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K Basins isolation barriers summary report

Description: The 105-K East and 105-K West fuel storage basins (105-K Basins) were designed and constructed in the early 1950`s for interim storage of irradiated fuel following its discharge from the reactors. The 105-K- East and 105-K West reactor buildings were constructed first, and the associated storage basins were added about a year later. The construction joint between each reactor building structure and the basin structure included a flexible membrane waterstop to prevent leakage. Water in the storage basins provided both radiation shielding and cooling to remove decay heat from stored fuel until its transfer to the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility for chemical processing. The 105-K West Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1970; the 105-K East Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1971. Except for a few loose pieces, fuel stored in the basins at that time was shipped to the PUREX Facility for processing. The basins were then left idle but were kept filled with water. The PUREX Facility was shut down and placed on wet standby in 1972 while N Reactor continued to operate. When the N Reactor fuel storage basin began to approach storage capacity, the decision was made to modify the fuel storage basins at 105-K East and 105-K West to provide additional storage capacity. Both basins were subsequently modified (105-K East in 1975 and 105-K West in 1981) to provide for the interim handling and storage of irradiated N Reactor fuel. The PUREX Facility was restarted in November 1983 to provide 1698 additional weapons-grade plutonium for the United States defense mission. The facility was shut down and deactivated in December 1992 when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determined that the plant was no longer needed to support weapons-grade plutonium production. When the PUREX Facility was shut down, approximately 2.1 x 1 ...
Date: July 31, 1996
Creator: Strickland, G.C., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pen Branch delta expansion

Description: Since 1954, cooling water discharges from K Reactor ({anti X} = 370 cfs {at} 59 C) to Pen Branch have altered vegetation and deposited sediment in the Savannah River Swamp forming the Pen Branch delta. Currently, the delta covers over 300 acres and continues to expand at a rate of about 16 acres/yr. Examination of delta expansion can provide important information on environmental impacts to wetlands exposed to elevated temperature and flow conditions. To assess the current status and predict future expansion of the Pen Branch delta, historic aerial photographs were analyzed using both basic photo interpretation and computer techniques to provide the following information: (1) past and current expansion rates; (2) location and changes of impacted areas; (3) total acreage presently affected. Delta acreage changes were then compared to historic reactor discharge temperature and flow data to see if expansion rate variations could be related to reactor operations.
Date: February 1, 1984
Creator: Nelson, E.A.; Christensen, E.J.; Mackey, H.E.; Sharitz, R.R.; Jensen, J.R. & Hodgson, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Remediation Report for the K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (643-1G)

Description: The K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (K BPOP) Building Number 643-1G, is situated immediately south and outside the K-Reactor fence line and is approximately 400 feet in length and 60 feet in width. For the K BPOP operable unit, the Land Use Control (LUC) objectives are to prevent contact, removal, or excavation of buried waste in the area and to preclude residential use of the area.
Date: June 18, 2002
Creator: Morganstern, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility study 100 K East Area water purification pools fish-rearing program

Description: As part of the feasibility study, a design analysis was conducted to determine the usefulness of the existing sand filters and associated media for reuse. The sand filters which were studied for potential reuse are located on the northern end of the 100-K East Area water filtration plant on the Hanford Site. This plant is located about one- half mile from the Columbia River. The sand filters were originally part of a system which was used to provide cooling water to the nearby plutonium production K Reactors. This Cold War operation took place until 1971, at which time the K Reactors were closed for eventual decontamination and decommissioning. Recently, it was decided to study the concept of putting the sand filter structures back into use for fish-rearing purposes. Because the water that circulated through the water purification pools (K Pools) and associated sand filters was clean river water, there is little chance of the structures being radioactively contaminated. To date, separate K Pools have been used for raising a variety of cold water fish species, including white sturgeon and fall chinook salmon, as well as for providing potable water to the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site for fire and service water purposes.
Date: July 3, 1996
Creator: Betsch, M.D., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford`s spent nuclear fuel retrieval: an agressive agenda

Description: Starting December 1997, spent nuclear fuel that has been stored in the K Reactor Fuel Storage Basins will be retrieved over a two year period and repackaged for long term dry storage. The aging and sometimes corroding fuel elements will be recovered and processed using log handled tools and teleoperated manipulator technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to this urgent schedule because of the environmental threats to the groundwater and nearby the Columbia River.
Date: December 6, 1996
Creator: Shen, E.J., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Savannah River Site Probabilistic Risk Assessment high-level review

Description: A review of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has been performed by a review committee organized by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor, EG&G Idaho, Inc. The High-Level Peer Review Committee (referred to as ``the Committee`` in this report) members are identified in Section 2. The main purpose of the review has been to provide assurance that the SRS PRA is responsive to safety issues associated with the restart and continued operation of the Savannah River reactors. The Committee members are all experienced practitioners of PRA, and several of the members have been deeply involved In a concurrent, detailed review of the SRS PRA. Source material and expertise available to the Committee included the SRS PRA document itself issued August 31. 1989, and Interaction with key PRA and plant experts at both the Savannah River Site and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), who had performed an independent PRA evaluation of the SRS K-reactor. The cooperation and support received from those connected with the review were outstanding.
Date: February 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Axial power monitor rod issues and resolution for K-14.1

Description: A recent concern arose over the treatment of uncertainty associated with the K-Reactor axial power monitors (APMs). There are nine axial power monitor rods located at various positions in the K-Reactor core. By comparing the output of one sensor near the top of the rod to the output of another sensor near the bottom of the rod, the relative ratio of the neutron flux from the top to the bottom of the core can be determined. This ratio is called the roof-top-ratio (RTR) and is the output of a top sensor (Sensor 2) divided by the output of a bottom sensor (Sensor 6). The RTR is important to the safety analyses because when the RTR is maintained within certain ranges, the severity of reactivity transients is limited. There are uncertainties associated with the equipment`s ability to measure the true roof top ratio. It was determined recently that sufficient uncertainty was not accounted for either in reactor operation or in the safety analyses. The concern about uncertainty was addressed for three separate issues. One issue dear with the linear response of the sensors for power ranges planned for K-Reactor operation. The second issue dear with overall uncertainty in the RTR channel. The third issue dear with apparent large ranges in confidence bands for the RTR at low reactor powers as represented by original vendor data. Plots of sparse vendor data indicated unacceptably large uncertainties in RTR would have to be accounted for at the power ranges planned for K-Reactor operation. These concerns were brought to management`s attention through the existing procedures for notification, irrespective of their potential impact on the restart schedule. Analyses have been completed to resolve the APM issues described above, and work is progressing to take the needed steps to change operational procedures.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Easterling, T.C.; Fields, C.C.; Hightower, N.T. III; Wooten, L.A.; Andre, S.K.; Apperson, C.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of plasma in-situ vitrification at the K-Reactor seepage basin (904-65G)

Description: The Savannah River Technology Center at SRS had begun investigating the possibility of utilizing a plasma torch for ``bottoms up`` in-situ vitrification and had funded pilot plant scale testing at the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT) and at Clemson University. By the spring of 1996, the GIT trials had indicated that the process was potentially viable for vitrification of SRS soils but that the process needed to be validated on a clean site at a near production scale, before deployment into a radioactive environment could be contemplated. Environmental Restoration Division organized this demonstration at a clean location adjacent to the 904-65G, K-Reactor Seepage basin with the objectives of: developing realistic cost/effectiveness data for evaluation of the process against other competing remediation technologies such as soil grouting; developing the engineering data necessary for possible subsequent full scale deployment at an SRS radiologically contaminated waste unit; and evaluating commercially available non-intrusive subsurface monitoring techniques as potential methods for regulatory compliance verification. This Interim Technical Report provides a preliminary description of the demonstration with conclusions and recommendations based on observations made during the period of the demonstration. A detailed engineering report will be compiled in the near future providing all the data pertaining to the demonstration, together with the cost comparisons, product quality determinations and engineering recommendations for future actions.
Date: December 4, 1996
Creator: Blundy, R.F.; Zionkowski, P.; Schumacher, R.F. & Herman, D.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pen Branch stream corridor and Delta Wetlands change assessment

Description: Airborne multispectral scanner data from 1987 to 1991 covering the Pen Branch corridor and delta at SRS were utilized to provide a detailed change detection analysis. The multispectral data were geo-referenced to a Universal Transverse Mercator projection using finite element registration. Each year was then classified into eleven different landcover categories, and the yearly changes in each landcover category were analyzed. The decrease in operations of K Reactor in 1988 has resulted in drying of the corridor and delta. This has led to the decline of nonpersistent vegetation and the increase of persistent vegetation. Cattails, willow, and bottomland hardwoods, in particular, have grown to dominate the corridor and most of the delta.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Blohm, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether or not the K-Reactor safety computers could calculate primarily false positive, but also false negative, and ''on-scale'' misleading fuel assembly average effluent temperatures (AETs) due to relatively large temperature changes in or flooding of the -36 foot elevation isothermal box during a LOCA/LOPA.
Date: June 21, 1999
Creator: Sachs, A.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal Analysis of the SAFKEG Package for Long Term Storage

Description: Interim plutonium storage for up to 10 years in the K-reactor building is currently being planned at Savannah River Site (SRS). SAFKEG package could be used to store Pu metal and oxide (PuO2) in the K-reactor complex with other packagings like 9975. The SAFKEG is designed for carrying Type-B materials across the DOE complex and meets the 10CFR71 requirements. Thermal analyses were performed to ensure that the temperatures of the SAFKEG components will not exceed their temperature limits under the K-reactor storage conditions. Thermal analyses of the SAFKEG packaging with three content configurations using BNFL 3013 outer container (Rocky Flats, SRS bagless transfer cans, and BNFL inner containers) were performed for storage of PuO2 and plutonium metal
Date: January 10, 2005
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of coolability of the control rods of a Savannah River Site production reactor with loss of normal forced convection cooling

Description: An analytical study of the coolability of the control rods in the Savannah River Site (SRS) K-Production Reactor under conditions of loss of normal forced convection cooling has been performed. The study was performed as part of the overall safety analysis of the reactor supporting its restart. The analysis addresses the buoyancy-driven flow over the control rods that occurs when forced cooling is lost, and the limit of critical heat flux that sets the acceptance criteria for the study. The objective of the study is to demonstrate that the control rods will remain cooled at powers representative of those anticipated for restart of the reactor. The study accomplishes this objective with a very tractable simplified analysis for the modest restart power. In addition, a best-estimate calculation is performed, and the results are compared to results from sub-scale scoping experiments. 5 refs.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Easterling, T. C.; Hightower, N. T.; Smith, D. C. & Amos, C. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of debris vacuumed from K-Reactor tank

Description: During the ultrasonic (UT) inspection of K-Reactor tank by the Equipment Engineering Section in the spring of 1990, solid material (termed debris) was seen on the bottom of the tank. When the UT inspection was complete, a specially designed underwater vacuum cleaner was used to collect the accumulation at 17 monitor pin positions. This material was sent to SRL for characterization as an action item of the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee. Acquisition of this debris provided an opportunity to obtain first-hand information about conditions within the tank that affect corrosion conditions and/or moderator chemistry. The purpose of this memorandum is to describe the results of the analyses and the implications of what was found.
Date: January 20, 1992
Creator: Baumann, E. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydraulic testing of Type Q septifoils including modifications

Description: On May 25, 1992 a leak of moderator was detected as K Reactor was approaching initial criticality. The partial length control rods were being withdrawn when the leak detectors in the Process Room alarmed. The apparent location of the moderator leak was the top of the guide tubes which are positioned over the new Type Q septifoils. The reactor was shut down immediately. In response, a testing program was begun at the Heat Transfer Laboratory (HTL). The goals of the program were to determine the cause of the septifoil leak and to test methods for preventing future leaks. These tests are described in this report.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Steimke, J. L.; Fowley, M. D. & Guerrero, H. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report on PT-105-630-A: Pile power distribution control at the K piles

Description: Following-the K-pile start-ups in early 1955, a program of planned power raises was begun. The operating level had reached 1700--2000 MW by late 1955, and a severe operational control problem became apparent; the power distribution in the reactor was difficult to control and appeared inherently unstable. A study of available data led to the initiation of a production test so that a more detailed study of the phenomena could be made. This report describes the measures taken which led to an improvement in the operating characteristics of the K-piles; the current status and future outlook are also discussed in a general way.
Date: February 18, 1959
Creator: Brugge, R. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production test IP-214-A, irradiation of enriched Zircaloy-2 jacketed seven-rod cluster elements

Description: Four Zircaloy-2 jacketed enriched seven-rod cluster elements, one three-foot three-rod Zircaloy-2 jacketed enriched cluster element with integral end closures, and two eighteen-inch Zircaloy-2 jacketed wire wrapped cluster elements containing UO{sub 2} will be irradiated at jacket surface temperatures up to 270 C in the KER loops to an exposure of 3500 MWD/T on the enriched seven-rod cluster elements.
Date: November 24, 1958
Creator: Kratzer, W. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Internal graphite moderator forces study, C and K Reactors

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum forces that can be imposed by the graphite moderator on prospective VSR channel sleeves. In order to do this, both the origins and modes of transmission of the forces were determined. Forces in the moderator stack that are capable of acting on a block or group of blocks may originate from any of the following primary effects: Contraction of graphite due to irradiation; thermal expansion of graphite; frictional resistance to motion; resistance from keys; gravity; and other.
Date: October 28, 1963
Creator: Cooley, D. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Human reliability analysis for seismic events

Description: This paper presents the human reliability analysis (HRA) for selected post-accident human actions for potential seismic events at the Savannah River Site K-Reactor. This HRA was performed in support of Revision 1 to the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for the K-Reactor and provides human error probabilities for use in this PRA. This work was funded by the US Department of Energy and was jointly managed and performed by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Vo, T. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relocation of radial enrichment at the K reactors to decrease enrichment inventory

Description: The enrichment inventory required in the Hanford reactors is greatly dependent on the location of the radial enrichment ring. Present and past philosophy has dictated that the radial enrichment be located as close to the periphery of the reactors as possible, consistent with total control criteria, to obtain maximum flattening efficiency. As long as individual tube power limits dictate total pile power this philosophy of maximum flattening is consistent with a goal of maximum production. For the past year the total pile power at the K reactors has been restricted by bulk outlet water temperature limit or administrative total power level limits. During this time fuel ruptures have been negligible due to improved metal quality and axial flux shaping. If present operating conditions continue the relocation of the enrichment ring could be desirable to decrease the enrichment inventory. Moving the radial enrichment toward the center of the reactor to decrease the inventory would result in lower flattening efficiency and require higher tube power limits for the same total pile power level.
Date: March 28, 1962
Creator: Kosmata, A. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ASME N510 test results for Savannah River Site AACS filter compartments

Description: The K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site recently implemented design improvements for the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) by procuring, installing, and testing new Air Cleaning Units, or filter compartments, to ASME AG-1, N509, and N510 requirements. Specifically, these new units provide documentable seismic resistance to a Design, Basis Accident earthquake, provide 2 in. adsorber beds with 0.25 second residence time, and meet all AG-1, N509, and N510 requirements for testability and maintainability. This paper presents the results of the Site acceptance testing and discusses an issue associated with sample manifold qualification testing.
Date: July 1, 1994
Creator: Paul, J. D. & Punch, T. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department