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Overview of Cooperative Monitoring Concepts and the CMC

Description: Cooperative monitoring holds the promise of utilizing many technologies from conflicts of the past to implement agreements of peace in the future. Important approaches to accomplish this are to develop the framework for assessing monitoring opportunities and to provide education and training on the technologies and experience available for sharing with others. The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories is working closely with agencies throughout the federal government, academics at home and abroad, and regional organizations to provide the technical tools needed to assess, design, analyze, and implement these cooperative agreements. In doing so, the goals of building regional confidence and increasing trust and communication can be furthered.
Date: May 14, 1999
Creator: Biringer, Kent L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/4: Missile Control in South Asia and the Role of Cooperative Monitoring Technology

Description: The succession of nuclear tests by India and Pakistan in May 1998 has changed the nature of their missile rivalry, which is only one of numerous manifestations of their relationship as hardened adversaries, deeply sensitive to each other's existing and evolving defense capabilities. The political context surrounding this costly rivalry remains unmediated by arms control measures or by any nascent prospect of detente. As a parallel development, sensible voices in both countries will continue to talk of building mutual confidence through openness to avert accidents, misjudgments, and misinterpretations. To facilitate a future peace process, this paper offers possible suggestions for stabilization that could be applied to India's and Pakistan's missile situation. Appendices include descriptions of existing missile agreements that have contributed to better relations for other countries as well as a list of the cooperative monitoring technologies available to provide information useful in implementing subcontinent missile regimes.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Kamal, N. & Sawhney, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program : visions and strategies.

Description: Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program is working to establish a long-term border security strategy with United States Central Command (CENTCOM). Efforts are being made to synthesize border security capabilities and technologies maintained at the Laboratories, and coordinate with subject matter expertise from both the New Mexico and California offices. The vision for SNL is to provide science and technology support for international projects and engagements on border security.
Date: February 1, 2011
Creator: McDaniel, Michael & Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IEA Agreement on the production and utilization of hydrogen: 1996 annual report

Description: The annual report includes an overview of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement, including a brief summary of hydrogen in general. The Chairman's report provides highlights for the year. Sections are included on hydrogen energy activities in the IEA Hydrogen Agreement member countries, including Canada, European Commission, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the US. Lastly, Annex reports are given for the following tasks: Task 10, Photoproduction of Hydrogen, Task 11, Integrated Systems, and Task 12, Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage.
Date: January 31, 1997
Creator: Elam, Carolyn C. (National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO (US)) (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steps towards universality of the Chemical Weapons Convention: How can Africa contribute?

Description: Universality is a fundamental principal of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It suffuses the fabric of the Convention, found not only in the very first ringing clauses of Article I, but also in the many technical details of its Annexes and Schedules. Consequently, universality is a topic on which commentary is appropriate from all quarters. The author offers his personal views as a lawyer on this important matter in the hope that, this distinguished audience may gain a perspective not available from practitioners of other professions. The views expressed in this paper are those of the author alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US or of any other institution.
Date: November 2, 1999
Creator: Tanzman, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implementing the chemical weapons convention

Description: In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty implementing ...
Date: December 7, 1999
Creator: Kellman, B. & Tanzman, E. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Capturing and using precise semantics for complex transactions

Description: In this paper the authors discuss the leveling process by which a business process ontology is formed in a distributed, multi-lingual, multi-stakeholder environment, with attention to realizing elicitation mechanisms that maintain registration of users` terms with the common ontology. Business processes are recognized from use-case analysis, specified in terms of the common ontology, and realized as operations on the components of a transaction: a temporally extended, complex, distributed object. A primary advantage of this approach is that users see private terminologies while the transaction object is specified in terms of the common ontology, and registration between the two is automatic and continuous. Ready realization of multiple interfaces to stakeholders, independently constructed validation and verification mechanisms, distributed data, and a standard elicitation mechanism and process are other advantages. The language formation process was used successfully during the development of the Border Trade Facilitation System, an agent-oriented mechanism that conducts international border-crossing transactions. In this implementation, agents operating within a federated architecture construct, populate, verify, certify, and manipulate a distributed composite transaction object to effect transport of goods over the US/Mexico border.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Phillips, L.R.; Goldsmith, S.Y. & Spires, S.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Profiles of foreign direct investment in U.S. energy 1993

Description: Profiles of Foreign Direct Investment in US Energy 1993 describes the role of foreign ownership in US energy resources. This report also looks at the investment patterns of US energy companies in other countries. The data used in this report come from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the US Department of Commerce, company annual reports, and public disclosures of investment activities.
Date: May 5, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal). Volume 20, No. 1: First quarterly January--March 1995

Description: This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility.
Date: July 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Russia-U.S. Joint Program on the Safe Management of Nuclear Materials: Approaches to Prioritizing the Lab to Lab Project

Description: The U.S. and Russian weapons dismantlement process is producing hundreds of tons of excess plutonium (Pu) and highly enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials. The nuclear operations associated with the final disposition of these materials will be occurring in both countries for decades. A significant accident during these operations could delay the disposition process. Russia- U.S. collaborative efforts to address safety issues associated with disposition processes have been ongoing since 1993. The experience of these collaborative efforts have demonstrated the need for a systematic and formalized approach to identifjring and prioritizing collaborative projects. A systematic approach to the successfid implementation of a formal program will require the definition of year by year program objectives, specific technical program areas, a process for the prioritization and selection of projects, and identification of performance measures to evaluate the success of projects. Specialized working groups established for each technical area are needed to define research priorities, review research proposals, and recommend proposals for tiding. A systematic approach to the establishment of a formal U.S.-Russia cooperative program will serve to ensure the safety and continuity of disposition processes and reduce the nuclear proliferation risks presented by this material. The U.S. and Russian weapons dismantlement process is producing hundreds of tons of excess plutonium (Pu) and highly enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials. The U.S. and Russia are both converting and blending HEU into low enriched uranium (LEU) for use in existing reactors. Russia also plans to fiel reactors with excess Pu. The U.S. is on a two-path approach for the disposition of excess Pu: (1) use of Pu in existing reactors and/or (2) immobilization of the Pu in glass or ceramics followed by geologic disposal. The fissile nuclear materials storage, handling, processing, and transportation processes associated with the disposition process will be occurring in both countries for ...
Date: November 5, 1998
Creator: Carlson, D. & Young, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Sequestered, Carbon Displaced and the Kyoto Context

Description: The integrated system that embraces forest management, forest products, and land-use change impacts the global carbon cycle - and hence the net emission of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide - in four fundamental ways. Carbon is stored in living and dead biomass, carbon is stored in wood products and landfills, forest products substitute in the market place for products made from other materials, and forest harvests can be used wholly or partially to displace fossil fuels in the energy sector. Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change would result in the creation of international markets for carbon dioxide emissions credits, but the current Kyoto text does not treat all carbon identically. We have developed a carbon accounting model, GORCAM, to examine a variety of scenarios for land management and the production of forest products. In this paper we explore, for two simple scenarios of forest management, the carbon flows that occur and how these might be accounted for under the Kyoto text. The Kyoto protocol raises questions about what activities can result in emissions credits, which carbon reservoirs will be counted, who will receive the credits, and how much credit will be available? The Kyoto Protocol would sometimes give credits for carbon sequestered, but it would always give credits when fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are displaced.
Date: April 18, 1999
Creator: Marland, G. & Schlamadinger, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IEA Implementing Agreements and Annexes: A Guide for Building Technologies Program Managers

Description: This guide presents insights and guidance from DOE’s gathered through longstanding and extensive participation in IEA implementing agreements (IAs) and annexes. Even though DOE has been a key participant in international research activities through the IEA since the 1970s, the experience, knowledge, and institutional memory associated with these activities can be lost or forgotten easily as key DOE managers retire or leave the department. The guide seeks to assemble in a single reference some of the learning that has occurred through participation in IEA IAs as a guide for BTP managers currently responsible for IAs and for those who might consider entering into new IEA activities in the future.
Date: August 5, 2008
Creator: Evans, Meredydd; Meier, Alan & Runci, Paul J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Special Issue On Estimation Of Baselines And Leakage In CarbonMitigation Forestry Projects

Description: There is a growing acceptance that the environmentalbenefits of forests extend beyond traditional ecological benefits andinclude the mitigation of climate change. Interest in forestry mitigationactivities has led to the inclusion of forestry practices at the projectlevel in international agreements. Climate change activities place newdemands on participating institutions to set baselines, establishadditionality, determine leakage, ensure permanence, and monitor andverify a project's greenhouse gas benefits. These issues are common toboth forestry and other types of mitigation projects. They demandempirical evidence to establish conditions under which such projects canprovide sustained long term global benefits. This Special Issue reportson papers that experiment with a range of approaches based on empiricalevidence for the setting of baselines and estimation of leakage inprojects in developing Asia and Latin America.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Sathaye, Jayant A. & Andrasko, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International safeguards data authentication

Description: The International Safeguards community is becoming increasingly reliant on information stored in electronic form. In international monitoring and related activities it must be possible to verify and maintain the integrity of this electronic information. This paper discusses the use of data authentication technology to assist in accomplishing this task. The paper provides background information, identifies the relevance to international safeguards, discusses issues related to export controls, algorithm patents, key management and the use of commercial vs. custom software.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Melton, R.B.; Smith, C.E.; DeLand, S.M. & Manatt, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gore-Mbeki Binational Commission integrated housing program. Final report

Description: This report documents the work done under Grant DE-FG36-97GO10209, Innovative Renewable Energy Technology Transfer Program. PEER Consultants, PC, and its subcontractor, PEER Africa (Pty.) Ltd., received an $88,000.00 grant to plan and build two energy efficient homes in the black township of Gugulethu in Cape Town, South Africa. These demonstration homes were given to the people of South Africa as a gesture of goodwill by the US government as part of the Gore-Mbeki Binational Commission (BNC) agreements and cooperation. The BNC is the term used to describe the agreement to work together by the US and the South African governments for economic development of South Africa in the areas of energy, commerce, agriculture, housing, and transportation. The BNC was formed in 1995. This project under the auspices of the BNC started in September 1996. The DOE-funded portion was performed between January 11, 1997 and February 28, 1997.
Date: December 31, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

Description: The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.
Date: March 18, 1999
Creator: Phillips, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated assessment in international policy-making. Final technical report, September 15, 1994--September 14, 1996

Description: This project undertook a preliminary investigation of the conduct and use of assessments, particularly integrated assessments, in international negotiation and policy-making. The research involved review of existing secondary literatures including related theoretical literatures of negotiation analysis and multi-party bargaining; review of archival and documentary material on a few international assessment cases; and interviews in North America and Europe with assessment managers and users. The project sought to identify empirical regularities in the relationships between assessment characteristics and the manner and extent of their contribution to policy-making; to specify and critically assess a set of candidate mechanisms through which assessments influence and assist international policy-making; and to derive from these investigations preliminary practical guidance for assessment design.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Parson, E. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IEA Agreement on the production and utilization of hydrogen: 1999 annual report

Description: The annual report begins with an overview of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement, including guiding principles and their strategic plan followed by the Chairman's report providing the year's highlights. Annex reports included are: the final report for Task 11, Integrated Systems; task updates for Task 12, Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage, Task 13, Design and Optimization of Integrated Systems, Task 14, Photoelectrolytic Production of Hydrogen, and Task 15, Photobiological Production of Hydrogen; and a feature article by Karsten Wurr titled 'Large-Scale Industrial Uses of Hydrogen: Final Development Report'.
Date: January 31, 2000
Creator: Elam, Carolyn C. (National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO (US)) (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

Description: This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for ...
Date: November 5, 1999
Creator: Tanzman, E. & Kellman, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Nonproliferation Review

Description: The aim of this paper is to understand the numerous nuclear-related agreements that involve India and Pakistan, and in so doing identify starting points for future confidence-creating and confidence-building projects. Existing nuclear-related agreements provide a framework under which various projects can be proposed that foster greater nuclear transparency and cooperation in South Asia. The basic assumptions and arguments underlying this paper can be summarized as follows: (1) Increased nuclear transparency between India and Pakistan is a worthwhile objective, as it will lead to the irreversibility of extant nuclear agreements, the prospects of future agreements; and the balance of opacity and transparency required for stability in times of crises; (2) Given the current state of Indian and Pakistani relations, incremental progress in increased nuclear transparency is the most likely future outcome; and (3) Incremental progress can be achieved by enhancing the information exchange required by existing nuclear-related agreements.
Date: July 28, 2000
Creator: RAJEN,GAURAV & BIRINGER,KENT L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Introduction to progress and promise of superconductivity for energy storage in the electric power sector

Description: Around the world, many groups conduct research, development and demonstration (RD and D) to make storage an economic option for the electric power sector. The progress and prospects for the application of superconductivity, with emphasis on high-temperature superconductivity, to the electric power sector has been the topic of an IEA Implementing Agreement, begun in 1990. The present Task members are Canada, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the US. As a result of the Implementing Agreement, work has been done by the Operating Agent with the full participation of all the member countries. This work has facilitated the exchange of informtion among experts in all countries and has documented relevant assessments. Further, this work has reviewed the status of SMES and is now updating same, as well as investigating the progress on and prospects for flywheels with superconducting bearings. The Operating Agent and Task members find a substantially different set of opportunities for and alternatives to storage than was the case before the 1987 discovery of high-temperature superconductivity. Beside the need to level generation, there is also the need to level the load on transmission lines, increase transmission stability, and increase power quality. These needs could be addressed by high power storage that could be brought in and out of the grid in fractions of a second. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage and flywheels with superconducting bearings are devices that deserve continued RD and D because they promise to be the needed storage devices.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Wolsky, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Record of the first meeting of the Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research

Description: This conference was held July 27--28, 1994 in Moscow. The main purpose of the meeting was to implement an agreement between the Russian Federation and the US to facilitate cooperative research on health and environmental effects of radiation. It was hoped that the exchange of information would provide a good basis for employing new scientific knowledge to implement practical measures to facilitate the rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated areas and to treat radiation illnesses. The Russian Federation suggested five main scientific areas for cooperative research. They will prepare proposals on 4--5 projects within the scope of the scientific areas discussed and forward them to the US delegation for consideration of the possibility to facilitate joint research.
Date: December 31, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department