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Description: Tokamaks are, in many respects, the most promising avenue for the development of fusion power. The continual improvement in the performance of these devices and their understanding of them is due in greater measure to the development of accurate plasma diagnostics. Many of the most crucial measurements required to assess their progress on these experiments are based in one way or another upon collisional interactions of injected neutral beams with the plasma. These measurements include such fundamental parameters as the ion temperature, rotation, and density profiles, electric and magnetic field structure, and local studies of the plasma turbulent transport. Maximizing the obtained information for a given geometry of plasma, beams, and possible viewchords represents an interesting challenge to the experimentalist. Advances in detector and analysis techniques allow them to take full advantage of the beam/plasma emission for these measurements.
Date: September 1, 2000
Creator: THOMAS, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improvements in the CHERS system for DT experiments on TFTR

Description: Improvements in the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) system have resulted in accurate measurements of T{sub i} and V{sub {phi}} profiles during DT experiments. These include moving the spectrometer detector array and electronics farther away from the tokamak to a low neutron flux location. This relocation has also improved access to all components of the system. Also, a nonplasma-viewing calibration fiber system was added to monitor the change in fiber transmission due to the high flux DT neutrons. Narrowband filtered light transmitted through the calibration fiber is now used as a reference for the VO measurement. At the highest neutron flux of {approximately} 2.5 {times} 10{sup 18} neutrons/see (fusion power {approximately} 6.2 MW) a modest 5% decrease in fiber transmission was observed. Corrections for transmission loss are made and T{sub i} (r,t) and absolute V{sub phi} (r,t) profiles are automatically calculated within four minutes of every shot.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Bush, C.E.; Bell, R. & Synakowski, E.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of ion-temperature-gradient turbulence in tokamaks

Description: Results are presented from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence and transport. The gyrokinetic simulations are found to yield values of the thermal diffusivity significantly lower than gyrofluid or IFS-PPPL-model predictions. A new phenomenon of nonlinear effective critical gradients larger than the linear instability threshold gradients is observed, and is associated with undamped flux-surface-averaged shear flows. The nonlinear gyrokineic codes have passed extensive validity tests which include comparison against independent linear calculations, a series of nonlinear convergence tests, and a comparison between two independent nonlinear gyrokinetic codes. Our most realistic simulations to date have actual reconstructed equilibria from experiments and a model for dilution by impurity and beam ions. These simulations highlight the need for still more physics to be included in the simulations
Date: October 14, 1998
Creator: Cohen, B I; Dimits, A M; Kim, C; Mattor, N; Nevins, W M; Parker, S E et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shear flow effects on ion thermal transport in tokamaks

Description: From various laboratory and numerical experiments, there is clear evidence that under certain conditions the presence of sheared flows in a tokamak plasma can significantly reduce the ion thermal transport. In the presence of plasma fluctuations driven by the ion temperature gradient, the flows of energy and momentum parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field are coupled with each other. This coupling manifests itself as significant off-diagonal coupling coefficients that give rise to new terms for anomalous transport. The authors derive from the gyrokinetic equation a set of velocity moment equations that describe the interaction among plasma turbulent fluctuations, the temperature gradient, the toroidal velocity shear, and the poloidal flow in a tokamak plasma. Four coupled equations for the amplitudes of the state variables radially extended over the transport region by toroidicity induced coupling are derived. The equations show bifurcations from the low confinement mode without sheared flows to high confinement mode with substantially reduced transport due to strong shear flows. Also discussed is the reduced version with three state variables. In the presence of sheared flows, the radially extended coupled toroidal modes driven by the ion temperature gradient disintegrate into smaller, less elongated vortices. Such a transition to smaller spatial correlation lengths changes the transport from Bohm-like to gyrobohm-like. The properties of these equations are analyzed. The conditions for the improved confined regime are obtained as a function of the momentum-energy deposition rates and profiles. The appearance of a transport barrier is a consequence of the present theory.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Tajima, T.; Horton, W.; Dong, J.Q. & Kishimoto, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental Study of Ion Heating and Acceleration During Magnetic Reconnection

Description: Ion heating and acceleration has been studied in the well-characterized reconnection layer of the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment [M. Yamada et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)]. Ion temperature in the layer rises substantially during null-helicity reconnection in which reconnecting field lines are anti-parallel. The plasma out flow is sub-Alfvonic due to a downstream back pressure. An ion energy balance calculation based on the data and including classical viscous heating indicates that the ions are heated largely due to non-classical mechanisms. The Ti rise is much smaller during co-helicity reconnection in which field lines reconnect obliquely. This is consistent with a slower reconnection rate and a smaller resistivity enhancement over the Spitzer value. These observations indicate strongly that non-classical dissipation mechanisms can play an important role both in heating the ions and in facilitating the reconnection process.
Date: October 24, 2000
Creator: Hsu, S.C.; Carter, T.A.; Fiksel, G.; Ji, H.; Kulsrud, R.M. & Yamada, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thomson scattering from laser plasmas

Description: Thomson scattering has recently been introduced as a fundamental diagnostic of plasma conditions and basic physical processes in dense, inertial confinement fusion plasmas. Experiments at the Nova laser facility [E. M. Campbell et al., Laser Part. Beams 9, 209 (1991)] have demonstrated accurate temporally and spatially resolved characterization of densities, electron temperatures, and average ionization levels by simultaneously observing Thomson scattered light from ion acoustic and electron plasma (Langmuir) fluctuations. In addition, observations of fast and slow ion acous- tic waves in two-ion species plasmas have also allowed an independent measurement of the ion temperature. These results have motivated the application of Thomson scattering in closed-geometry inertial confinement fusion hohlraums to benchmark integrated radiation-hydrodynamic modeling of fusion plasmas. For this purpose a high energy 4{omega} probe laser was implemented recently allowing ultraviolet Thomson scattering at various locations in high-density gas-filled hohlraum plasmas. In partic- ular, the observation of steep electron temperature gradients indicates that electron thermal transport is inhibited in these gas-filled hohlraums. Hydrodynamic calcula- tions which include an exact treatment of large-scale magnetic fields are in agreement with these findings. Moreover, the Thomson scattering data clearly indicate axial stagnation in these hohlraums by showing a fast rise of the ion temperature. Its timing is in good agreement with calculations indicating that the stagnating plasma will not deteriorate the implosion of the fusion capsules in ignition experiments.
Date: January 12, 1999
Creator: Moody, J D; Alley, W E; De Groot, J S; Estabrook, K G; Glenzer, S H; Hammer, J H et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of micro-instabilities in toroidal plasmas with negative magnetic shear

Description: The micro-instabilities driven by a parallel velocity shear, and a temperature gradient of ions are studied in toroidal plasmas with negative magnetic shear. Both the fluid and the gyro-kinetic formulations are investigated. It is found that for a broad range of parameters, the linear growth rates of the modes are lower, and the threshold temperature gradient {eta}{sub icr} is higher for plasmas with negative magnetic shear compared to plasmas with positive magnetic shear of equal magnitude. The reduction in the growth rate (with negative shear), although not insignificant, does not seem to be enough to account for the dramatic improvement in the confinement observed experimentally. Other possible physical mechanisms for the improved confinement are discussed.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Dong, J.Q.; Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M. & Guzdar, P.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal effects in intense laser-plasma interactions

Description: We present an overview of a new warm fluid model that incorporates leading-order kinetic corrections to the cold fluid model without making any near-equilibrium assumptions. In the quasi-static limit we obtain analytical expressions for the momentum spread and show excellent agreement with solutions of the full time-dependant equations. It is shown that over a large range of initial plasma temperatures, the fields are relatively insensitive to the pressure force. We discuss implications of this work for model validation.
Date: October 22, 2004
Creator: Shadwick, B.A.; Tarkenton, G.M. & Esarey, E.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode is a likely contributor to electron thermal transport in tokamaks. The ETG modes are dominantly unstable for poloidal wavelengths shorter than the ion gyroradius (high-k) where the ion response is adiabatic. Thus, they do not directly produce ion thermal or momentum transport or particle transport. Two potential mechanisms whereby ETG modes could produce transport in these channels are explored in this paper: a nonlinear coupling between high-k ETG modes and ions at low-k and a direct coupling when ETG modes and ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes are unstable in overlapping wavenumber ranges. It will be shown that the particle and momentum transport required to match experiment is small compared to the ETG driven electron thermal transport. Even quasilinearly ETG modes can produce ion transport if the ITG and ETG modes are both unstable at low-k. The implications of this for transport will be explored at the quasilinear level. A new gyro-Landau-fluid (GLF) closure model has been constructed in order to build a transport model which can include the coupling between electron and ion modes including trapped particles. The first growth rate spectra from this model will be shown to give an accurate approximation to the kinetic linear growth rates of drift-ballooning modes in tokamaks.
Date: July 2, 2004
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluctuation Measurements in Tokamaks with Microwave Imaging Reflectometry

Description: To study the mechanism of anomalous transport in tokamaks requires the use of sophisticated diagnostic tools for the measurement of short-scale turbulent fluctuations. In this article, we describe an attempt at developing a technique capable of providing a comprehensive description of plasma fluctuations with k(subscript parallel rho i) < 1, such as such as those driven by the Ion Temperature Gradient mode in tokamaks. The proposed method is based on microwave reflectometry, and stems from a series of numerical calculations showing that the spatial structure of fluctuations near the cutoff could be obtained from the phase of reflected waves when these are collected with a wide aperture optical system forming an image of the cutoff onto an array of phase sensitive detectors. Preliminary measurements with a prototype apparatus on the Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research 94 (TEXTOR-94) [U. Samm, Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Symposium on Fusion Engineering, 1995 (IEEE, Piscata way, NJ, 1995), p. 470] confirm the validity of these conclusions. Technical issues in the application of the proposed technique to tokamaks are discussed in this article, and the conceptual design of an imaging reflectometer for the visualization of turbulent fluctuations in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] is described.
Date: December 3, 2001
Creator: Mazzucato, E.; Munsat, T.; Park, H.; Deng, B.H.; Domier, C.W.; N.C. Luhmann, Jr. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Size Scaling of Turbulent Transport in Magnetically Confined Plasmas

Description: Transport scaling with respect to device size in magnetically confined plasmas is critically examined for electrostatic ion temperature gradient turbulence using global gyrokinetic particle simulations. It is found, by varying device size normalized by ion gyroradius while keeping other dimensionless plasma parameters fixed, that fluctuation scale length is microscopic in the presence of zonal flows. The local transport coefficient exhibits a gradual transition from a Bohm-like scaling for device sizes corresponding to present-day experiments to a gyro-Bohm scaling for future larger devices.
Date: April 5, 2002
Creator: Lin, Z.; Ethier, S.; Hahm, T.S. & Tang, W.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EXB-Drift, Current, and Kinetic Effects on Divertor Plasma Profiles During ELMs

Description: The transient heat load on divertor surfaces from Edge-Localized Modes (ELMs) in tokamaks can be very large and thus of concern for a large device such as ITER. Models for kinetic modifications to fluid models are discussed that should allow them to reasonably describe the long mean-free path regime encountered owing to the high electron and ion temperatures in the SOL during large ELMs. A set of two-dimensional (2D) simulations of the dynamic response of the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma to an ELM is presented. The role of plasma currents and E x B motion is emphasized, which cause large changes in the response compared to models neglecting them.
Date: May 23, 2002
Creator: Rognlien, T.D. & Shimada, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Imaging with Spherically Bent Crystals or Reflectors

Description: This paper consists of two parts: Part I describes the working principle of a recently developed x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, where the astigmatism of spherically bent crystals is being used with advantage to record spatially resolved spectra of highly charged ions for Doppler measurements of the ion-temperature and toroidal plasmarotation- velocity profiles in tokamak plasmas. This type of spectrometer was thoroughly tested on NSTX and Alcator C-Mod, and its concept was recently adopted for the design of the ITER crystal spectrometers. Part II describes imaging schemes, where the astigmatism has been eliminated by the use of matched pairs of spherically bent crystals or reflectors. These imaging schemes are applicable over a wide range of the electromagnetic radiation, which includes microwaves, visible light, EUV radiation, and x-rays. Potential applications with EUV radiation and x-rays are the diagnosis of laserproduced plasmas, imaging of biological samples with synchrotron radiation, and lithography.
Date: June 1, 2010
Creator: Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Scott, S.; Ince-Cushman, A.; Reinke, M.; Podpaly, Y. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ICF Program: LDRD-ER Final Report

Description: In the 01-ERD-107 LDRD-ER project, we have performed novel Thomson scattering experiments at the Trident and Omega laser facilities and provided high quality spectral data. These results have led to the development of the first quantitative understanding of laser-plasma interactions for NIF plasmas. For this purpose an green/ultraviolet probe laser, built for Nova in 1998 [1] and successfully used to measure both temperature and plasma wave amplitudes [2], has been deployed on Omega. The Thomson scattering diagnostics has been used twofold: (1) it provided independent measurements of the plasma electron and ion temperature, the plasma flow velocity, or the electron distribution function; (2) it provided measurements of the primary plasma wave and their secondary non-linear decay wave products. These experiments at Omega provide definitive quantitative results on the nonlinear saturation of stimulated Raman scattering for green (2{omega}) beams. In addition, the experiments on the Trident laser have led to a quantitative understanding of the stimulated Brillouin scattering in low-Z plasmas. A nonlinear frequency detuning model has successfully explained all the experimental observable including the SBS reflectivity. This model has been implemented into the laser-plasma interaction code pF3D as a tool to design and optimize NIF target experiments with SBS and SRS losses included. The development of quantitative models for SBS and SRS for various regimes has now been adopted as part of the WBS1 project within the ICF program.
Date: February 5, 2004
Creator: Glenzer, S H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultrasfast Dynamics in Dense Hydrogen Explored at Flash

Description: The short pulse duration and high intensity of the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) allows us to generate and probe homogeneous warm dense non-equilibrium hydrogen within a single extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light pulse. By analyzing the spectrum of the 13.5 nm Thomson scattered light we determine the plasma temperature and density. We find that classical models of this interaction are in good agreement with our dense plasma conditions. In a FEL-pump FEL-probe experiment droplets of liquid hydrogen and their scattering behavior for different pump-probe setups were observed under 20{sup o} and 90{sup o}. We find that the scattering behavior of the scattered intensity depends on the scattering angle.
Date: August 1, 2011
Creator: Hilbert, V; Zastrau, U; Neumayer, P; Hochhaus, D; Toleikis, S; Harmand, M et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ignition Failure Mode Radiochemical Diagnostics Initial Assessment

Description: Radiochemical diagnostic signatures are well known to be effective indicators of nuclear ignition and burn reaction conditions. Nuclear activation is already a reliable technique to measure yield. More comprehensively, though, important quantities such as fuel areal density and ion temperature might be separately and more precisely monitored by a judicious choice of select nuclear reactions. This report details an initial assessment of this approach to diagnosing ignition failures on point-design cryogenic National Ignition Campaign targets. Using newly generated nuclear reaction cross section data for Scandium and Iridium, modest uniform doping of the innermost ablator region provides clearly observable reaction product differences between robust burn and failure for either element. Both equatorial and polar tracer loading yield observable, but indistinguishable, signatures for either choice of element for the preliminary cases studied.
Date: April 20, 2007
Creator: Fortner, R; Bernstein, L; Cerjan, C; Haan, S W; Harding, R; Hatchett, S et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetic stochasticity in gyrokinetic simulations of plasma microturbulence

Description: Analysis of the magnetic field structure from electromagnetic simulations of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence demonstrates that the magnetic field can be stochastic even at very low plasma pressure. The degree of magnetic stochasticity is quantified by evaluating the magnetic diffusion coefficient. We find that the magnetic stochasticity fails to produce a dramatic increase in the electron heat conductivity because the magnetic diffusion coefficient remains small.
Date: February 12, 2010
Creator: Nevins, W M; Wang, E & Candy, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calibration techniques for a fast duo-spectrometer

Description: The authors have completed the upgrade and calibration of the Ion Dynamics Spectrometer (IDS), a high-speed Doppler duo-spectrometer which measures ion flow and temperature in the MST Reversed-field Pinch. This paper describes an in situ calibration of the diagnostic`s phase and frequency response. A single clock was employed to generate both a digital test signal and a digitizer trigger thus avoiding frequency drift and providing a highly resolved measurement over the system bandwidth. Additionally, they review the measurement of the spectrometer instrument function and absolute intensity response. This calibration and subsequent performance demonstrate the IDS to be one of the fastest, highest throughput diagnostics of its kind. Typical measurements are presented.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Chapman, J.T. & Den Hartog, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental tests of transport models using modulated ECH

Description: Both the dynamic and equilibrium thermal responses of an L-mode plasma to repetitive ECH heat pulses were measured and compared to predictions from several thermal transport models. While no model consistently agreed with all observations, the GLF23 model was most consistent with the perturbated electron and ion temperature responses for one of the cases studied which may indicate a key role played by electron modes in the core of these discharges. Generally, the IIF and MM models performed well for the perturbed electron response while the GLF23 and IFS/PPPL models agreed with the perturbed ion response for all three cases studied. No single model agreed well with the equilibrium temperature profiles measured.
Date: December 1998
Creator: DeBoo, J. C.; Kinsey, J. E. & Bravenec, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Positive and negative chlorine ion kinetics in inductively-coupled Cl{sub 2}BCl{sub 3} plasmas

Description: Discharges in gas mixtures of Cl{sub 2}, BCl{sub 3}, Ar, and N{sub 2} are used by the integrated circuit industry for metal etching, and are as yet not well understood, especially in inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) sources which are rapidly becoming the industry standard for etching tools. An essential parameter that must be measured in these plasmas is the density of ions, both positive and negative, formed in the plasma. In the work presented here, LIF and laser photodetachment were used to measure relative metastable chlorine ion CL{sup +}* density and temperature and absolute Cl{sup {minus}} density as a function of gas mixture.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Fleddermann, C.B. & Hebner, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing the {rho}* scaling of thermal transport models: predicted and measured temperatures in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor dimensionless scaling experiments

Description: Theoretical predictions of ion and electron thermal diffusivities are tested by comparing calculated and measured temperatures in low (L) mode plasmas from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [D. J. Grove and D. M. Meade, Nucl. Fusion 25 , 1167 (1985)] nondimensional scaling experiments. The DIII-D [J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8 , 441 (1985)] L-mode {rho}* scalings, the transport models of Rebut-Lallia-Watkins (RLW), Boucher`s modification of RLW, and the Institute for Fusion Studies-Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (IFS-PPPL) model for transport due to ion temperature gradient modes are tested. The predictions use the measured densities in order to include the effects of density profile shape variations on the transport models. The uncertainties in the measured and predicted temperatures are discussed. The predictions based on the DIII- D scalings are within the measurement uncertainties. All the theoretical models predict a more favorable {rho}* dependence for the ion temperatures than is seen. Preliminary estimates indicate that sheared ow stabilization is important for some discharges, and that inclusion of its effects may bring the predictions of the IFS-PPPL model into agreement with the experiments.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Mikkelsen, D.R.; Scott, S.D. & Dorland, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of the conditions for spontaneous H-mode transitions in DIII-D

Description: A series of scaling studies attempting to correlate the H(high)-mode power threshold (P{sub TH}) with global parameters have been conducted. Data from these discharges is also being used to look for dependence of P{sub TH} on local edge parameters and to test theories of the transition. Boronization and better operational techniques have resulted in lower power thresholds and weaker density scaling. Neon impurity injection experiments show that radiation also plays a role in determining P{sub TH}. A low density threshold for the L(low)-H(high) transition has been linked with the locked mode low density limit, and can be reduced with the use of an error field correcting coil. Highly developed edge diagnostics, with spatial resolution as low as 5 mm, are used to evaluate how the power threshold depends on local edge conditions. Preliminary analysis of local edge conditions for parameter scans of n{sub e}, B{sub T}, and I{sub p} in single-null discharges, and the X-point imbalance in double-null discharges-show that, just before the transition to H-mode, the edge temperatures near the separatrix are approximately constant at 100 < T{sub i} < 220 eV and 35 < T{sub e} < 130 eV, even though the threshold power varied from 1.5 to 14 MW. During a density scan, the edge ion collisionality, v{sub *i}, varied from 2 to 17, demonstrating that a transition condition as simple as v{sub *i} = constant is inconsistent with the data. The local edge parameters of n{sub e}, T{sub e}, and T{sub i} do not always follow the same global scaling as P{sub TH}. Therefore, theories of the L-H transition need not be constrained by these scalings.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Carlstrom, T.N. & Groebner, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advances in the simulation of toroidal gyro Landau fluid model turbulence

Description: The gyro-Landau fluid (GLF) model equations for toroidal geometry have been recently applied to the study ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence using the 3D nonlinear ballooning mode representation (BMR). The present paper extends this work by treating some unresolved issues conceming ITG turbulence with adiabatic electrons. Although eddies are highly elongated in the radial direction long time radial correlation lengths are short and comparable to poloidal lengths. Although transport at vanishing shear is not particularly large, transport at reverse global shear, is significantly less. Electrostatic transport at moderate shear is not much effected by inclusion of local shear and average favorable curvature. Transport is suppressed when critical E{times}B rotational shear is comparable to the maximum linear growth rate with only a weak dependence on magnetic shear. Self consistent turbulent transport of toroidal momentum can result in a transport bifurcation at suffciently large r/(Rq). However the main thrust of the new formulation in the paper deals with advances in the development of finite beta GLF models with trapped electron and BMR numerical methods for treating the fast parallel field motion of the untrapped electrons.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Waltz, R. E.; Kerbel, G. D.; Milovich, J. & Hammett, G. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heatpulse Propagation Studies on DIII-D and TFTR

Description: Sawtooth phenomena have been studied on DIII-D and TFTR. In the experiments, with high power neutral beam injection the sawtooth characteristics were studied with fast electron temperature (ECE) and soft x-ray diagnostics. A strong ballistic electron heat pulse is found on DIII-D, stronger than was previously reported on TFTR. Evidence is presented in this paper that the ballistic effect is related to the sawtooth precursor. Fast, 2 msec interval, measurements on DIII-D were made of the ion temperature evolution following the sawtooth to document the ion heat pulse characteristics. It is found that the ion heat pulse does not exhibit the very fast, ''ballistic'' behavior seen for the electrons. Further, both the electron and ion heat pulses from partial sawtooth crashes and similar events are seen to propagate at speeds close to those expected from the power balance calculations of the thermal diffusivities. These results suggest that the fast sawtooth induced heat pulse propagation is not a feature of non-linear transport models, but that MHD events can have a strong effect on thermal transport.
Date: April 19, 2000
Creator: Fredrickson, E.; Austin, M.E.; Groebner, R.; Manicham, J. & al, et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department