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Design and Parameterization of a Coral Reef Ecosystem Model for Guam

Description: Report that gathers and analyzes environmental, habitat, biological, and fishery data from diverse sources. These data help identify information gaps, such as, near-shore habitat data, biomass and abundance data of invertebrate species, chlorophyll-a data at different depths and certain life history parameters for invertebrates and fish.
Date: November 2014
Creator: Weijerman, Mariska; Kaplan, Isaac; Fulton, Elizabeth; Gordon, Bec; Grafeld, Shanna & Brainard, Rusty
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toxicological Benchmarks for Screening Potential Contaminants of Concern for Effects on Soil and Litter Invertebrates and Heterotrophic Process

Description: This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for the purpose of ''contaminant screening,'' performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals. The work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure (Activity Data Sheet 8304). In addition, this report presents sets of data concerning the effects of chemicals in soil on invertebrates and soil microbial processes, benchmarks for chemicals potentially associated with United States Department of Energy sites, and literature describing the experiments from which data were drawn for benchmark derivation.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Will, M. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reconnaissance of Surface-Water Resources in the Kobuk River Basin, Alaska, 1979-80

Description: From introduction: This report contains data on physiographic and climatic characteristics of the Kobuk River basin, as well as stream channel hydraulic properties, seasonal quantity and quality of surface waters, floods, channel erosion, and benthic invertebrates. The data show the magnitude and ranges of stream discharge, width, depth, and velocity, of flow that can be expected in late winter and summer periods, and indicate flood and erosion hazards in the basin.
Date: 1983
Creator: Childers, Joseph M. & Kernodle, Donald R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Hanford Pile Effluent Upon Aquatic Invertebrates in the Columbia River

Description: Abstract: "This is the preliminary report of a radiological-ecological survey of the invertebrate fauna that inhabit the Columbia River within the confines of Hanford Works and downstream to the site of McNary Dam. The survey was carried out during the period of October, 1948 through February, 1950. Materials and methods are discussed and the results of extensive radioassays, qualitative and quantitative biological determinations, and hydrographic studies are given and analyzed. Twelve figures and twenty-three tables are included. All aquatic invertebrates were found to be concentrating radioactivity from the river water. A maximum activity density of 4.4-10-(-3) μc/g wet weight was found in the larvae of midges (Hydrobaeninae) collected near Hanford during September, 1949. Radioactive wastes were not found to be causing any apparent deleterious effects to the natural invertebrate fauna. Existing population variations are caused by biological and hydrographic conditions."
Date: January 19, 1951
Creator: Davis, Jared J. & Cooper, Calvin L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Taxonomic and developmental aspects of radiosensitivity

Description: Considerable information is available on the effects of radioactivity on adult and early life stages of organisms. The preponderance of data is on mortality after a single irradiation with relatively high doses. Unfortunately, because experiments were carried out under different conditions and for different time periods, the validity of comparing the results from different laxonomic groups is questionable. In general, the conclusions are that there is a relationship (1) between radioresistance to high doses of acute radiation and taxonomy of the organism, primitive forms being more radioresistant than complex vertebrates and (2) between radiosensitivity and developmental stage, early life stages being more sensitive than later stages. The first conclusion may be related to the capability of the organism to repopulate cells and to differentiate and redifferentiate them; the second to the rate of cellular division and to the degree of differentiation. In question, however, is the relevance of the responses from high levels of acute radiation to that of the responses to long-term exposure to low levels of radiation, which are ecologically of more interest. Data from studies of the effects of acute and chronic exposure on development of gametes and zygotes indicate that, for some fishes and invertebrates, responses at the cellular and molecular levels show effect levels comparable to those observed in some mammals. Acute doses between 0,05 and 0.5Cy and dose rates between 0.02 to 0.2mCy/h appear to define critical ranges in which detrimental effects on fertility are first observed in a variety of radiosensitive organisms. To better understand inherent radiosensitivity, we need more information on the ability of cells to repopulate and differentiate and to prevent or repair damage to biological critical molecules, such as DNA, because these factors may alter significantly organisms` responses to radiation.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Harrison, F.L. & Anderson, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selected Water Resources Data, Clarion River and Redbank Creek Basins, Northwestern Pennsylvania--Part 2

Description: Abstract: This report presents selected basic data collected during a study of the water resources of the Clarion River and Redbank Creek basins in northwestern Pennsylvania. Hydrologic information including data on aquifers, water levels, and yields is presented for 1,304 wells. Records for 51 springs are also given. The report contains 83 chemical analyses of water samples collected from 30 stream sites and 300 analyses of water from 196 wells and 43 springs. Also included are 103 trace-elements analyses. Monthly and annual means of ground-water levels for six observation wells are tabulated. Benthic invertebrate data from 136 stream sites are listed. Locations of data-collection sites are shown on 50 page-size reductions of 7.5-minute topographic quadrangle maps.
Date: July 1979
Creator: Buckwalter, Theodore F.; Dodge, Clifford H. & Schiner, George R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Heteranthera Dubia (Jacq.) MacM.-associated Macroinvertebrates Between Georgraphical Regions in the United States

Description: Macroinvertebrates associated with the aquatic plant, water stargrass (Heteranthera dubia), were sampled from 12 waterbodies in four regions of the United States from June to August 2005. Taxa richness, evenness, and diversity were lowest in the Lower Midwest (LMW) region, and higher in Northern sites, especially the Upper Midwest (UMW), and Northeast (NE). While relative abundance varied from site to site and region to region, utilization of the plant by functional groups remained fairly constant. Collector-gatherers consistently comprised the largest portion of invertebrates sampled. The shredder/ herbivore functional group comprised an average of 17 % of total groups. Through an exhaustive literature review, it was found that shredder/ herbivores of water stargrass have not been reported in the literature. Because of this, the herbivore group was analyzed separately and consisted of 2,383 specimens representing 23 species. The most common groups were Rhopalosiphum sp., Nectopsyche spp. and chironomids. No differences were found in herbivore diversity or evenness between sampling regions, but species richness was significantly different.
Date: May 2010
Creator: Harms, Nathan Earl
Partner: UNT Libraries

Impacts of the Pyrethroid Insecticide Cyfluthrin on Aquatic Invertibrate Populations in Outdoor Experimental Tanks

Description: The chemical fate and biological impacts of cyfluthrin in aquatic ecosystems were investigated using microcosms (1.9 m^3 concrete tanks) during 1989. Results were compared to a concurrent pesticide registration study using mesocosms (634.7 m^3 earthen ponds). Ten spray drift and five soil runoff simulations were conducted. Pesticide loadings were scaled by system volume, with the same experimental design in ponds and microcosms. Aqueous cyfluthrin concentrations and sediment residue values were generally higher in microcosms, while aqueous half-life was shorter in the smaller systems.
Date: May 1992
Creator: Johnson, Philip C. (Philip Charles)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Colorado Formation and its Invertebrate Fauna

Description: From preface: The following review of one of the Upper Cretaceous faunas as developed in the interior region of the United States has grown out of the study of a collection of fossils found by me in Huerfano park and adjacent localities in southern Colorado. This collection, the greater part of which was obtained during the summer of 1890, proved to be especially interesting because it afforded data for the closer correlation of certain Cretaceous strata in Utah with those east of the mountains, besides adding a considerable number of new species to the fauna of the Colorado formation. Dr. C. A. White, under whose direction the field work was done, generously assigned these fossils to me for study with a view to publishing the results, and I am greatly indebted to his sympathetic aid in every phase of the work.
Date: 1893
Creator: Stanton, Timothy W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Calyptogena magnifica chemoautotrophic symbiont genome

Description: Chemoautotrophic endosymbionts are the metabolic cornerstone of hydrothermal vent communities, providing invertebrate hosts with nearly all of their nutrition. The Calyptogena magnifica (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae) symbiont, Candidatus Ruthia magnifica, is the first intracellular sulfur-oxidizing endosymbiont to have its genome sequenced, revealing a suite of metabolic capabilities. The genome encodes major chemoautotrophic pathways as well as pathways for biosynthesis of vitamins, cofactors, and all 20 amino acids required by the clam.
Date: March 1, 2007
Creator: Newton, I.L.; Woyke, T.; Auchtung, T.A.; Dilly, G.F.; Dutton,R.J.; Fisher, M.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 3, Appendix D

Description: In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this ER, there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constructing Section 8B with an interchange at SR416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER inventories the fishes and benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting the aquatic ecosystems potentially affected by the proposed construction of Section 8B. Stream biological surveys were completed at 31 stream sites during the Fall of 1994. The sampling strategy for both invertebrates and fish was to survey the different taxa from all available habitats. For benthic invertebrates, a ...
Date: July 1999
Creator: Blasing, T. J.; Cada, G. F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S. M.; Dickerman, J. A.; Etnier, D. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The impact of invertebrates to four aquatic macrophytes: Potamogeton nodosus, P. illinoensis, Vallisneria americana and Nymphaea mexicana.

Description: This research investigated the impact of invertebrates to four species of native aquatic macrophytes: V. americana, P. nodosus, P. illinoensis, and N. mexicana. Two treatments were utilized on each plant species, an insecticide treatment to remove most invertebrates and a non-treated control. Ten herbivore taxa were collected during the duration of the study including; Synclita, Paraponyx, Donacia, Rhopalosiphum, and Hydrellia. Macrophyte biomass differences between treatments were not measured for V. americana or N. mexicana. The biomasses of P. nodosus and P. illinoensis in non-treated areas were reduced by 40% and 63% respectively. This indicated that herbivory, once thought to be insignificant to aquatic macrophytes, can cause substantial reductions in biomass.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Nachtrieb, Julie Graham
Partner: UNT Libraries

Shape optimization of a sheet swimming over a thin liquid layer

Description: Motivated by the propulsion mechanisms adopted by gastropods, annelids and other invertebrates, we consider shape optimization of a flexible sheet that moves by propagating deformation waves along its body. The self-propelled sheet is separated from a rigid substrate by a thin layer of viscous Newtonian fluid. We use a lubrication approximation to model the dynamics and derive the relevant Euler-Lagrange equations to simultaneously optimize swimming speed, efficiency and fluid loss. We find that as the parameters controlling these quantities approach critical values, the optimal solutions become singular in a self-similar fashion and sometimes leave the realm of validity of the lubrication model. We explore these singular limits by computing higher order corrections to the zeroth order theory and find that wave profiles that develop cusp-like singularities are appropriately penalized, yielding non-singular optimal solutions. These corrections are themselves validated by comparison with finite element solutions of the full Stokes equations, and, to the extent possible, using recent rigorous a-priori error bounds.
Date: December 10, 2008
Creator: Wilkening, J. & Hosoi, A.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates

Description: In this progress report, we describe the preliminary experiments conducted with three fish and one invertebrate species to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. During fiscal year 2010, experiments were conducted with coho salmon (Onchrohychus kisutch), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). The work described supports Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask Electromagnetic Fields.
Date: October 13, 2010
Creator: Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Pratt, William J. & Roesijadi, Guritno
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Functional autonomy of distant-acting human enhancers

Description: Many human genes are associated with dispersed arrays of transcriptional enhancers that regulate their expression in time and space. Studies in invertebrate model systems have suggested that these elements function as discrete and independent regulatory units, but the in vivo combinatorial properties of vertebrate enhancers remain poorly understood. To explore the modularity and regulatory autonomy of human developmental enhancers, we experimentally concatenated up to four enhancers from different genes and used a transgenic mouse assay to compare the in vivo activity of these compound elements with that of the single modules. In all of the six different combinations of elements tested, the reporter gene activity patterns were additive without signs of interference between the individual modules, indicating that regulatory specificity was maintained despite the presence of closely-positioned heterologous enhancers. Even in cases where two elements drove expression in close anatomical proximity, such as within neighboring subregions of the developing limb bud, the compound patterns did not show signs of cross-inhibition between individual elements or novel expression sites. These data indicate that human developmental enhancers are highly modular and functionally autonomous and suggest that genomic enhancer shuffling may have contributed to the evolution of complex gene expression patterns in vertebrates
Date: February 19, 2009
Creator: Visel, Axel; Akiyama, Jennifer A.; Shoukry, Malak; Afzal, Veena; Rubin, Edward M. & Pennacchio, Len A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of drilling muds on lobster behavior. Progress report, 1 January-1 October 1979

Description: Drilling muds, used and discarded in great quantities during the drilling phase of exploration and production of oil wells, represent an unknown threat to the marine environment. The compositions of the muds vary greatly with drilling requirements. The toxicity of their components are largely unknown, but can range from apparently harmless to immediately lethal, as found recently in toxicity tests on a number of marine animals. This report contains eight sections, each describing an aspect of studies of lobster behavior, ecology, physiology and the effects of exposure to various levels of different drilling muds.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Atema, J; Ashkenas, L & Beale, E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigating the impact of drilling mud and its major components on bivalve species of Georges Bank

Description: The objective of this program has been to measure the response of commercially important marine bivalve molluscs to low levels of drilling muds. Because these materials are composed of several major components whose proportions vary between wells and with depth for a single well, the approach of this study has been to test the major components individually and then to test a representative synthetic mud and finally a used drilling mud from an offshore platform. In all but one of these tests the target organism has been the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus.
Date: November 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of a steam electric generating station on the emergence timing of Mayfly, Hexagenia bilineata (Say)

Description: This paper presents results of a study of emergence of Hexagenia bilineata, a large burrowing mayfly with a wide distribution over areas of the southeast U.S. It is part of an ongoing analysis of mayfly population dynamics in relation to thermal effects. Evidence from benthic collections of nymphs indicated that the maximum mean size was reached one month earlier in a thermally affected area than in two other areas. Preliminary laboratory studies indicated acceleration of growth and earlier emergence at higher temperatures.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Mattice, J. S. & Dye, L. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of weightlessness, gravity compensation and radiation on the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum

Description: Tribolium confusum, the flour beetle; was chosen as a test organism for determination of possible synergistic effects of radiation and space environment in the inertial flight of Biosatellite-II. The organism subjected to weightlessness and radiation during the flight exhibited greater than expected wing abnormalities. However, a postflight vibration control experiment produced anomalous results, and some doubt remained with respect to assigning weightlessness as the sole cause of the increased wing abnormalities. Results are reported from experiments performed on the interaction of gravity compensation, radiation, and Tribolium development. It was found that gravity compensation together with heavy ion irradiation did not cause more wing abnormalities than those caused by radiation alone. However, radiation and gravity compensation plus high temperature did cause an increased percentage of wing abnormalities. Two possible reasons are discussed. (CH)
Date: October 1, 1975
Creator: Yang, C.H.; Silver, I.L. & Tobias, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microcrustaceans (Branchipoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

Description: The United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.
Date: September 21, 2005
Creator: DeBiase, Adrienne E. & Taylor, Barbara E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department