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Adsorption and Ultrasound-Assisted Sorbent Regeneration

Description: This work was conducted for the department of Energy. In this work, we developed a class of new sorbents that were highly sulfur selective and had high sulfur capacities. The study consisted of two sections. Development of the new sorbents is described in Section 1, and Section was a fundamental study, conducted for a better understanding for desulfurization of jet fuels. More details of the results are given blow separately for the two sections.
Date: September 30, 2006
Creator: Wang, Yuhe; Ma, Liping & Yang, Ralph T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Thermally Stable Jet Fuels

Description: The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: 1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; 2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; 3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; 4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and 5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Boehman, A.; Song, C.; Schobert, H. H.; Coleman, M. M.; Hatcher, P. G. & Eser, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Post-crash fuel dispersal

Description: This paper is a brief overview of work over the last several decades in understanding what occurs to jet fuel stored in aircraft fuel tanks on impact with the ground. Fuel dispersal is discussed in terms of the overall crash dynamics process and impact regimes are identified. In a generic sense, the types of flow regimes which can occur are identified and general descriptions of the processes are given. Examples of engineering level tools, both computational and experimental, which have applicability to analyzing the complex environments are presented. Finally, risk based decision is discussed as a quick means of identifying requirements for development of preventative or mitigation strategies, such as further work on the development of an anti-misting agent.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Tieszen, S.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 1

Description: Volume 1 of these proceedings contain 29 papers related to aviation fuels and long term and strategic storage. Studies investigated fuel contamination, separation processes, measurement techniques, thermal stability, compatibility with fuel system materials, oxidation reactions, and degradation during storage.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Giles, H.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molecular Characterization of Microbial Communities in a JP-5 Fuel Contaminated Soil

Description: In this study, lipid biomarker characterization of the bacterial and eukaryotic communities was combined with PCR-DGGE analysis of the eubacterial community to evaluate correlation between JP-4 fuel concentration and community structure shifts. Vadose, capillary fringe and saturated-soils were taken from cores within, up- and down-gradient of the contaminant plume. Significant differences in biomass and proportion of Gram negative bacteria were found inside and outside the plume. Sequence analysis of DGGE bands from within the spill site suggested dominance by a limited number of phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Used in tandem with pollutant quantification, these molecular techniques should facilitate significant improvements over current assessment procedures for determination of remediation end points.
Date: April 19, 1999
Creator: Barcelona, M.J.; Chang, Y.-J.; Gan, Y.D.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Peacock, A.; Stephen, J.R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A case for biofuels in aviation

Description: In the last 15 years, the technical and the economic feasibility of biomass based fuels for general aviation piston engines has been proven. Exhaustive ground and flight tests performed at the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) using ethanol, ethanol/methanol blends, and ETBE have proven these fuels to be superior to aviation gasoline (avgas) in all aspects of performance except range. Two series of Lycoming engines have been certified. Record flights, including a transatlantic flight on pure ethanol, were made to demonstrate the reliability of the fuel. Aerobatic demonstrations with aircraft powered by ethanol, ethanol/methanol, and ETBE were flown at major airshows around the world. the use of bio-based fuels for aviation will benefit energy security, improve the balance of trade, domestic economy, and environmental quality. The United States has the resources to supply the aviation community`s needs with a domestically produced fuel using current available technology. The adoption of a renewable fuel in place of conventional petroleum-based fuels for aviation piston and turbine engines is long overdue.
Date: December 31, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

Description: This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E. & Zanin, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reciprocating sliding wear of in-situ reinforced silicon nitride

Description: The reciprocating sliding wear response of two in-situ reinforced-silicon nitride compositions provided by AlliedSignal have been evaluated. The materials were prepared by AlliedSignal-Ceramic Components Division and were tested at conditions of interest to the Bendix Engine Controls Division (South Bend, IN) and AlliedSignal Research and Technology (Des Plaines, IL). The materials are being considered for a variety of new applications, and the current tests provide critical friction and wear values under anticipated operating conditions. Both pin and disk specimens of GS-44 and GN-10 in-situ reinforced silicon nitride of specified dimensions for wear testing were provided by the AlliedSignal participants. An initial series of tests examined the unlubricated behavior of these materials at elevated temperature (up to 900 C) in an inert atmosphere. The results revealed excessive levels of both friction and wear in the unlubricated condition. The test conditions were modified to include the use of jet fuel as a lubricant because of an intended application in that medium. The introduction of the lubricant resulted in very limited wear of both the pin and disk specimens.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Yust, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Soot properties and species measurements in a two-meter diameter JP-8 pool fire.

Description: A tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy probe was used to measure in situ soot properties and species concentrations in two-meter diameter JP-8 pool fires. Twelve tests were performed at the Lurance Canyon Bum Site operated by Sandia in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Seven of the tests were conducted with the probe positioned close to the centerline at heights above the pool surface ranging from 0.5 m to 2.0 mm in 0.25 m increments. For the remaining five tests, the probe was positioned at two heights 0.3 m from the centerline and at three heights 0.5 m from the centerline. Soot concentration was determined using a soot absorption measurement based on the transmission of a solid-state red laser (635 nm) through the 3.7 cm long probe volume. Soot temperature and a second estimate of soot concentration were measured using two-color optical pyrometry at 850 nm and la00 nm. The effective data rate for these measurements was 10 Mz. Finally, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy was used to qualitatively estimate water concentration at a rate of 1 kHz. To improve signal-to-noise, these data were averaged to an effective rate of 2 Hz. The results presented include the statistics, probability density functions, and spectral density functions of soot concentration, soot temperature, and approximate water concentrations at the different measurement locations throughout the fire.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Shaddix, Christopher R. & Murphy, Jeffrey J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1996 with data for January 1996

Description: The Petroleum Marketing Monthly provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.
Date: April 2, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat pipe radiation cooling evaluation: Task 2 concept studies report

Description: This report presents the result of Task 2, Concept Studies for Heat Pipe Radiation Cooling (HPRC), which was performed for Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract 9-XT1-U9567. Studies under a prior contract defined a reference HPRC conceptual design for hypersonic aircraft engines operating at Mach 5 and an altitude of 80,000 ft. Task 2 involves the further investigation of heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) systems for additional design and operating conditions.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Silverstein, C.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Combustion Model for the TWA 800 Center-Wing Fuel Tank Explosion

Description: In support of the National Transportation Safety Board investigation of the TWA Flight 800 accident, a combined experimental/computational effort was conducted that focused on quarter-scale testing and simulation of the fuel-air explosion in the Boeing 747 center wing fuel tank. This report summarizes the modeling approach used at Sandia National Laboratories. In this approach approximations are introduced that capture the essential physics associated with turbulent flame propagation in multiple compartment fuel tanks. This model efficiently defines the pressure loading conditions during a jet-fuel air explosion in a fuel tank confinement. Modeling calculations compare favorably with a variety of experimental quarter-scale tests conducted in rigid confinement. The modeling describes well the overpressure history in several geometry configurations. Upon demonstrating a reasonable comparison to experimental observations, a parametric study of eight possible ignition sources is then discussed. Model calculations demonstrate that different loading conditions arise as the location of the ignition event is varied. By comparing the inferred damage and calculated impulses to that seen in the recovered tank, it maybe possible to reduce the number of likely sources. A possible extension of this work to better define tank damage includes coupling the combustion model as a pressure loading routine for structural failure analysis.
Date: October 2, 1998
Creator: Baer, M.R. & Gross, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

Description: The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume (Sections 1 through 5).
Date: January 31, 1999
Creator: Schobert, H.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal Measurements from a Series of Tests with a Large Cylindrical Calorimeter on the Leeward Edge of a JP-8 Pool Fire in Cross-Flow

Description: As part of the full scale fuel fire experimental program, a series of JP-8 pool fire experiments with a large cylindrical calorimeter (3.66 m diameter), representing a C-141 aircraft fuselage, at the lee end of the fuel pool were performed at Naval Air Warfare Center, Weapons Division (NAWCWPNS). The series was designed to support Weapon System Safety Assessment (WSSA) needs by addressing the case of a transport aircraft subjected to a large fuel fire. The data collected from this mock series will allow for characterization of the fire environment via a survivable test fixture. This characterization will provide important background information for a future test series utilizing the same fuel pool with an actual C-141 aircraft in place of the cylindrical calorimeter.
Date: July 1, 2001
Creator: SUO-ANTTILA,JILL M. & GRITZO,LOUIS A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1995 with data for February 1995

Description: The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.
Date: May 9, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel dispersal in high-speed aircraft/soil impact scenarios

Description: The objective of this study is to determine how the jet fuel contained in aircraft wing tanks disperses on impact with a soft terrain, i.e., soils, at high impact velocities. The approach used in this study is to combine experimental and numerical methods. Tests were conducted with an approximately 1/42 linear-scale mass-model of a 1/4 span section of a C-141 wing impacting a sand/clay mixture. The test results showed that within the uncertainty of the data, the percentage of incident liquid mass remaining in the crater is the same as that qualitatively described in earlier napalm bomb development studies. Namely, the percentage of fuel in the crater ranges from near zero for grazing impacts to 25%--50% for high angles of impact. To support a weapons system safety assessment (WSSA), the data from the current study have been reduced to correlations. The numerical model used in the current study is a unique coupling of a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method with the transient dynamics finite element code PRONTO. Qualitatively, the splash, erosion, and soil compression phenomena are all numerically predicted. Quantitatively, the numerical method predicted a smaller crater cross section than was observed in the tests.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Tieszen, S.R. & Attaway, S.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petroleum marketing annual 1994

Description: The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.
Date: August 24, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Validation predictions of a 13 m/s cross-wind fire for Fuego and the University of Waterloo dataset.

Description: Detailed herein are the results of a validation comparison. The experiment involved a 2 meter diameter liquid pool of Jet-A fuel in a 13 m/s crosswind. The scenario included a large cylindrical blocking object just down-stream of the fire. It also included seven smaller calorimeters and extensive instrumentation. The experiments were simulated with Fuego. The model included several conduction regions to model the response of the calorimeters, the floor, and the large cylindrical blocking object. A blind comparison was used to compare the simulation predictions with the experimental data. The more upstream data compared very well with the simulation predictions. The more downstream data did not compare very well with the simulation predictions. Further investigation suggests that features omitted from the original model contributed to the discrepancies. Observations are made with respect to the scenario that are aimed at helping an analyst approach a comparable problem in a way that may help improve the potential for quantitative accuracy.
Date: March 1, 2008
Creator: Brown, Alexander L.; Evans, Gregory Herbert (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gill, Walter & Jarboe, Daniel T. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microalgal Production of Jet Fuel: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-208

Description: Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can use CO2 and sunlight to generate the complex biomolecules necessary for their survival. These biomolecules include energy-rich lipid compounds that can be converted using existing refinery equipment into valuable bio-derived fuels, including jet fuel for military and commercial use. Through a dedicated and thorough collaborative research, development and deployment program, the team of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Chevron will identify a suitable algae strain that will surpass the per-acre biomass productivity of terrestrial plant crops.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: Jarvis, E. E. & Pienkos, P. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of soot properties in two-meter JP-8 pool fires.

Description: The thermal hazard posed by large hydrocarbon fires is dominated by the radiative emission from high temperature soot. Since the optical properties of soot, especially in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, as well as its morphological properties, are not well known, efforts are underway to characterize these properties. Measurements of these soot properties in large fires are important for heat transfer calculations, for interpretation of laser-based diagnostics, and for developing soot property models for fire field models. This research uses extractive measurement diagnostics to characterize soot optical properties, morphology, and composition in 2 m pool fires. For measurement of the extinction coefficient, soot extracted from the flame zone is transported to a transmission cell where measurements are made using both visible and infrared lasers. Soot morphological properties are obtained by analysis via transmission electron microscopy of soot samples obtained thermophoretically within the flame zone, in the overfire region, and in the transmission cell. Soot composition, including carbon-to-hydrogen ratio and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration, is obtained by analysis of soot collected on filters. Average dimensionless extinction coefficients of 8.4 {+-} 1.2 at 635 nm and 8.7 {+-} 1.1 at 1310 nm agree well with recent measurements in the overfire region of JP-8 and other fuels in lab-scale burners and fires. Average soot primary particle diameters, radius of gyration, and fractal dimensions agree with these recent studies. Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory of scattering applied to the measured fractal parameters shows qualitative agreement with the trends in measured dimensionless extinction coefficients. Results of the density and chemistry are detailed in the report.
Date: February 1, 2005
Creator: Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Jensen, Kirk A. & Blevins, Linda Gail (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluorescence emission spectral measurements for the detection of oil on shore

Description: The U.S. DOE Special Technologies Laboratory is developing an airborne Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging (LIFI) system to support environmental management of government facilities. This system, or a system to be derived from it, is being evaluated for its potential to detect spilled oils oN shore, in wetlands, and on ice. To more fully understand the detectivity of oil spills, emphasis has been placed on the spectral contrast between the oil signatures and signatures associated with the natural backgrounds (sand, vegetation, etc.). To support this evaluation, two series of controlled measurements have been performed to provide rigorous characterization of the excitation-emission properties of some oils and background materials, and to look at the effects of weathering of oil on terrestrial background materials. Oil targets included a heavy crude oil, diesel, kerosene, and aviation fuel and backgrounds included beach sand, straw, mud, tar and kelp. Fluorescence of oil on background materials decreases rapidly over the first few days of exposure to the environment and is more rapid than for neat oil samples.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Balick, L. K.; Di Benedetto, J. A. & Lutz, S. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1996 with data for October 1995

Description: The Petroleum Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.
Date: January 4, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department