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An electromagnetic helical undulator for polarized x-rays

Description: Linearly and circularly polarized x-rays have been very successfully applied to the study of the properties of materials. Many applications can benefit from the availability of energy-turnable, high-brilliance x-ray beams with adjustable polarization properties. A helical undulator that can generate beams of variable (linear to circular) polarization has been designed and built by the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and the Advanced Photon Source. The first harmonic of this 12.8-cm-period device will cover the energy range from 0.4 keV to 3.5 keV. An important feature of this fully electromagnetic device is that it will allow one to generate 100% horizontally (K{sub x}=O)or vertically (K{sub y}=O) plane-polarized radiation, which will enable many experiments otherwise not technically feasible. With symmetric deflection parameters (K{sub x}=K{sub y}), the on-axis radiation will be circularly polarized, with a user-selectable handedness. The polarization can be changed at rates up to 10 Hz.
Date: October 28, 1999
Creator: Gluskin, E.; Vinokurov, N.; Tcheskidov, V.; Medvedko, A.; Evtushenko, Y. Kolomogorov, V.; Vobly, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of ion implantation and diffusion in Si

Description: Classical molecular dynamics simulations are used to study damage produced during implantation of semiconductors with different ion masses and energies between 1-25 keV. The time scale for these simulations is only on the order of ns, and therefore problems like transient enhanced diffusion of dopants or formation of extended defects can not be studied with these models. Monte Carlo simulations, including as input the results obtained from molecular dynamics calculations, are used to extend the simulation time, and in particular, to study processes like ion implantation and defects diffusion in semiconductors. As an example, we show results for diffusion of the damage produced by implantation of Si with 5 keV Xe ions at low doses. Results of the simulations are compared with experiments in order to validate the model.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Caturla, M-J; Diaz de la Rubia, T. & Bedrossian, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Silicon photodiode characterization from 1 eV to 10 keV

Description: Silicon photodiodes offer a number of advantages over conventional photocathode type soft x-ray detectors in pulsed power experiments. These include a nominally flat response, insensitivity to surface contamination, low voltage biasing requirements, sensitivity to low energy photons, excellent detector to detector response reproducibility, and ability to operate in poor vacuum or gas backfilled experiments. Silicon photodiodes available from International Radiation Detectors (IRD), Torrance, California have been characterized for absolute photon response from 1 eV to 10 keV photon energy, time response, and signal saturation levels. The authors have assembled individually filtered photodiodes into an array designated the XUV-7. The XUV-7 provides seven photodiodes in a vacuum leak tight, electrically isolated, low noise, high bandwidth, x-ray filtered assembly in a compact package with a 3.7 cm outside diameter. In addition they have assembled the diodes in other custom configurations as detectors for spectrometers. Their calibration measurements show factor of ten deviations from the silicon photodiode theoretical flat response due to diode sensitivity outside the center `sensitive area`. Detector response reproducibility between diodes appears to be better than 5%. Time response measurements show a 10-90% rise time of about 0.1 nanoseconds and a fall time of about 0.5 nanoseconds. Silicon photodiodes have proven to be a versatile and useful complement to the standard photocathode detectors for soft x-ray measurement and are very competitive with diamond for a number of applications.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Idzorek, G.C. & Bartlett, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron energy spectra of H{sup {minus}} autodetaching states resulting from collisions of H{sup {minus}} with He at 1 keV

Description: Electron energy spectra for H{sup {minus}} autodetaching states resulting from collisions H{sup {minus}} with He at 1 keV are rigorously calculated by including couplings between doubly excited states and continuum states and their interference with direct detachment processes. An energy sampling procedure, based on the Gauss quadratures, is used to discretize continuum states. The present theoretical result, for the first time, clarifies mechanisms of excitation to doubly excited states, quantitatively reproduces the experimental spectra first observed by Risley and Geballe in 1974, separates the contributions from each of three autodetaching states, and identifies the cause of the interference between autodetaching and direct-detaching excitation channels.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Kimura, M.; Sato, H.; Hino, K. & Matsuzawa, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Silicon photodiode soft x-ray detectors for pulsed power experiments

Description: Silicon photodiodes offer a number of advantages over conventional photocathode type soft x-ray detectors in pulsed power experiments. These include a nominally flat response, insensitivity to surface contamination, low voltage biasing requirements, sensitivity to low energy photons, excellent detector to detector response reproducibility, and ability to operate in poor vacuum or gas backfilled experiments. Silicon photodiodes available from International Radiation Detectors (IRD), Torrance, California have been characterized for absolute photon response from 1 eV to 10 keV photon energy, time response, and signal saturation levels. The authors calibration measurements show factor of ten deviations from the silicon photodiode theoretical flat response due to diode sensitivity outside the center `sensitive area`. Detector response reproducibility between diodes appears to be better than 5%. Time response measurements show a 10-90% rise time of about 0.1 nanoseconds and a fall time of about 0.5 nanoseconds.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Idzorek, G.C. & Bartlett, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Near-field stacking of zone plates in the x-ray range.

Description: We use Fresnel zone plates as focusing optics in hard x-ray microprobes at energies typically between 6 and 30 keV. While a spatial resolution close to 0.1 {micro}m can currently be achieved, highest spatial resolution is obtained only at reduced diffraction efficiency due to manufacturing limitations with respect to the aspect ratios of zone plates. To increase the effective thickness of zone plates, we are stacking several identical zone plates on-axis in close proximity. If the zone plates are aligned laterally to within better than an outermost zone width and longitudinally within the optical near-field, they form a single optical element of larger effective thickness and improved efficiency and reduced background from undiffracted radiation. This allows us both to use zone plates of moderate outermost zone width at energies of 30 keV and above, as well as to increase the efficiency of zone plates with small outermost zone widths particularly for the energy range of 6-15 keV.
Date: September 20, 2002
Creator: Maser, J.; Lai, B.; Yun, W.; Shastri, S. D.; Cai, Z.; Rodrigues, W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of Low-Energy (6-30 keV) Response of Polish TLDs (MTS-N, MCP-N) with Synchrotron Radiation and Determination of Some Fundamental TLD Quantities

Description: Relative to <sup>137</sup>Cs gamma rays, the response of MTS-N (<sup>Nat</sup>LiF:Mg,Ti-0.04 cm thick) increased from 0.4 to 1.4 between x-ray energies of 6 and 30 keV and that of MCP-N (<sup>Nat</sup>Lif:Mg, Cu, P-0.04 cm thick) increased from 0.02 to 1.2 between 6 and 26 keV. A mathematical model for TLD response was used with measured responses to determine overall TLD efficiency C(k) and efficiency relative to <sup>137</sup>Cs. The effective energy attenuation coefficient {mu}(k) and light attenuation coefficient f were also determined experimentally. The relative efficiency of MTS-N increased from 0.66 to 1.30 between 6 and 30 keV and that of MCP-N increased from 0.37 to 0.99 between 6 and 26 keV.
Date: November 17, 1998
Creator: Ipe, Nisy E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculation of resonance self-shielding for {sup 235}U from 0 to 2250 eV

Description: Over the years, the evaluated {sup 235}U cross sections in the resolved energy range have been extensively revised. A major accomplishment was the first evaluation released to the ENDF/B-VI library. In that evaluation, the low energy range bound was lowered to 10{sup {minus}5} eV, and the upper limit raised to 2,250 eV. Several high-resolution measurements in conjunction with the Bayesian computer code SAMMY were used to perform the analysis of the {sup 235}U resonance parameters. SAMMY uses the Reich-Moore formalism, which is adequate for representing neutron cross sections of fissile isotopes, and a generalized least-squares (Bayes) technique for determining the energy-dependence of the neutron cross sections. Recently a re-evaluation of the {sup 235}U cross section in the resolved resonance region was completed. This evaluation has undergone integral tests in various laboratories throughout the USA and abroad. The evaluation has been accepted for inclusion in ENDF/B-VI release 5. The intent of this work is to present results of calculations of self-shielded fission rates carried out with these resonance parameters and to compare those fission rates with experimental data. Results of this comparison study provide an assessment of the resonance parameters with respect to the calculation of self-shielded group cross sections.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Leal, L.C.; Larson, N.M.; Derrien, H. & Santos, G.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New XAFS spectroscopic investigations in the 1-2 keV region. Final report on LDRD program

Description: Until recently x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements in the 1-2 keV region remained a challenging experimental task. This was primarily due to the lack of an adequate monochromator crystal that possessed both the required x-ray properties (large d-spacing, high resolution and reflectivity) and materials properties (ultra-high vacuum (UHV) capability, damage resistance in a synchrotron radiation beam, absence of constituent element absorption edges and stability, both thermal and mechanical). Traditionally, XAFS spectra in this photon energy range have been measured in a piece-wise fashion using a combination of monochromator crystals. Very recently, we have an experimental breakthrough in XAFS spectroscopy in this soft x-ray region. This energy region is of great importance for materials and basic research since the K-edges of Na (1070 eV), Mg (1303 eV), Al (1557 eV) and Si (1839 eV), the L-edges of some 4p elements from Ga to Sr and the M-edges of the rare-earth elements fall within this energy window of the electromagnetic spectrum. YB{sub 66}, a complex binary semiconducting yttrium boride having a cubic crystal structure with a lattice constant of 23.44 {angstrom} has been singled out as a candidate monochromator material for synchrotron radiation in the 1-2 keV region. There is no intrinsic absorption by the constituent elements in this region, which can adequately be dispersed by the (400) reflection having a 2d value of 11.76 {angstrom}. In terms of vacuum compatibility, resistance to radiation damage, thermal and mechanical stability, YB{sub 66} satisfies all the material requirements for use as a monochromator in a synchrotron beam. In the past few years, LLNL in collaboration with a number of other research institutes has pioneered the development of this unique man-made crystal for use as soft x-ray monochromator with synchrotron light sources for materials science studies. 23 refs., 4 figs.
Date: March 1996
Creator: Wong, J.; Froba, M. & Tamura, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Response of 100% internal quantum efficiency silicon photodiodes to low energy electrons and ions

Description: Silicon photodiodes with only a 60 {angstrom} SiO{sub 2} front window are used in fusion and space research for detection of XUV photons with high quantum efficiency. In these environments, plasma ions and electrons can deposit energy in the active layer of the photodiode and influence the XUV measurement. Here, we characterize the response of these photodiodes to bombardment of 1-20 keV electrons and 30 keV H, H{sub 2}, Ne, and Ar. For electrons, the responsivity is 0.24 A/W, inferring an electron-hole pair creation energy of 4.2 eV. The measured responsivity to 30 keV H{sub 2}{sup +} is approximately 0.2 A/W, corresponding to an electron- hole pair creation energy of 5 eV. Photodiode damage due to ion bombardment is observed though an exponential decrease of the responsivity with ion dose. The decrease in responsivity is more rapid with increasing ion mass. Annealing of damage induced by heavy ions is observed by subsequent bombardment with protons.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Funsten, H.O.; Suszcynsky, D.M.; Korde, R. & Ritzau, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutron Total Cross Sections of {sup 235}U From Transmission Measurements in the Energy Range 2 keV to 300 keV and Statistical Model Analysis of the Data

Description: The average {sup 235}U neutron total cross sections were obtained in the energy range 2 keV to 330 keV from high-resolution transmission measurements of a 0.033 atom/b sample.1 The experimental data were corrected for the contribution of isotope impurities and for resonance self-shielding effects in the sample. The results are in very good agreement with the experimental data of Poenitz et al.4 in the energy range 40 keV to 330 keV and are the only available accurate experimental data in the energy range 2 keV to 40 keV. ENDF/B-VI evaluated data are 1.7% larger. The SAMMY/FITACS code 2 was used for a statistical model analysis of the total cross section, selected fission cross sections and data in the energy range 2 keV to 200 keV. SAMMY/FITACS is an extended version of SAMMY which allows consistent analysis of the experimental data in the resolved and unresolved resonance region. The Reich-Moore resonance parameters were obtained 3 from a SAMMY Bayesian fits of high resolution experimental neutron transmission and partial cross section data below 2.25 keV, and the corresponding average parameters and covariance data were used in the present work as input for the statistical model analysis of the high energy range of the experimental data. The result of the analysis shows that the average resonance parameters obtained from the analysis of the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those obtained in the resolved energy region. Another important result is that ENDF/B-VI capture cross section could be too small by more than 10% in the energy range 10 keV to 200 keV.
Date: May 1, 2000
Creator: Derrien, H.; Harvey, J.A.; Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C. & Wright, R.Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

R-matrix analysis of the {sup 240}Pu neutron cross sections in the thermal to 5700 eV energy range

Description: Resonance analysis of high resolution neutron transmission data and of fission cross sections were performed in the neutron energy range from the thermal regions to 5,700 eV by using the Reich-Moore Bayesian code SAMMY. The experimental data base is described and the method of analysis is given. The experimental data were carefully examined in order to identify more resonances than those found in the current evaluated data files. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters are given. A new set of the average values of the parameters is proposed, which could be used for calculation of the average cross sections in the unresolved resonance region. The resonance parameters are available IN ENDF-6 format at the national or international data centers.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Derrien, H.; Bouland, O.; Larson, N.M. & Leal, L.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Instrumentation for time-resolved dispersive studies at Advanced Photon Source beamline 1-BM

Description: We describe progress in optics and instrumentation at beamline 1-BM, designed in part for time-resolved dispersive x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements. The key optical element is a horizontally focusing curved-crystal monochromator that invokes a 4-point bending scheme and a liquid-metal cooling bath. The device has been designed for dispersive studies in the 5-24 keV range, with a horizontal focal spot size of {le}100 micrometers FWHM. To minimize thermal distortions and thermal equilibration time, the 355 {times} 32 {times} 0.8 mm crystal is nearly half submerged in a bath of Ga-In-Sn-Zn alloy, which thermally couples the crystal to the water-cooled Cu frame, while permitting the required crystal bending. Harmonic rejection, focusing schemes and the novel spectrometer positioning system will be described. For microsecond-resolution time-resolved studies, a fast CCD streak camera detector has been developed. Results from commissioning tests of the instrumentation are described. 11 refs., 4 figs.
Date: July 1996
Creator: Brauer, S. & Rodricks, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New neutron capture and transmission measurements for {sup 134,136}Ba at ORELA and their impact on s-process nucleosynthesis calculations

Description: We have made high-resolution neutron capture and transmission measurements on isotopically enriched samples of {sup 134}Ba and {sup 136}Ba at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) in the energy range from 20 eV to 500 keV. Previous measurements had a lower energy limit of 3 - 5 keV, which is too high to determine accurately the Maxwellian-averaged capture cross section at the low temperatures (kT {approx} 6 - 12 keV) favored by the most recent stellar models of the {ital s}-process. Our results for the astrophysical reaction rates are in good agreement with the most recent previous measurement at the classical {ital s}-process temperature, kT = 30 keV, but show significant differences at lower 40 temperatures. We discuss the astrophysical implications of these differences.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Koehler, P.E.; Spencer, R.R.; Winters, R.R.; Guber, K.H.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical study of the radiative capture reactions {sup 2}H(n,{gamma}){sup 3}H and {sup 2}H(p,{gamma}){sup 3}He at low energies

Description: Correlated Hyperspherical Harmonics wave functions with {Delta}-isobar admixtures obtained from realistic interactions are used to study the thermal neutron radiative capture on deuterium, and the {sup 2}H({rvec p},{gamma}){sup 3}He and p({rvec d},{gamma}){sup 3}He reactions in the center of mass energy range 0-100 keV. The nuclear electromagnetic current includes one and two-body components. Results for the {sup 2}H({rvec d},{gamma}){sup 3}H cross section and photon polarization parameter, as well as for the energy dependence of the astrophysical factor and angular distributions of the differential cross section, vector and tensor analyzing powers, and photon linear polarization coefficient of the {sup 2}H({rvec p},{gamma}){sup 3}He and p({rvec d},{gamma}){sup 3}He reactions are reported. Large effects due to two-body currents, in particular the long-range ones associated with the tensor component of the nucleon-nucleon interaction, are observed in the photon polarization parameter and vector analyzing power. Good, quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is found for all observables, with the exception of the vector analyzing power for which the calculated values underestimate the data by about 30%.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Viviani, M.; Schiavilla, R. & Kievsky, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiple scattering enhancement of x rays

Description: A Monte Carlo calculation is described for the determination of the contribution of multiple scattering to x rays scattered at 90 deg in various thicknesses of beryllium and carbon plates. The plates are inclined at an angle of 45 deg to the incident radiation. The photon energy range considered is 1 keV to 100 keV. Scatterer thicknesses range from 0.0046 g/cm/sup 2/ to 1.204 g/ cm/sup 2/. Two sets of results are given: one from a formulation neglecting the polarization, the other including polarization. Results are presented in the form of an enhancement factor defined as the ratio of the number of scattered photons escaping from the scatterer at 90 deg to the number escaping at 90 deg after scattering only once. Enhancement factors are given in both tabular and graphical form. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1974
Creator: Bennett, E.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department