-Range Macromolecular Dextran Fractions

Description: Recent investigations into the permeability of the kidney capillaries have produced conflicting reports. This study was an attempt to better describe the permeability of the kidney capillaries by using narrow-range macromolecular dextran fractions in four molecular sizes: MW 61,400, MW 77,000, MW 118,000, and MW 147,000. Permeability was measured by dextran concentration differences in plasma and kidney lymph. Permeability decreased as the dextran molecular weight increased. Molecular weights 61,400 and 77,000 penetrated into the kidney lymph. Molecular weight 118,000 exhibited greater difficulty in penetrating to the lymph. The largest fraction penetrated into the kidney lymph with greatest difficulty. Plasma expansion by saline infusion increased the permeability of all dextran fractions.
Date: August 1979
Creator: Wooldridge, Clayton Bradley
Partner: UNT Libraries

{sup 99}Tc bioassay by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

Description: A means of analyzing {sup 99}Tc in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been developed. Historically, {sup 99}Tc analysis was based on the radiometric detection of the 293 keV E{sub Max} beta decay product by liquid scintillation or gas flow proportional counting. In a urine matrix, the analysis of{sup 99}Tc is plagued with many difficulties using conventional radiometric methods. Difficulties originate during chemical separation due to the volatile nature of Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7} or during radiation detection due to color or chemical quenching. A separation scheme for {sup 99}Tc detection by ICP-MS is given and is proven to be a sensitive and robust analytical alternative. A comparison of methods using radiometric and mass quantitation of {sup 99}Tc has been conducted in water, artificial urine, and real urine matrices at activity levels between 700 and 2,200 dpm/L. Liquid scintillation results based on an external standard quench correction and a quench curve correction method are compared to results obtained by ICP-MS. Each method produced accurate results, however the precision of the ICP-MS results is superior to that of liquid scintillation results. Limits of detection (LOD) for ICP-MS and liquid scintillation detection are 14.67 and 203.4 dpm/L, respectively, in a real urine matrix. In order to determine the basis for the increased precision of the ICP-MS results, the detection sensitivity for each method is derived and measured. The detection sensitivity for the {sup 99}Tc isotope by ICP-MS is 2.175 x 10{sup {minus}7} {+-} 8.990 x 10{sup {minus}9} and by liquid scintillation is 7.434 x 10{sup {minus}14} {+-} 7.461 x 10{sup {minus}15}. A difference by seven orders of magnitude between the two detection systems allows ICP-MS samples to be analyzed for a period of 15 s compared to 3,600 s by liquid scintillation counting with a lower LOD.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Lewis, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Implications of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Medical Technology: Background Paper 2: Case Studies of Medical Technologies: Case Study 1: Formal Analysis, Policy Formulation, and End-Stage Renal Disease

Description: A study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that analyzes "two instances of the use of formal analysis in the formulation of Federal Government policy for end-stage renal disease (ESRD)" (p. 3).
Date: April 1981
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of Liver Function in Experimental Animals With Special Reference to Radiation and Metal Exposure

Description: Report discussing experiments investigating the effects of radiation and metal toxicity on the function of the liver, kidneys, adrenals, and bone marrow of experimental animals.
Date: July 31, 1947
Creator: Schwartz, Samuel.; Schneider, Lorraine; Porter, Lillie Mae; Tinsley, Mary & Wallace, Jean
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of Renal Ischemia By Optical Spectroscopy

Description: Introduction: No reliable method currently exists for quantifying the degree of warm ischemia in kidney grafts prior to transplantation. We describe a method for evaluating pretransplant warm ischemia time using optical spectroscopic methods. Methods: Lewis rat kidney vascular pedicles were clamped unilaterally in vivo for 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 or 120 minutes; 8 animals were studied at each time point. Injured and contra-lateral control kidneys were then flushed with Euro-Collins solution, resected and placed on ice. 335 nm excitation autofluorescence as well as cross polarized light scattering images were taken of each injured and control kidney using filters of various wavelengths. The intensity ratio of the injured to normal kidneys was compared to ischemia time. Results: Autofluorescence intensity ratios through a 450 nm filter and light scattering intensity ratios through an 800 nm filter both decreased significantly with increasing ischemia time (p < 0.0001 for each method, one-way ANOVA). All adjacent and non-adjacent time points between 0 and 90 minutes were distinguishable using one of these two modalities by Fisher's PLSD. Conclusions: Optical spectroscopic methods can accurately quantify warm ischemia time in kidneys that have been subsequently hypothermically preserved. Further studies are needed to correlate results with physiological damage and posttransplant performance.
Date: January 7, 2004
Creator: Fitzgerald, J T; Demos, S; Michalopoulou, A; Pierce, J L & Troppmann, C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spectroscopic Monitoring of Kidney Tissue Ischemic Injury

Description: Noninvasive evaluation of tissue viability of donor kidneys used for transplantation is an issue that current technology is not able to address. In this work, we explore optical spectroscopy for its potential to assess the degree of ischemic damage in kidney tissue. We hypothesized that ischemic damage to kidney tissue will give rise to changes in its optical properties which in turn may be used to asses the degree of tissue injury. The experimental results demonstrate that the autofluorescence intensity of the injured kidney is decreasing as a function of time exposed to ischemic injury. Changes were also observed in the NIR light scattering intensities most probably arising from changes due to injury and death of the tissue.
Date: March 11, 2004
Creator: Demos, S G; Fitzgerald, J T; Michalopoulou, A P & Troppmann, C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, 2008 Annual Report.

Description: The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program is designed to rapidly increase numbers of Chinook salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation in Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and upper Grande Ronde River (GR). Natural parr are captured and reared to adulthood in captivity, spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Presmolt rearing was initially conducted at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LFH) but parr collected in 2003 and later were reared at Wallowa Fish Hatchery (WFH). Post-smolt rearing is conducted at Bonneville Fish Hatchery (BOH - freshwater) and at Manchester Research Station (MRS - saltwater). The CC and LR programs are being terminated, as these populations have achieved the goal of a consistent return of 150 naturally spawning adults, so the 2005 brood year was the last brood year collected for theses populations. The Grande Ronde River program continued with 300 fish collected each year. Currently, we are attempting to collect 150 natural parr and incorporate 150 parr collected as eggs from females with low ELISA levels from the upper Grande Ronde River Conventional Hatchery Program. This is part of a comparison of two methods of obtaining fish for a captive broodstock program: natural fish vs. those spawned in captivity. In August 2007, we collected 152 parr (BY 2006) from the upper Grande Ronde River and also have 155 Grande Ronde River parr (BY 2006) that were hatched from eyed eggs at LFH. During 2008, we were unable to collect natural parr from the upper Grande Ronde River. Therefore, we obtained 300 fish from low ELISA females from the upper Grande ...
Date: March 31, 2009
Creator: Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Donald & Gee, Sally
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 1998: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 1998-2000.

Description: The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon collection and spawning began in 1998. A total of 114 fish were collected from Johnson Creek and 54 fish (20 males and 34 females) were retained for Broodstock. All broodstock were transported to Lower Snake River Compensation Plan's South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility, operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. The remaining 60 fish were released to spawn naturally. An estimated 155,870 eggs from Johnson Creek chinook spawned at the South Fork Salmon River facility were transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for rearing. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,871. Approximately 20,500 eggs from females with high levels of Bacterial Kidney Disease were culled. This, combined with green-egg to eyed-egg survival of 62%, resulted in about 84,000 eyed eggs produced in 1998. Resulting juveniles were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery in 1999. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags and 8,043 were also PIT tagged. A total of 78,950 smolts were transported from the McCall Fish Hatchery and released directly into Johnson Creek on March 27, 28, 29, and 30, 2000.
Date: May 1, 2003
Creator: Daniel, Mitch & Gebhards, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.

Description: During 2002, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 328) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 308) to establish brood year 2002 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared at the Eagle Fish Hatchery, Eagle, Idaho (Eagle). Juveniles collected in 2000 were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to being transferred to the NOAA Fisheries, Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington (Manchester) for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 203 individuals from the WFYF and 379 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 107 individuals from the LEM, 167 from the WFYF, and 82 from the EFSR. This was the second year maturing adults were held on chilled water at Eagle to test if water temperature manipulations could advance spawn timing. Adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) temperature groups while at Eagle. Forty-seven mature females from the LEM (19 chilled, 16 ambient, and 12 ambient not included in the temperature study) were spawned at Eagle with 42 males in 2002. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage averaged 66.5% and did not differ significantly between the temperature groups. Personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe placed a total of 47,977 eyed-eggs from these crosses in in-stream incubators. Mature adults (N = 215 including 56 precocial males) were released into the WFYF to evaluate ...
Date: November 1, 2003
Creator: Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine & James, Chris
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Escapement and Productivity of Spring Chinook and Summer Steelhead in the John Day River Basin, Technical Report 2004-2005.

Description: The objectives are: (1) Estimate number and distribution of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds and spawners in the John Day River subbasin; and (2) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates (SAR) and out-migrant abundance for spring Chinook and summer steelhead O. mykiss and life history characteristics of summer steelhead. Spawning ground surveys for spring (stream-type) Chinook salmon were conducted in four main spawning areas (Mainstem, Middle Fork, North Fork, and Granite Creek System) and seven minor spawning areas (South Fork, Camas Creek, Desolation Creek, Trail Creek, Deardorff Creek, Clear Creek, and Big Creek) in the John Day River basin during August and September of 2005. Census surveys included 298.2 river kilometers (88.2 rkm within index, 192.4 rkm additional within census, and 17.6 rkm within random survey areas) of spawning habitat. We observed 902 redds and 701 carcasses including 227 redds in the Mainstem, 178 redds in the Middle Fork, 420 redds in the North Fork, 62 redds in the Granite Creek System, and 15 redds in Desolation Creek. Age composition of carcasses sampled for the entire basin was 1.6% age 3, 91.2% age 4, and 7.1% age 5. The sex ratio was 57.4% female and 42.6% male. Significantly more females than males were observed in the Granite Creek System. During 2005, 82.3% of female carcasses sampled had released all of their eggs. Significantly more pre-spawn mortalities were observed in Granite Creek. Nine (1.3%) of 701 carcasses were of hatchery origin. Of 298 carcasses examined, 4.0% were positive for the presence of lesions. A significantly higher incidence of gill lesions was found in the Granite Creek System when compared to the rest of the basin. Of 114 kidney samples tested, two (1.8%) had clinical BKD levels. Both infected fish were age-4 females in the Middle Fork. All samples tested for IHNV were ...
Date: April 1, 2007
Creator: Wilson, Wayne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New insights into potential functions for the protein 4.1superfamily of proteins in kidney epithelium

Description: Members of the protein 4.1 family of adapter proteins are expressed in a broad panel of tissues including various epithelia where they likely play an important role in maintenance of cell architecture and polarity and in control of cell proliferation. We have recently characterized the structure and distribution of three members of the protein 4.1 family, 4.1B, 4.1R and 4.1N, in mouse kidney. We describe here binding partners for renal 4.1 proteins, identified through the screening of a rat kidney yeast two-hybrid system cDNA library. The identification of putative protein 4.1-based complexes enables us to envision potential functions for 4.1 proteins in kidney: organization of signaling complexes, response to osmotic stress, protein trafficking, and control of cell proliferation. We discuss the relevance of these protein 4.1-based interactions in kidney physio-pathology in the context of their previously identified functions in other cells and tissues. Specifically, we will focus on renal 4.1 protein interactions with beta amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP), 14-3-3 proteins, and the cell swelling-activated chloride channel pICln. We also discuss the functional relevance of another member of the protein 4.1 superfamily, ezrin, in kidney physiopathology.
Date: June 17, 2005
Creator: Calinisan, Venice; Gravem, Dana; Chen, Ray Ping-Hsu; Brittin,Sachi; Mohandas, Narla; Lecomte, Marie-Christine et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department