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Social Capital and Delinquency among Turkish Juveniles

Description: This study examined the relationship between aspects of social capital and self-reported delinquency among Turkish juveniles by using a secondary dataset, which is a part of the European Youth Survey. The survey was conducted among tenth graders in 2007 in Bağcılar, Istanbul. The dependent variable of this study, delinquency, was divided into two groups, minor and major, according to the stipulations of the Turkish Penal Code. Social capital was measured by assessing adolescents’ reports of their direct interactions with their parents, peers and community. In order to predict the likelihood of major and minor delinquency independently, two different subsets (N: 1879 and 1837, respectively) of the data set were used. The findings of the multivariate analyses suggest that a low level of social capital contributed significantly to Turkish juveniles’ engagement in major and minor delinquent activities. Among the social capital items, adolescents’ affiliation with delinquent peers had the strongest correlation with both dependent variables.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Cubukcu, Suat
Partner: UNT Libraries

Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Rotary Screw Traps,Snorkel Surveys, and Steelhead Redd Surveys, 2008.

Description: The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCRFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program from March through November of 2008. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 16,782 wild salmonids were PIT tagged during the study period. Of this, 3,961(23.6%) were wild Oncorhynchus mykiss, 6,987 (41.6%) were wild spring run O. tshawytscha, and 5,591 (33.3%) were identified as wild O. tshawytscha of unknown run. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 40.3% at the upper (Rkm 11.0) trap and 7.8% for the lower (Rkm 2.0) trap. These efficiencies were pooled for emigrant O. tshawytscha and O. mykiss. The MCRFRO conducted effectiveness monitoring snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the winter period and 30 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2008 as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. The 2008 steelhead spawning grounds surveys were conducted weekly in the main Entiat River from rkm 1.1 to 44.2. A total of 222 steelhead redds were identified over the period from February 28 to June 16 2008 with April being the peak spawning month. Approximately 80% of the steelhead redds were located downstream of the rkm 26.
Date: February 17, 2009
Creator: Nelle, R.D.; Desgroseiller, Tom & Cotter, Michael (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Rotary Screw Traps, Snorkel Surveys, and Steelhead Redd Surveys, 2008-2009.

Description: The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCRFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program from March through November of 2008. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 16,782 wild salmonids were PIT tagged during the study period. Of this, 3,961(23.6%) were wild Oncorhynchus mykiss, 6,987 (41.6%) were wild spring run O. tshawytscha, and 5,591 (33.3%) were identified as wild O. tshawytscha of unknown run. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 40.3% at the upper (Rkm 11.0) trap and 7.8% for the lower (Rkm 2.0) trap. These efficiencies were pooled for emigrant O. tshawytscha and O. mykiss. The MCRFRO conducted effectiveness monitoring snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the winter period and 30 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2008 as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. The 2008 steelhead spawning grounds surveys were conducted weekly in the main Entiat River from rkm 1.1 to 44.2. A total of 222 steelhead redds were identified over the period from February 28 to June 16 2008 with April being the peak spawning month. Approximately 80% of the steelhead redds were located downstream of the rkm 26.
Date: April 14, 2009
Creator: Nelle, R.D.; Desgroseillier, Tom & Cotter, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Juvenile Justice: Legislative History and Current Legislative Issues

Description: This report will analyze the current federal legislation that impacts the state juvenile justice systems. Although the report provides some background information on the evolution of juvenile justice in the United States, the main focus of the report is the major federal legislation that impacts the states juvenile justice systems, including the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA).
Date: unknown
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Beginnings of Pedophilia: Lifestyles of Juvenile Perpetrators

Description: This study utilized a qualitative/phenomenological research methodology to study the development of child molestation. Five volunteer male juvenile perpetrators of child molestation and their consenting family members participated in three one-on-one in-depth interviews. The juveniles were referred by juvenile justice departments in Texas. The investigation was pursued along three paths: (1) what factors in the perpetrators' life experiences may have influenced the formation of molesting thought and behavior patterns? (2) how did the perpetrators construe social relationships? (3) in developing sexual preference, what process did the perpetrators utilize to achieve the degree of sexual arousal needed to motivate the act of molestation? During analysis, 16 categories and 9 subcategories were developed from the data; these were evaluated in order to address the lines of inquiry listed above. Factors contributing toward deviancy were identified: these included general environmental factors and relationship issues with both parents and peers. The data also elucidated the perpetrators' characteristic ways of viewing themselves and other people, as well as the strategies that they relied upon to cope with their lives. These same strategies were subsequently used in their molesting. The results revealed that the answers to the investigational questions posed above were synthesized by the individual across the lifespan, with origins in childhood when the concepts of self, others, social convention and interpersonal relationships were forming. It is likely that the typical interest in sexual expression that occurs at the onset of puberty was a catalyst that facilitated molesting behavior. The lack of ability to interact successfully with age mates appeared to influence the perpetrators' selection of children as targets. Recommendations were presented for consideration by the mental health and criminal justice communities based on the findings. Also, preventative measures for the public sector were offered.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Edmonds, Marilyn S. (Marilyn Sue)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Annual Coded Wire Tag Program; Oregon Stock Assessment, 2001 Annual Report.

Description: This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife project 'Annual Stock Assessment - Coded Wire Tag Program (ODFW)'. Results for the 2001 contract period: Objective 1--Over 1 million juvenile salmon were coded-wire by this program (Table 1); Objective 2--ODFW recovered and processed over 40,000 snout collected from coded-wire tagged fish (Table 2); Objective 3--Survival data is summarized below; Objective 4--The last group of VIE tagged coho was released in 2001 and returning coho were samples at Sandy Hatchery. This sampling showed only 1 of 1,160 returning coho VIE marked as juveniles retained the VIE mark as adults.
Date: March 1, 2002
Creator: Lewis, Mark; Mallette, Christine & Murray, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual Coded Wire Tag Program; Oregon Stock Assessment, Annual Report 2002.

Description: This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife project 'Annual Stock Assessment - Coded Wire Tag Program (ODFW)'. Results for the 2002 contract period: Objective 1 - Over 1 million juvenile salmon were coded-wire by this program (Table 1). This accounted for about 20% of the fish ODFW coded-wire tagged in 2002 for release in the Columbia Basin; Objective 2 - ODFW recovered and processed over 50,000 snouts collected from coded-wire tagged fish (Table 2); Objective 3 - The survival data summarized below includes results for coded-wire groups funded by this program as well as coded-wire groups funded from other sources; Objective 4 - The last returns of experimental groups of coho marked with VIE tags occurred in 2002 at Sandy Hatchery. This sampling showed that 26 of 67 jack coho and 1 of 2,223 adult coho VIE marked as juveniles retained the VIE mark as adults.
Date: March 1, 2003
Creator: Lewis, Mark; Mallette, Christine & Murray, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Life History Investigations, Annual Report 2008.

Description: This study was initiated to provide empirical data and analyses on the dam passage timing, travel rate, survival, and life history variation of fall Chinook salmon that are produced in the Clearwater River. The area of interest for this study focuses on the lower four miles of the Clearwater River and its confluence with the Snake River because this is an area where many fish delay their seaward migration. The goal of the project is to increase our understanding of the environmental and biological factors that affect juvenile life history of fall Chinook salmon in the Clearwater River. The following summaries are provided for each of the individual chapters in this report.
Date: September 15, 2009
Creator: Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P. & Bellgraph, Brian J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Juvenile Waiver to Adult Criminal Courts: a Prototypical Analysis of Dangerousness, Sophistication-Maturity, and Amenability to Treatment

Description: Psychological assessment ofjuveniles being considered for waiver to adult criminal courts often requires systematic evaluation of dangerousness, maturity-sophistication, and amenability to treatment (ATX). Despite the importance of these constructs to the evaluation of juveniles, little is known about the criteria that constitute these three constructs. This study was designed to assist in clarifying the constructs of dangerousness, maturity-sophistication, and ATX that typically guide juvenile transfers. Generally, prototypicality ratings were aligned with the current literature on dangerousness, sophistication-maturity, and ATX.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Salekin, Randall T. (Randall Todd)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

Description: The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.
Date: November 1, 2011
Creator: Jager, Yetta
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Early evolution of the LIM homeobox gene family

Description: LIM homeobox (Lhx) transcription factors are unique to the animal lineage and have patterning roles during embryonic development in flies, nematodes and vertebrates, with a conserved role in specifying neuronal identity. Though genes of this family have been reported in a sponge and a cnidarian, the expression patterns and functions of the Lhx family during development in non-bilaterian phyla are not known. We identified Lhx genes in two cnidarians and a placozoan and report the expression of Lhx genes during embryonic development in Nematostella and the demosponge Amphimedon. Members of the six major LIM homeobox subfamilies are represented in the genomes of the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. The hydrozoan cnidarian, Hydra magnipapillata, has retained four of the six Lhx subfamilies, but apparently lost two others. Only three subfamilies are represented in the haplosclerid demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. A tandem cluster of three Lhx genes of different subfamilies and a gene containing two LIM domains in the genome of T. adhaerens (an animal without any neurons) indicates that Lhx subfamilies were generated by tandem duplication. This tandem cluster in Trichoplax is likely a remnant of the original chromosomal context in which Lhx subfamilies first appeared. Three of the six Trichoplax Lhx genes are expressed in animals in laboratory culture, as are all Lhx genes in Hydra. Expression patterns of Nematostella Lhx genes correlate with neural territories in larval and juvenile polyp stages. In the aneural demosponge, A. queenslandica, the three Lhx genes are expressed widely during development, including in cells that are associated with the larval photosensory ring. The Lhx family expanded and diversified early in animal evolution, with all six subfamilies already diverged prior to the cnidarian-placozoan-bilaterian last common ancestor. In Nematostella, Lhx gene expression is correlated with neural territories in larval and juvenile polyp ...
Date: January 1, 2010
Creator: Srivastava, Mansi; Larroux, Claire; Lu, Daniel R; Mohanty, Kareshma; Chapman, Jarrod; Degnan, Bernard M et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Infrasound and Strobe Lights to Elicit Avoidance Behavior in Juvenile Salmon and Char.

Description: Experimental tests were conducted using hatchery reared and wild juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and rainbow trout O. mykiss to determine specific behavior responses to infrasound (<20 Hz) and flashing strobe lights. Caged fish were acclimated in a static test tank and their behavior was recorded using low light cameras. Species specific behavior was characterized by measuring movements of the fish within the cage as well as observing startle and habituation responses. Wild chinook salmon (40-45 mm) and hatchery reared chinook salmon (45-50mm) exhibited avoidance responses when initially exposed to a 10 Hz volume displacement source. Rainbow and eastern brook trout (25-100 mm) did not respond with avoidance or other behaviors to infrasound. Habituation to the infrasound source was evident for chinook salmon during repeated exposures. Wild and hatchery chinook displayed a higher proportion of movement during the initial exposures to infrasound when the acclimation period in the test tank was 2-3 h as compared to a 12-15 h acclimation period. A flashing strobe light produced higher and more consistent movement rates in wild chinook (60% of the tests); hatchery reared chinook salmon (50%) and rainbow trout (80%). No measurable movement or other responses was observed for eastern brook trout. Little if any habituation was observed during repeated exposures to strobe lights. Results from this study indicate that consistent repeatable responses can be elicited from some fish using high intensity strobe lights under a controlled laboratory testing. The specific behaviors observed in these experiments might be used to predict how fish might react to low frequency sound and strobe lights in a screening facility. Because sub-yearling salmonids and resident species are susceptible from becoming entrained at water diversion structures we conducted tests in conjunction with our evaluation of juvenile fish screening facilities. This is the ...
Date: February 1, 1999
Creator: Mueller, Robert, P.; Neitzel, Duane A. & Amidan, Brett G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind River Watershed Restoration, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

Description: This report summarizes work completed by U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) in the Wind River subbasin during the period April 2005 through March 2006 under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract 22095. During this period, we collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. We also conducted electrofishing and snorkeling surveys to determine juvenile salmonid populations within select study areas throughout the subbasin. Portions of this work were completed with additional funding from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Lower Columbia Fish Enhancement Group (LCFEG). A statement of work (SOW) was submitted to BPA in March 2005 that outlined work to be performed by USGS-CRRL. The SOW was organized by work elements, with each describing a research task. This report summarizes the progress completed under each work element.
Date: November 10, 2008
Creator: Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J. & Munz, Carrie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind River Watershed Restoration, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

Description: This report summarizes work completed by U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) in the Wind River subbasin during the period April 2006 through March 2007 under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract 26922. During this period, we collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize physical habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. We also conducted electrofishing and snorkeling surveys to determine juvenile salmonid populations within select study areas throughout the subbasin. Portions of this work were completed with additional funding from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Lower Columbia Fish Enhancement Group (LCFEG). Funding from USFWS was for work to contribute to a study of potential interactions between introduced Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and wild steelhead O. mykiss. Funding from LCFEG was for work to evaluate the effects of nutrient enrichment in small streams. A statement of work (SOW) was submitted to BPA in March 2006 that outlined work to be performed by USGS-CRRL. The SOW was organized by work elements, with each describing a research task. This report summarizes the progress completed under each work element.
Date: November 4, 2008
Creator: Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G. & Munz, Carrie S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual Stock Assessment - CWT [Coded Wire Tag program] (USFWS), Annual Report 2007.

Description: In 1989 the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began funding the evaluation of production groups of juvenile anadromous fish not being coded-wire tagged for other programs. These groups were the 'Missing Production Groups'. Production fish released by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) without representative coded-wire tags during the 1980s are indicated as blank spaces on the survival graphs in this report. This program is now referred to as 'Annual Stock Assessment - CWT'. The objectives of the 'Annual Stock Assessment' program are to: (1) estimate the total survival of each production group, (2) estimate the contribution of each production group to fisheries, and (3) prepare an annual report for USFWS hatcheries in the Columbia River basin. Coded-wire tag recovery information will be used to evaluate the relative success of individual brood stocks. This information can also be used by salmon harvest managers to develop plans to allow the harvest of excess hatchery fish while protecting threatened, endangered, or other stocks of concern. All fish release information, including marked/unmarked ratios, is reported to the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC). Fish recovered in the various fisheries or at the hatcheries are sampled to recover coded-wire tags. This recovery information is also reported to PSMFC. This report has been prepared annually starting with the report labeled 'Annual Report 1994'. Although the current report has the title 'Annual Report 2007', it was written in fall of 2008 using data available from RMIS that same year, and submitted as final in January 2009. The main objective of the report is to evaluate survival of groups which have been tagged under this ongoing project.
Date: July 21, 2009
Creator: Pastor, Stephen M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual Report to the Bonneville Power Administration, Reporting Period: April 2008 - February 2009 [re: "Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and north California Current"].

Description: We have made substantial progress toward our objectives outlined in our BPA supported proposal entitled 'Columbia River Basin Juvenile Salmonids: Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and northern California Current' which we report on herein. During 2008, we were able to successfully conduct 3 mesoscale cruises. We also were able to conduct 7 biweekly predator cruises, along with substantial shore-based visual observations of seabirds. Detailed results of the mesoscale cruises are available in the Cruise Reports and summarized in the next section. We have taken a proactive approach to getting the results of our research to fisheries managers and the general public. We have begun to make annual predictions based on ocean conditions of the relative survival of juvenile coho and Chinook salmon well before they return as adults. This is based on both biological and physical indicators that we measure during our surveys or collect from outside data sources. Examples of our predictions for 2009 and 2010 are available on the following web site: http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/research/divisions/fed/oeip/a-ecinhome.cfm.
Date: July 17, 2009
Creator: Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries; Cooperative Institute for Marine Resources Studies, Oregon State University & OGI School of Science & Engineering, Oregon Health Sciences University.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Project : Annual Progress Report October 2007 - September 2008.

Description: Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from June 7, 2007 to August 11, 2008. A total of 3,133 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 1,487 adult, 1,067 jack, and 999 subjack fall Chinook (O. tshawytscha); 5,140 adult and 150 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 2,009 adult, 517 jack, and 128 subjack spring Chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 1,442 summer steelhead and 88 adult and 84 jack spring Chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 1,497 summer steelhead; 609 adult, 1,018 jack and 979 subjack fall Chinook; 5,036 adult and 144 jack coho; and 1,117 adult, 386 jack and 125 subjack spring Chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. Also, 110 summer steelhead; 878 adult and 43 jack fall Chinook; and 560 adult and 28 jack spring Chinook were collected as broodstock for the Umatilla River hatchery program. In addition, there were 241 adult and 15 jack spring Chinook collected at Threemile Dam for outplanting in the South Fork Walla Walla River and Mill Cr, a tributary of the mainstem Walla Walla River. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at river mile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for out-migrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 158 days between February 11, 2008 and July 18, 2008. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 150 days and were trapped 6 days. There were also 2 days when fish were directed into and held in the canal forebay between the time the ...
Date: December 31, 2008
Creator: Bronson, James P.; Loffink, Ken & Duke, Bill
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screen Evaluations; Nursery Bridge Fishway and Garden City/Lowden II Sites, 2003 Technical Report.

Description: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the fish screens at the Nursery Bridge Fishway and the newly constructed Garden City/Lowden II site west of Walla Walla, Washington, in the Walla Walla River Basin during spring and summer 2003. Both fish screen facilities were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide for safe fish passage. At the Nursery Bridge Fishway, the screens were evaluated specifically to determine whether the louvers that aid in controlling water flow from behind the screens could be adjusted so that the screens would meet fish protection criteria. Data were collected to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met current National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) (formerly National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage before and after changing the louver settings. Rock weirs downstream of the dam were also evaluated to determine whether they might impede upstream migration of juvenile salmonids during low flow conditions. At the Garden City/Lowden II site, data were collected to establish a baseline for operating conditions and to determine whether any changes in the baffle settings were needed.
Date: November 1, 2003
Creator: Vucelick, J. & McMichael, G. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2002

Description: In 2002, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met National Marine Fisheries Service criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. In addition, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2002, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Marine Fisheries Service. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to increase safe juvenile fish passage. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris should be improved at some sites.
Date: March 1, 2003
Creator: Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A. & Chamness, Mickie A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Characterization of Pump Flow at the Grand Coulee Dam Pumping Station for Fish Passage, 2004-2005 Final Report.

Description: This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Bonneville Power Administration to characterize the conditions fish experience when entrained in pump flow at the Grand Coulee Dam. PNNL conducted field studies at Grand Coulee Dam in 2004 using the Sensor Fish to measure the acceleration and pressure conditions that might be experienced by fish that pass through pumps at Grand Coulee Dam's Pump-Generating Plant and are transported up into the feeder canal leading to Banks Lake. The probability that fish would be struck by the Pump-Generating Plant's new nine-bladed turbines was also estimated. Our measurements showed relatively low turbulence except in the immediate vicinity of the runner environment. The lowest and highest pressures experienced by the Sensor Fish were 6.4 and 155 psi (the pressure gauge saturated at 155 psi). The probability of strike was also calculated, based on the average length of hatchery-reared juvenile kokanee (land-locked sockeye). Strike probabilities ranged from 0.0755 for 2.36-inch fish to 0.3890 for 11.8-inch fish. The probability of strike estimates indicate that the majority (77%) of recently released hatchery kokanee would be carried through the test pump without being struck and most likely with low risk of injury resulting from pressure and turbulence exposure. Of the 23% that might be struck it is expected that 60% would arrive in Banks Lake without visible external injuries. Thus more than 90% of entrained fish could be expected to arrive in Banks Lake without significant injury, assuming that no kokanee were injured or killed by pressure exposure during passage.
Date: March 1, 2005
Creator: Carlson, T.; Duncan, J. & Johnson, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fish Passage Center 2007 Annual Report.

Description: The January-July runoff volume above the Dalles Dam in 2007 was 89% of the average runoff volume for the 1971-2000 historical record. The April-July runoff volume at Lower Granite Dam was 68% of the 1971-2000 historical record. Over the 79 year historical record from 1929 through 2007, the 2007 January-July runoff volume at the Dalles was the 50th lowest year out of the 79th year record. The January through July runoff volume at Lower Granite was the 65th lowest runoff year out of 79 on record. This year can be characterized by steadily decreasing snowpack which was below average in the Columbia Basin by the end of April. The combination of runoff volume, decreasing snowpack and reservoir operations resulted in spring migration flows at McNary Dam averaging 239 Kcfs, slightly above the Biological Opinion flow objective of 237 Kcfs. However the spring period migration flows in the Snake River averaged 61 Kcfs at Lower Granite Dam, substantially below the Biological Opinion flow objective of 85 Kcfs. Summer migration period Biological Opinion flow objectives averaged 163 Kcfs at McNary Dam, substantially below the summer flow objective of 200 Kcfs. Summer migration period flows in the Snake River at Lower Granite Dam averaged 29 Kcfs, also substantially below the Biological Opinion flow objective of 50 Kcfs. Overall spring migrants in the Columbia River experienced better migration flows than spring migrants in the Snake River reach. Summer migration flow objectives were not achieved in either the Columbia or Snake rivers. The 2007 FCRPS Operations Agreement represents an expanded and improved spill program that goes beyond the measures contained in the 2004 Biological Opinion. During the spring period, spill now occurs for twenty-four hours per day at all projects, except for John Day Dam where the daily program remains at 12 hours. A summer ...
Date: November 25, 2008
Creator: DeHart, Michele
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

Description: This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of ...
Date: December 1, 2003
Creator: Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul & Blenden, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department