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Progress in Radioactive Iron Oxides Investigations

Description: Report discussing a study on secondary radioactive iron minerals closely associated with uranium and thorium deposits in various western states. From abstract: "A study on these radioactive 'limonites' was therefore undertaken in an attempt to find out in what form the radioactive material is present in the limonite, how it was introduced, and whether a field study of leached ferruginous cappings over uranium and thorium deposits might yield information about the depth, distribution, size, and grade of underlying ore bodies."
Date: June 1954
Creator: Lovering, Tom G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Occurrence of Iron Oxides on Cast-Iron Engine Surfaces After Operation

Description: Report presenting an examination of the surfaces of used cast-iron piston rings from various single-cylinder aircraft engine tests by electron diffraction. Generally, the oxide patterns were obtained to an appreciable extent from only the top compression ring of the piston-ring assembly; the other rings gave predominately a graphite pattern.
Date: February 1946
Creator: Nowick, A. S. & Brockway, L. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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X-ray stereo microscopy for investigation of dynamics in soils

Description: The presented combination of stereo imaging and elemental mapping with soft X-ray microscopy reveals the spatial arrangement of naturally aqueous colloidal systems, e.g. iron oxides in soil colloid clusters. Changes in the spatial arrangement can be induced by manipulating the sample mounted to the X-ray microscope and thus be investigated directly.
Date: September 16, 2008
Creator: Gleber, S.-C.; Sedlmair, J.; Bertilson, M.; von Hofsten, O.; Heim, S.; Guttmann, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Flow Accelerated Corrosion Experience at Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station

Description: Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) is a major concern in the power industry as it causes thinning of the pipes by the dissolution of the passive oxide layer formed on the pipe surface. Present research deals with comparing the protection offered by the magnetite (Fe3O4) versus maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) phases thickness loss measurements. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is used in distinguishing these two elusive phases of iron oxides. Representative pipes are collected from high pressure steam extraction line of the secondary cycle of unit 2 of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES). Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) is used for morphological analysis. FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are used for phase analysis. Morphological analysis showed the presence of porous oxide surfaces with octahedral crystals, scallops and "chimney" like vents. FTIR revealed the predominance of maghemite at the most of the pipe sections. Results of thickness measurements indicate severe thickness loss at the bend areas (extrados) of the pipes.
Date: May 2008
Creator: Nakka, Ravi Kumar
Partner: UNT Libraries
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"Energetics of Nanomaterials"

Description: This project represents a three-year collaboration among Alexandra Navrotsky, Brian Woodfield, Juliana Bocrio-Goates and Frances Hellman. It's purpose has been to explore the differences between bulk materials, nanoparticles, and thin films in terms of their thermodynamic properties, with an emphasis on heat capacities and entropies, as well as enthalpies. The three groups have brought very different expertise and capabilities to the project. Navrotsky is a solid-state chemist and geochemist, with a unique Thermochemistry Facility emphasizing enthalpy of formation measurements by high temperature oxide melt and room temperature acid solution calorimetry. Bocrio-Goates and Woodfield are physical chemists with unique capabilities in accurate cryogenic heat capacity measurements using adiabatic calorimetry. Hellman is a physicist with expertise in magnetism and heat capacity measurements using microscale ''detector on a chip'' calorimetric technology that she pioneered. The overarching question of the work is ''How does the free energy play out in nanoparticles''? or ''How do differences in free energy affect overall nanoparticle behavior''? Because the free energy represents the temperature-dependent balance between the enthalpy of a system and its entropy, there are two separate, but related, components to the experimental investigations: Solution calorimetric measurements provide the energetics and two types of heat capacity measurements the entropy. They use materials that are well characterized in other ways (structurally, magnetically, and chemically), and samples are shared across the collaboration.
Date: January 31, 2005
Creator: Navrotsky, Professor Alexandra
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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CORROSION OF Fe-10Al-Cr ALLOYS BY COAL CHAR

Description: Corrosion of iron-base alloys at 982 C (1800 F) by coal char is observed and the phase morphologies discussed. No sulfidation was observed at 50 hours exposure. After 100 hours, internal aluminum-rich sulfides were observed along with thick outer scales of iron oxide. The species causing the high-temperature induced corrosion are probably sulfides and sulfates, present in most coal chars. Possible mechanisms for the corrosion are also discussed.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Gordon, B.A. & Nagarajan, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The role of nanopores on U(VI) sorption and redox behavior in U(VI)-contaminated subsurface sediments

Description: Most reactive surfaces in clay-dominated sediments are present within nanopores (pores of nm dimension). The behavior of geological fluids and minerals in nanopores is significantly different from those in normal non-nanoporous environments. The effect of nanopore surfaces on U(VI) sorption/desorption and reduction is likely to be significant in clay-rich subsurface environments. Our research results from both model nanopore system and natural sediments from both model system (synthetic nanopore alumina) and sediments from the ORNL Field Research Center prove that U(VI) sorption on nanopore surfaces can be greatly enhanced by nanopore confinement environments. The results from the project provide advanced mechanistic, quantitative information on the physiochemical controls on uranium sorption and redox behavior in subsurface sediments. The influence of nanopore surfaces on coupled uranium sorption/desorption and reduction processes is significant in virtually all subsurface environments, because most reactive surfaces are in fact nanopore surfaces. The results will enhance transfer of our laboratory-based research to a major field research initiative where reductive uranium immobilization is being investigated. Our results will also provide the basic science for developing in-situ colloidal barrier of nanoporous alumina in support of environmental remediation and long term stewardship of DOE sites.
Date: October 16, 2013
Creator: Xu, Huifang; Roden, Eric E.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Jung, Hun-Bok; Konishi, Hiromi; Boyanov, Maxim et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Zn-Site Determination in Protein Encapsulated ZnxFe3-xO4 Nanoparticles

Description: The X-ray absorption spectra of the Fe and Zn L-edges for 6.7 nm Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles grown inside 12 nm ferritin protein cages with 10%, 15%, 20% and 33% zinc doping, shows that the Zn is substitutional as Zn{sup 2+} within the iron oxide host structure. A Neel-Arrhenius plot of the blocking temperature in the frequency dependent ac-susceptibility measurements show that the particles are non-interacting and that the anisotropy energy barrier is reduced with Zn loading. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) of the Fe displays a linear decrease with Zn-doping in sharp contrast to the initial increase present in the bulk system. The most plausible explanation for the moment decrease is that Zn substitutes preferentially into the tetrahedral A-site as a Zn{sup 2+} cation, generating a mixed spinel.
Date: October 1, 2008
Creator: Pool, V. L.; Klem, M. T.; Holroyd, J.; Harris, T.; Arenholz, E.; Young, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Microbial acquisition of iron from ferric iron bearing minerals

Description: This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Iron is a universal requirement for all life forms. Although the fourth most abundant element in the geosphere, iron is virtually insoluble at physiological pH in oxidizing environments, existing mainly as very insoluble oxides and hydroxides. Currently it is not understood how iron is solubilized and made available for biological use. This research project addressed this topic by conducting a series of experiments that utilized techniques from both soil microbiology and mineral surface geochemistry. Microbiological analysis consisted of the examination of metabolic and physiological responses to mineral iron supplements. At the same time mineral surfaces were examined for structural changes brought about by microbially mediated dissolution. The results of these experiments demonstrated that (1) bacterial siderophores were able to promote the dissolution of iron oxides, (2) that strict aerobic microorganisms may use anaerobic processes to promote iron oxide dissolution, and (3) that it is possible to image the surface of iron oxides undergoing microbial dissolution.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Hersman, L.E. & Sposito, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Irreversible Sorption of Contaminants During Ferrihydrite Transformation

Description: A better understanding of the fraction of contaminants irreversibly sorbed by minerals is necessary to effectively quantify bioavailability. Ferrihydrite, a poorly crystalline iron oxide, is a natural sink for sorbed contaminants. Contaminants may be sorbed/occluded as ferrihydrite precipitates in natural waters or as it ages and transforms to more crystalline iron oxides such as goethite or hematite. Laboratory studies indicate that Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Np, Pb, Sr, U, and Zn are irreversibly sorbed to some extent during the aging and transformation of synthetic ferrihydrite. Barium, Ra and Sr are known to sorb on ferrihydrite in the pH range of 6 to 10 and sorb more strongly at pH values above its zero point of charge (pH> 8). We will review recent literature on metal retardation, including our laboratory and modeling investigation of Ba (as an analogue for Ra) and Sr adsorption/resorption, during ferrihydrite transformation to more crystalline iron oxides. Four ferrihydrite suspensions were aged at pH 12 and 50 °C with or without Ba in 0.01 M KN03 for 68 h or in 0.17 M KN03 for 3424 h. Two ferrihydrite suspensions were aged with and without Sr at pH 8 in 0.1 M KN03 at 70°C. Barium or Sr sorption, or resorption, was measured by periodically centrifuging suspension subsamples, filtering, and analyzing the filtrate for Ba or Sr. Solid subsamples were extracted with 0.2 M ammonium oxalate (pH 3 in the dark) and with 6 M HCl to determine the Fe and Ba or Sr attributed to ferrihydrite (or adsorbed on the goethite/hematite stiace) and the total Fe and Ba or Sr content, respectively. Barium or Sr occluded in goethite/hematite was determined by the difference between the total Ba or Sr and the oxalate extractable Ba or Sr. The percent transformation of ferrihydrite to goethite/hematite was estimated …
Date: May 19, 1999
Creator: Anderson, H. L.; Arthur, S. E.; Brady, P. V.; Cygan, R. T.; Nagy, K. L. & Westrich, H. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Influence of Iron Oxide Particles on the Strength of Ball-Milled Iron

Description: Detailed microstructural and mechanical property studies of ball-milled iron, in the powder and consolidated states, are reviewed and assessed. The analyses cover three and one-half orders of magnitude of grain size (from 6 nm to 20 mm) and focus on the influence of oxide particles on the strength. The study includes the early work of Koch and Yang, Kimura and Takaki and continues with the more recent work of Umemoto et al and Belyakov, Sakai et al. It is shown that the major contributors to strength are the nanooxide particles. These particles are created by adiabatic shear banding during ball-milling leading to a bimodal distribution of particles. The predicted strength from particles, {sigma}{sub p}, is given by {sigma}{sub p} = B {center_dot} (D*{sub S}){sup -1/2} where D*{sub S} is the surface-to-surface interparticle spacing, and B = 395 MPa {center_dot} {micro}m{sup -1/2}. A model is proposed that accounts for the influence of the bimodal particle size distribution on strength.
Date: December 7, 2005
Creator: Lesuer, D R; Syn, C K & Sherby, O D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Engineering Properties of Iron-Limonite Concrete for Construction of Biological Shields

Description: Introduction: "This letter is intended to provide a brief summary of the information presently available on the engineering properties of iron-linonite concrete with the view of adapting such concrete with the view of adapting such concrete for use as biological shielding material in a Hanford pile. By reducing materials and fabrication costs, such a adaptation might effect a savings of at least two million dollars per pile over the present iron-masonite laminated shield structure."
Date: January 30, 1952
Creator: Warren, Curtis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Oxidation in HVOF-sprayed steel

Description: It is widely held that most of the oxidation in thermally sprayed coatings occurs on the surface of the droplet after it has flattened. The evidence in this paper suggests that, for the conditions studied here, oxidation of the top surface of flattened droplets is not the dominant oxidation mechanism. In this study, a mild steel wire (AISI 1025) was sprayed using a high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) torch onto copper and aluminum substrates. Ion milling and Auger spectroscopy were used to examine the distribution of oxides within individual splats. Conventional metallographic analysis was also used to study oxide distributions within coatings that were sprayed under the same conditions. An analytical model for oxidation of the exposed surface of a splat is presented. Based on literature data, the model assumes that diffusion of iron through a solid FeO layer is the rate limiting factor in forming the oxide on the top surface of a splat. An FeO layer only a few thousandths of a micron thick is predicted to form on the splat surface as it cools. However, the experimental evidence shows that the oxide layers are typically 100x thicker than the predicted value. These thick, oxide layers are not always observed on the top surface of a splat. Indeed, in some instances the oxide layer is on the bottom, and the metal is on the top. The observed oxide distributions are more consistently explained if most of the oxide formed before the droplets impact the substrate.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Smith, M. F.; Neiser, R. A. & Dykhuizen, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Electrodissolution of electrodeposited iron oxides

Description: Galvanostatic reduction of ferric oxide was studied in phosphate solutions over a range of pH values. The oxides were prepared on gold by anodic electrodeposition from dilute ferrous borate solution. With increased pH, the potential of the reduction arrests decreased and the charge associated with the arrest increased. A dependence of -60 mV/pH was observed except between pH 7.5 and 8.5 where the slope approximated -180 mV/pH. Above pH 7.5 the slope was consistent with the thermodynamic predicted slope of -180 mV/pH expected from reductive dissolution of ferric oxide forming soluble ferrous ions. At higher pH values, a slope of -60 mV/pH has been accounted for by oxide reduction to form a solid lower valent oxide.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Isaacs, H. S.; Ryan, M. P.; Kalonousky, D. N. & Virtanen, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Materials to be used for radionuclide transport experiments (milestones SPL3A1M4)

Description: Experiments to determine the effect of canister corrosion products on the transport of radionuclides will be undertaken using the FE(III) oxides goethite and hematite as proxies for the expected corrosion envelope that will form as a result of alteration of the corrosion allowance overpack prior to the breaching of the waste container. Samples of ESF invert concrete that have been crushed, or left intact but fractured, and that have been subjected to hydrothermal alteration will be used to determine the effect of cementitious materials on transport of radionuclides. A mixture of CaCO{sub 3}, Si0{sub 2}, and aggregate will be used as a proxy for completely carbonated concrete.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Viani, B., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Magnetic Particle Process Improvement

Description: The magnetic particle testing process is performed to find linear, surface and near surface discontinuities in ferromagnetic test materials. A wet fluorescent method is used at Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T). This method employs a liquid carrier mixed with iron oxide particles in suspension, and the particles used in the method are coated with a fluorescent dye to make them visible under a black light. The process in its current state employs the use of a tank of liquid solution of a mineral oil carrier with iron oxide particles in suspension. The change to the use of an aerosol delivery system with the same material reduces the amount of waste involved in the process while preserving the sensitivity of the testing, shortens the flowtime for the test, and saves labor and material costs.
Date: August 13, 2002
Creator: Hubert, R. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Charge distribution analysis of catalysts under simulated reaction conditions. Technical progress report: Tenth quarter, January 1--March 31, 1995

Description: As pointed out in the Ninth Quarterly Technical Progress Report, the CDA instrument had to be rebuilt in its entirety, using a replacement weighing mechanism from Perkin-Elmer Corporation. In addition it was equipped with two 1,000 W infrared heaters. Following extensive tests with the new system using single crystal MgO calibration standards, the authors prepared a pressed pellet of the high surface area Iron Oxide Catalyst No. 7 from the available powder and began its dielectric polarization and surface charges. The overall F{sub {Sigma}}(T) behavior of this iron oxide catalyst under study is consistent with either an increased polarization of structural defects in the iron oxide grains or the appearance of mobile charge carriers which polarize in the applied electric field.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Freund, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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INVESTIGATION OF MECHANICAL METHODS OF SCALE REMOVAL FROM HRT HEAT EXCHANGERS

Description: Tests were conducted to determine methods of removing scale deposits from the HRT heat exchangers. A mockup of the heat exchanger header was cleared of a deposit of iron rust by reverse flushing at a flow rate below 75 gpm. A tube bundle consisting of 109 1/4 in OD X 0.049 in. wall tubes was plugged with rust. Approximately 80% of these tubes were unplugged by using a 70 psi water pressure differential in combination with vibration from a pneumatic rivet gun. No mechanical method was employed in the tests which could clear the remaining tubes. (auth)
Date: July 21, 1959
Creator: Gabbard, C.H.; Eissenberg, D.M.; Moyers, J.C. & Namba, I.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Defect structure of the mixed-conducting Sr-Fe-Co-O system

Description: Electrical conductivity of the mixed-conducting Sr-Fe-Co-O system was investigated at high temperatures and various oxygen partial pressures (pO2). The system exhibits not only high combined electrical and oxygen ionic conductivities but also structural stability in both oxidizing and reducing environments. Conductivity of SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub x} increases with temperature and pO2, within the experiment pO2 range (1-10{sup -18} atm). p-type conduction was observed, the activity energy of which decreases with pO2. A model of the defect chemistry in the Sr-Fe-Co-O system is proposed. The pO2- dependent conducting behavior can be understood by considering the trivalent-to-divalent transition of the transition metal ions in the system.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Ma, B.; Balachandran, U.; Chao, C.-C. & Park, J.-H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Influence of Microbial Iron and Nitrate Reduction on Subsurface Iron Biogeochemistry and Contaminant Metal Mobilization

Description: Although toxic metal and radionuclide contaminants can not be destroyed, their toxicity and mobility can be dramatically altered by microbial activity. In addition to toxic metals, many contaminated sites contain both iron-containing minerals and co-contaminants such as nitrate NO{sub 3}{sup -}. Successful implementation of metal and radionuclide bioremediation strategies in such environments requires an understanding of the complex microbial and geochemical interactions that influence the redox speciation and mobility of toxic metals. Our specific objectives have been to (1) determine the effect of iron oxide mineral reduction on the mobility of sorbed, representative toxic metals (Zn{sup 2+}), (2) study the biogeochemical interactions that may occur during microbial reduction of NO{sub 3}{sup -} and iron oxide minerals, and (3) evaluate the kinetics of NO{sub 3}{sup -}-dependent, microbial oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe{sup 2+}).
Date: April 10, 2002
Creator: Picardal, Flynn W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The concept of delayed nucleation in nanocrystal growthdemonstrated for the case of iron oxide nanodisks

Description: A comprehensive study of iron oxide nanocrystal growth through non-hydrolitic, surfactant-mediated thermal reaction of iron pentacarbonyl and an oxidizer has been conducted, which includes size control, anisotropic shape evolution, and crystallographic phase transition of monodisperse iron oxide colloidal nanocrystals. The reaction was monitored by in situ UV-Vis spectroscopy taking advantage of the color change accompanying the iron oxide colloid formation allowing measurement of the induction time for nucleation. Features of the synthesis such as the size control and reproducibility are related to the occurrence of the observed delayed nucleation process. As a separate source of iron and oxygen is adopted, phase control could also be achieved by sequential injections of oxidizer.
Date: September 9, 2005
Creator: Casula, Maria F.; Jun, Young-wook; Zaziski, David J.; Chan, EmoryM.; Corrias, Anna & Alivisatos, A. Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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