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Assessment of Geothermal Energy Potential Sulphurdale Geothermal Field, Sulphurdale, Utah

Description: The Sulphurdale Geothermal Field is located in Beaver County Utah, within the boundaries of the Cove Fort--Sulphurdale Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). During the past year, three wells drilled in Section 7, T-26-S, R-6-W, have produced dry steam from a fractured volcanic formation located at a depth of about 1100 feet. Two of these three wells are currently prepared to supply steam to a power plant, and one well has been plugged and abandoned. ThermaSource, Inc. was retained by Mother Earth Industries, the operator of the field, to conduct well tests and render an opinion as to the nature of the geothermal reserves and assess the commercial potential of these reserves. Because of the limited area that has been explored to date, there can be no assurance that the reserves estimate will prove accurate. Project economics are based on parameters believed to be accurate, but there is no assurance that such cash flow projections will be realized.
Date: October 1, 1984
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final Report

Description: The purpose of this study is to assess the commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 and 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstock for the production of ethanol.
Date: July 1, 1983
Creator: Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Sherwood, P.B.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Newberry exploratory slimhole

Description: During July-November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 foot exploratory slimhole (3.85 inches diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Finger, J.T. & Jacobson, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal environmental overview project

Description: The basic purpose of the Geothermal Environmental Overview Project is to summarize and assess the state of environmental issues of the top priority KGRAs from among the 37 KGRAs currently identified by the Division of Geothermal Energy as having possibility for commercial development. The objectives of the Overview Project are inventory of available data, assessment of available data, identification of data gaps, and identification of key issues. (JGB)
Date: October 25, 1977
Creator: Anspaugh, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New method for evaluating composite reservoir systems

Description: A simple new technique has been developed for evaluating interference test data in radially symmetric composite reservoirs. The technique is based on the realization that systematic variations in the apparent storage coefficient (calculated from semi-log analysis of the late-time data are indicative of a two-mobility (k/..mu..) reservoir. By analyzing variations in the apparent storage coefficient, both the mobility and size of the inner region can be calculated. The technique is particularly useful for evaluating heterogeneous geothermal systems where the intersection of several faults, or hydrothermal alteration has created a high permeability region in the center of the geothermal field. The technique is applied to an extensive interference test in the geothermal reservoir at Klamath Falls, Oregon. 7 refs., 7 figs.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Benson, S.M. & Lai, C.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quality control and assurance applied to the analysis of environmental samples collected from known geothermal sites. Final report

Description: The components of an analytical quality control and assurance program for the analysis of trace toxic and priority pollutants are reviewed in general. It is recommended that these principles be applied to develop increased confidence in a laboratory's analytical accuracy by establishing validated standard operating procedures with built in controls and internal cross checks and developing an approved standard operating procedure for quality assurance consisting of audits and appropriate documentation. It is recommended that interlaboratory comparisons be considered as a means of continually documenting analytical accuracy.
Date: January 31, 1978
Creator: Cooper, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Land-use conflicts in The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA: a preliminary study

Description: This preliminary study of potential land use conflicts of geothermal development in The Geysers region, one component of the LLL/LBL socioeconomic program, focuses on Lake County because it has most of the undeveloped resource and the least regulatory capability. The land resource is characterized in terms of its ecological, hydrological, agricultural, and recreational value; intrinsic natural hazards; and the adequacy of roads and utility systems and each factor is depicted on a map. Then those factors are analyzed for potential conflicts with both geothermal and urban development and the conflicts displayed on respective maps. A brief review of laws and methods germane to geothermal land-use regulation is included.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: O'Banion, K.; Hall, C. & Haven, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical characterization of the federal geothermal leasing and permitting program. Final report, April 18, 1978-January 31, 1979

Description: The ineffectiveness thus far in the federal geothermal leasing program is documented. Leases have been issued on only 18% of non-competitive applications on land under BLM jurisdiction and 2% of applied-for National Forest land. It has taken an average of about two years to get a lease, although the time lapses involved are extremely erratic, and many applications have been pending since January 1974, the first month applications were accepted. Some gradual improvement in BLM performance was demonstrated, however. Only about 250 competitive leases have been issued on the 50% of BLM acreage and the 2% of KGRA acreage in National Forests which has been offered. The US Geological Survey postlease permitting performance is also non-uniform in timeframes required for approvals. To some extent, this has resulted from stated lessee priority.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Beeland, G.V.; Ludington, J.A. & Schumann, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Review of the Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program

Description: Republic Geothermal, Inc., and its subcontractors have planned and executed four experimental fracture stimulation treatments under the Department of Energy-funded Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP). The 2-year program, begun in February 1979, is Ultimately to include six full-scale field hydraulic and chemical stimulation experiments in geothermal wells. This paper describes the overall program and the four treatments completed to date. The GRWSP is organized into two phases. Phase I consists of literature and theoretical studies, laboratory investigations, and numerical work. The main purpose of this work is to establish the technological bases for geothermal well stimulation design. Phase I1 will include the planning, execution, and evaluation of six well stimulation treatments which utilize the technology developed in Phase I. Two stimulation experiments were performed at the Raft River, Idaho, known geothermal resource area (KGRA) in late 1979. This is a naturally fractured, hard rock reservoir with a relatively low geothermal resource temperature 149 C {+-} (300 F{+-}). A conventional planar hydraulic fracture job was performed in Well RRGP-5 and a ''Kiel'' dendritic, or reverse flow, technique was utilized in Well RRGP-4. In mid-1980, two stimulation experiments were performed at the East Mesa, California, KGRA. The stimulation of Well 58-30 provided the first geothermal well fracturing experience in a moderate temperature, 177 C {+-} (350 F{+-}), reservoir with matrix-type rock properties. The two treatments consisted of a conventional hydraulic fracture of a deep, low-permeability zone and a mini-frac ''Kiel'' treatment of a shallow, high-permeability zone in the same well. The stimulation experiment results to date were evaluated using short-term production tests, conventional pressure transient analysis, interference pressure data, chemical and radioactive tracers, borehole acoustic televiewer surveys and numerical models. This combination of evaluation techniques yielded an interpretation of fracture geometry and productivity enhancement. However, the evaluation of artificially induced fractures ...
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Campbell, D. A.; Hanold, R. J.; Sinclair, A. R. & Vetter, O. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility and Risk Study of a Geothermal Power Plant at the Salton Sea KGRA

Description: This report contains the results of a feasibility and risk study performed by Bechtel National, Inc. and the Ben Holt Company under contract to the San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG&E). The purpose of the study was to define the most technically feasible and lowest cost near-term energy conversion process for a 50 MWe geothermal power plant at the Salton Sea known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). Using the latest information from the Geothermal This report contains the results of a feasibility and risk study performed by Bechtel National, Inc. and the Ben Holt Company under contract to the San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG&E). The purpose of the study was to define the most technically feasible and lowest cost near-term energy conversion process for a 50 MWe geothermal power plant at the Salton Sea known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). Using the latest information from the Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility (GLEF), which is currently in operation at the Salton Sea KGRA, conceptual designs, capital cost estimates, and busbar energy production cost estimates were developed for power plants employing several versions of flashed steam and flash binary energy conversion processes. A power plant and well field risk analysis was also performed. The results show that while the flashed steam plant has the advantage of lower plant capital cost, the brine flow rate required by the binary plant is lower. This results in busbar energy production costs for the two plants that are the same. However, the risk analysis indicates that the technical risks are less for the flashed steam further work at the GLEF. The version of the flashed steam process with lowest energy production cost was the dual-flash process with three 50 percent capacity trains of flash tanks with unmodified brine. Thus, it was determined that GLEF testing in ...
Date: May 10, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Final Technical Report covering siting, permitting, and drilling two geothermal temperature gradient holes. This report provides a summary of geotechnical and geophysical data that led to the siting, drilling, and completion of 2 temperature gradient holes in the geothermal anomaly at Lightning Dock Known Geothermal Resource Area in the Animas Valley of New Mexico. Included in this report is a summary of institutional factors and data defining the well drilling process and acquiring drilling permits. Data covering the results of the drilling and temperature logging of these two holes are provided. The two gradient holes were sited on federal geothermal leases owned by Lightning Dock Geothermal, Inc. and both holes were drilled into lakebed sediments some distance from the intense shallow geothermal anomaly located in the eastern half of Section 7, Township 25 South, Range 19 West.
Date: December 29, 2003
Creator: A.Cunniff, Roy & Bowers, Roger L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Basin View Geothermal Heating District, Klamath Falls, Oregon: conceptual design and economic-feasibility study report

Description: The findings of a feasibility study performed for Basin View Heating District in Klamath Falls, Oregon are reported. The purpose of the study is to determine the physical, economic, and political feasibility of establishing a geothermal heating district to provide space heat to housing units in the Basin View Development of Klamath Falls. Of the several systems considered, all are physically feasible. The project is politically feasible if the owner compiles with governmental requirements. Economic feasibility is based on considerations of money value rates, tax rates and expected rates of return, which are dependent on government and money markets. For analysis a money value rate of 21% and an owner's marginal tax rate of 35% were adopted.
Date: July 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interpretation of a dipole-dipole electrical resistivity survey, Colado geothermal area, Pershing County, Nevada

Description: An electrical resistivity survey in the Colado geothermal area, Pershing County, Nevada has defined areas of low resistivity on each of five lines surveyed. Some of these areas appear to be fault controlled. Thermal fluids encountered in several drill holes support the assumption that the hot fluids may be associated with areas of low resistivity. The evidence of faulting as interpreted from modeling of the observed resistivity data is therefore particularly significant since these structures may be the conduits for the thermal fluids. Sub-allurial fault zones are interpreted to occur between stations 0 to 5 NW on Line D and on Line A between stations 4 NW and 4 SE. Fault zones are also interpreted on Line C near stations 1 NW, 1 SE, and 3 SE, and on Line E between stations 2 to 4 NW and near 1 SE. No faulting is evident under the alluvial cover on the southwest end of Line B. A deep conductive zone is noted within the mountain range on two resistivity lines. There is no definite indication that thermal fluids are associated with this resistivity feature.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Mackelprang, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selected administrative, land, and resource data for known geothermal resources areas in Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington

Description: The data are compiled from published and unpublished classification, lease-scale evaluation, and resources assessment documents prepared by the Geological Survey and are current to December 1980. The KGRA's are listed alphabetically for each state.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Burkhardt, H.E.; Brook, C.A. & Smith, F.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model study of the regional hydrogeologic regime, Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah

Description: A regional hydrogeologic model is used to investigate the potential for water recharging in the Tushar Mountains to move at depth beneath the Mineral Mountains to discharge in Milford Valley. Simulations carried out over a range of water table positions and assumed depths to a lower impermeable boundary suggest it is unlikely that the topographic configuration alone could drive such a flow system. Specific geologic conditions are necessary if interbasin flow is to occur. However, simulations based on a simplified hydrologic model of the regional geology suggest this is not the case. A regional hydraulic anisotropy greater than 10:1 (Kx/Kz) leads to interflow if the granitic Mineral Mountain pluton and the volcanics in the Tushar Mountains have similar hydraulic conductivities. If either of these units is more nearly isotropic or if the granitic rocks have a greater vertical than horizontal hydraulic conductivity, no interbasin flow is observed. On the basis of available geologic evidence, this latter case seems to be the most likely.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Smith, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LAPA: a composite indicator for prioritization of geothermal-leasing activities on federal lands in the United States

Description: Three factors, incorporating seven quantitative indicators, have been selected to represent criteria for prioritization of geothermal areas. These indicators reflect important dimensions for monitoring and estimating the contributions of particular areas to energy production goals on federal lands. Using computerized graphics and data analysis software, weighting of these indicators by experts is integrated to produce a composite indicator for evaluation of leasing activities. The selection of specific indicators for areas which have a high unleased energy potential, where the response of the private sector is positive, and where the potential delay from environmental factors is minimal is described. The development of the composite LAPA indicator and the application of fuzzy set operations for incorporation of expert judgments about the leasing process are also discussed.
Date: February 1, 1982
Creator: Yen, W.W.S.; Carbonaro, G.A. & Benson, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mapping the acid stimulation in the Beowawe geothermal field using surface electrical potentials

Description: A surface electrical potential system was fielded during the chemical stimulation of the Rossi 21-19 well in the Beowawe Geothermal Field. The technique, which measures variations in resistivity resulting from the flow of conductive fluid into the reservoir, was not only shown to be highly sensitive to the chemical treatment, but was also responsive to in situ conductive zones before any acid injection. A review of the experiment and a preliminary interpretation of the data are presented. The data provide convincing evidence that it should be possible to map the treated zone as well as the primary pretreatment in situ conductive zones.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Hart, C.M.; Engi, D. & Morris, H.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Delineation of an electrical resistivity anomaly, Malpais area, Beowawe KGRA, Eureka and Lander Counties, Nevada

Description: A simple numerical model of previously released bipole-dipole resistivity data shows the margin of the graben to be anomalously conductive below the Malpais. The conductive area has been delineated with data from a dipole-dipole resistivity survey run in April 1980 for this study. Detailed numerical models of these data define a 1250 m wide body with resistivities less than 20 ohm-m that appear to connect The Geysers and the graben boundary. The minimum depth to the conductor is interpreted to be 375 m; its depth extent is undetermined. The electrical data do not resolve whether the anomaly below the Malpais may be the product of a defunct hydrothermal system or the signature of an active system. If thermal gradient data detect an enhanced heat flow anomaly in the same area, the Malpais may be a viable geothermal exploration target within the Beowawe KGRA.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Smith, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bipole-dipole survey at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Thermal Area, Beaver County, Utah

Description: A bipole-dipole electrical resistivity survey at Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Beaver County, Utah was undertaken to evaluate the technique in a well-studied Basin and Range geothermal prospect. The major electrical characteristics of the area are clearly revealed but are not particularly descriptive of the geothermal system. More subtle variations of electrical resistivity accompanying the geothermal activity are detectable, although the influence of near-surface lateral resistivity variations imposes upon the survey design the necessity of a high station density. A useful practical step is to conduct a survey using transmitter locations and orientations which minimize the response of known features such as the resistivity boundary due to a range front fault. Survey results illustrate the effects of transmitter orientation and placement, and of subtle lateral resistivity variations. A known near-surface conductive zone is detected while no evidence is found for a deep conductive region.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Frangos, W. & Ward, S.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interpretation of interference data from the Klamath Falls, Oregon geothermal resource

Description: Data from a seven week pressure interference test in the Klamath Falls, Oregon geothermal resource have been analyzed. The data indicate that productive wells are fed by a highly permeable fracture network and that the less permeable matrix blocks contribute significantly to the reservoir storage capacity. Detailed analysis of data from two wells is presented. Data from both of the wells yield a reservoir permeability-thickness (kh) of approximately 1.3x10/sup 6/ md-ft and a storativity (phi c/sub t/h) of 6.8x10/sup -3/ ft/psi. The parameters (lambda and ..omega..), which are determined by the distribution of permeability and storativity between the matrix and fractures, vary by more than an order of magnitude. A sensitivity study shows that for these wells, the pressure transients are not very sensitive to the distribution of permeability and storativity between the fractures and matrix blocks. No hydrologic boundaries were detected during the test. This indicates that the fault which supplies hot water to the shallow hydrothermal system does not behave according to the classical model of either a barrier or constant potential boundary.
Date: November 1, 1983
Creator: Benson, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal resource development: laws and regulations

Description: The development of geothermal resources in California is becoming of increasing interest because of the large amounts of these resources in the state. In response to this interest in development, the legislature and regulatory bodies have taken actions to increase geothermal power production. The important federal and California laws on the subject are presented and discussed. Pertinent federal and state provisions are compared, and inconsistencies are discussed. An important concept that needs clarification is the manner of designating an area as a ''known geothermal resource area.'' The question of designating geothermal resource as a mineral is not completely resolved, although there is authority tending toward the finding that it is a mineral.
Date: August 25, 1977
Creator: Wharton, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal Aquatic Ecosystem Program: Geyser-Calistoga KGRA. Interim report

Description: The formulation of a study plan for assessing the impact of geothermal development in the Geysers-Calistoga KGRA upon the local aquatic ecosystem is described briefly. A program for chemically characterizing the various partitions of the streambed sediment is described. Current activities and cooperative efforts are mentioned. (MHR)
Date: October 12, 1979
Creator: Ireland, R.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precision leveling and gravity studies at the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Utah. Final report: Volume 77-9

Description: The objective of the precision leveling and gravity surveys in the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Utah, is to provide a baseline for detecting mass reduction or movement (displacement) related to injection or withdrawal of geofluids or to changes in tectonic strain, or both of these effects. The precision leveling and gravity data obtained during the period September 1975 through October 31, 1977 are presented, and interpretations of the data are made. (MHR)
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Cook, K.L. & Carter, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department