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Charts of Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids Encountered in Calculations of Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

Description: "A single chart has been prepared that simplifies the calculation of the thermodynamic properties of air, various octene-air mixtures, and mixtures of those with their products of combustion at all temperatures below which chemical dissociation becomes unimportant. The chart is based on the use of 1 pound mol of mixture, and examples of its use are given in the form of the calculation of a turbocompressor power plant and a supercharged Otto engine cycle" (p. 1).
Date: May 1946
Creator: Hottel, H. C. & Williams, G. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermodynamic Charts for Internal-Combustion-Engine Fluids

Description: Note presenting thermodynamic properties of the products of combustion of five different mixtures of air with typical aircraft-engine fuel, which have been calculated from the most reliable thermodynamic data available. The calculations are presented in five charts of internal energy plotted against entropy with values of temperature, specific volume, pressure, and enthalpy indicated corresponding to five different percentages of the fuel-air ratio for perfect combustion.
Date: July 1949
Creator: McCann, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental Study of Ignition by Hot Spot in Internal Combustion Engines

Description: "In order to carry out the contemplated study, it was first necessary to provide hot spots in the combustion chamber, which could be measured and whose temperature could be changed. It seemed difficult to realize both conditions working solely on the temperature of the cooling water in a way so as to produce hot spots on the cylinder wall capable of provoking autoignition. Moreover, in the majority of practical cases, autoignition is produced by the spark plug, one of the least cooled parts in the engine. The first procedure therefore did not resemble that which most generally occurs in actual engine operation" (p. 1).
Date: August 1938
Creator: Serruys, Max
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Description of the NACA Universal Test Engine and Some Test Results

Description: "This report describes the 5-inch bore by 7-inch stroke single cylinder test engine used at the Langley Field Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in laboratory research on internal-combustion engine problems and presents some results of tests made therewith. The engine is arranged for variation over wide ranges, of the compression ratio and lift and timing of both inlet and exhaust valves while the engine is in operation. Provision is also made for the connection of a number of auxiliaries" (p. 469).
Date: 1927
Creator: Ware, Marsden
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic Similitude in Internal-Combustion Engines

Description: In this report it will be seen that the piston speed - as, moreover, any other speed, such as bearing velocity - must be independent of the quantity dimensions and must be a representative quantity similar to the high speed and the specific weight per horsepower.
Date: May 1941
Creator: Lutz, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases From Internal-Combustion Engines

Description: The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.
Date: August 17, 1933
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C. & Tessmann, Arthur M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Intake Pipe on the Volumetric Efficiency of an Internal Combustion Engine

Description: " The writer discusses the phenomena of expansion and compression which alternately take place in the cylinders of four-stroke engines during the induction process at a high mean piston speed due to the inertia and elasticity of the mixture in the intake pipe. The present paper is intended to demonstrate theoretically the existence of a most favorable pipe length for charging" (p. 1).
Date: February 1929
Creator: Capetti, Antonio
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Construction of Wire Strain Gages for Engine Application

Description: Report presenting instructions for winding, baking, and mounting a phanolic resin-impregnated, bobbin-type wire strain gage that consists of Advance wire wound around a paper form. A description of some test equipment useful for establishing the merits of the techniques used in gage construction has been included.
Date: December 1943
Creator: Nettles, J. Cary & Tucker, Maurice
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some Factors Affecting Combustion in an Internal-Combustion Engine

Description: "An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature" (p. 125).
Date: September 11, 1934
Creator: Rothrock, A. M. & Cohn, Mildred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of inlet-air temperature and cylinder displacement on charge temperature of internal combustion engines

Description: Report discussing the effect of inlet-air temperature and cylinder displacement on the charge temperature of an internal-combustion engine at the end of the induction stroke. The experiment to test various types of cylinders and their results on the air temperature and pressure is described.
Date: January 1944
Creator: Sanders, Newell D. & Bolz, Ray E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ionization in the Knock Zone of an Internal-Combustion Engine

Description: "The ionization in the knock zone of an internal-combustion engine was investigated. A suspected correlation between the intensity of knock and the degree of ionization was verified and an oscillation in the degree of ionization corresponding in frequency to the knock vibrations in the cylinder pressure was observed" (p. 1).
Date: September 1940
Creator: Hastings, Charles E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bagnulo Heavy Fuel Internal Combustion Engine and Its Employment in Aviation

Description: We see with great satisfaction that Bagnulo's studies and experiments on his high-speed, heavy-fuel engines, promise to solve not only the general problem of economical power and hence of thermal efficiency, but also all other special problems, of weight and space, and, what is still more important, range of error.
Date: March 1922
Creator: Fiore, Amedeo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fatigue of Internal Combustion Engines

Description: Engine conditions such as pressure characteristics, temperatures, and mechanical fatigue enable the employment of a criterion of general fatigue which simultaneously takes account of both mechanical and thermal conditions, for the sake of comparing any projected engine with engines of the same type already in use.
Date: April 1924
Creator: Dumanois, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theory of the Inlet and Exhaust Processes of Internal-Combustion Engines

Description: Note presenting a theory that has been developed for the calculation of the mass of fluid pumped per stroke and of indicator diagrams for the pumping process of internal-combustion engines, compressors, or vacuum pumps. The theory enables the volumetric efficiency and indicator diagrams for the inlet and exhaust processes of an internal-combustion engine to be obtained even before the engine is actually built. It is also possible to calculate some hypothetical inlet and exhaust processes which are impossible to obtain on actual engines, such as the cases where the valves open and close instantaneously.
Date: January 1949
Creator: Tsu, Tsung-Chi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Knocking in an Internal-Combustion Engine

Description: The question remains open of the relation between the phenomena of knocking in the engine and the explosion wave. The solution of this problem is the object of this paper. The tests were conducted on an aircraft engine with a pyrex glass window in the cylinder head. Photographs were then taken of various combinations of fuels and conditions.
Date: January 1940
Creator: Sokolik, A. & Voinov, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Factors Affecting Heat Transfer in the Internal-Combustion Engine

Description: Note presenting a method developed for the direct measurement of the average heat-transfer coefficient from the gases in the cylinder during the cycle of operation of an internal-combustion engine. Experimental measurmeents were made with a heat collector projecting through a spark-plug hole into the combustion chamber of the test engine in order to examine the effects of several engine-operating and design parameters on the mean heat transfer to the collector.
Date: December 1940
Creator: Ku, P. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Combination of Internal-Combustion Engine and Gas Turbine

Description: "While the gas turbine by itself has been applied in particular cases for power generation and is in a state of promising development in this field, it has already met with considerable success in two cases when used as an exhaust turbine in connection with a centrifugal compressor, namely, in the supercharging of combustion engines and in the Velox process, which is of particular application for furnaces. In the present paper the most important possibilities of combining a combustion engine with a gas turbine are considered. These "combination engines " are compared with the simple gas turbine on whose state of development a brief review will first be given" (p. 1).
Date: April 1947
Creator: Zinner, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of Gas Temperatures from the Frequency of Knock-Induced Gas Vibrations in an Internal-Combustion Engine

Description: Report of a study to develop a method of obtaining gas temperatures from the frequency of knock-induced gas vibrations in an internal-combustion engine cylinder. Temperatures calculated from frequency data were in agreement with temperatures measured by the spectral line-reversal method in previous investigations and were about 700 degrees Fahrenheit lower than temperatures obtained from thermodynamic charts.
Date: January 1946
Creator: Moeckel, W. E. & Evvard, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Practical Hints on Running a Gas Engine

Description: "In this bulletin: General suggestions to inexperienced operators of gas engines on how to avoid or remedy the more common forms of engine trouble. Directions for making tests to locate trouble in the ignition system or the fuel system. A discussion of various methods of starting in cold weather. A 'trouble chart,' in which possible sources of trouble are listed, with brief outlines of measures that may be taken to remedy the trouble." -- p. 2
Date: 1919
Creator: Yerkes, Arnold P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion optimization studies for stratified charge and diesel engines. Progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

Description: Progress to date is reasonably within the contract schedule in that: (1) the transparent-piston, transparent-head engine is in routine use for visualization experiments; (2) the gaseous fuel injector is routinely used with gaseous propane as a fuel injected into the motored engine; (3) high speed filming and short duration pulsed light single exposure techniques are being used to obtain shadow and schlieren records of gaseous and liquid jets; (4) an LDV system for measuring in-cylinder velocities has been implemented and data is presently being taken and analyzed; (5) engine cylinder pressure data can now be taken and reduced with the minicomputer; and an infrared emission absorption technique has been used to measure engine cylinder temperature; (6) an alternative approach to the modeling of gaseous jets has yielded a characteristic time for steadying of the jet, which in the long run should allow a more efficient computational procedure; (7) work on the definition of appropriate equations for thick sprays has continued; (8) two DISC meetings have been attended, one of which was hosted by Princeton, and the results of the program have been made known to researchers and automotive industries; and (9) the pulsed illumination television system has been successfully used to obtain visual data on engine cyclic variations.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Steinberger, R.L. & Bracco, F.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Efficiency evaluation of the DISC (direct-injection stratified charge), DHC (dilute homogeneous charge), and DI Diesel engines (direct-injection diesel)

Description: The thermodynamic laws governing the Otto and diesel cycle engines and the possible approaches that might be taken to increase the delivered efficiency of the reciprocating piston engine are discussed. The generic aspects of current research are discussed and typical links between research and the technical barriers to the engines' development are shown. The advanced engines are discussed individually. After a brief description of each engine and its advantages, the major technical barriers to their development are discussed. Also included for each engine is a discussion of examples of the linkages between these barriers and current combustion and thermodynamic research. For each engine a list of questions is presented that have yet to be resolved and could not be resolved within the scope of this study. These questions partially indicate the limit to the state of knowledge regarding efficiency characteristics of the advanced engine concepts. The major technical barriers to each of the engines and their ranges of efficiency improvement are summarized.
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: Hane, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The railplug: Development of a new ignitor for internal combustion engines

Description: The goal of the railplug project is to commercialize this miniaturized railgun as an engine technology as rapidly as possible. To improve the technology transfer process, a board of industrial advisors was established. A list of representatives is included at the end of this annual report. The Railplug External Advisory Board (REAB) met in Austin on March 17--18, 1991 to discuss the project plan. A list of comments from the REAB is included at the end of this progress report, along with our written response to those comments. An alternate first'' meeting with some representatives of the REAB was held on July 9, 1991. This meeting was attended by most of the board members who were unable to attend the first meeting. The second meeting of the REAB was held in Toronto, Canada, on October 10, 1991. A list of the board members comments from this meeting is included at the end of this report, along with our written response to those comments. These meetings have proven to be most useful in assuring that this project is conducted as efficiently as possible. The railplug project is essentially divided into three main tasks: (1) Railplug system development; (2) application of railplugs to engines; and (3) railplug durability. The status of each of these tasks is described below.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Matthew, R.D.; Nichols, S.P. & Weldon, W.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computational and experimental study of a railplug ignitor

Description: The plasma plume generated by a new type of high energy Janitor known as the railplug, is examined. The railplug is a miniaturized railgun that has the potential for improving ignition characteristics of combustible mixtures in engines. The objective of the study is to gain an uderstanding of the characteristics of the plasma created by a transparent railplug, and to validate a multidimensional computer simulation of the plasma and shock fronts. The nature of the plume emitted by the railplug was examined for three levels of electrical energy while firing into air at a pressure of 1 atm. The computer model is to be used to predict trends in railplug performance for various railplug designs, energies, and ambient conditions. The velocity of the plasma movement inside a transparent railplug was measured, as well as the velocity of the plume ejected from the cavity. A shock is produced at the initiation point of the arc and propagates down the cavity, eventually exiting the plug. The velocity of the shock was both measured experimentally and simulated by the model. The computer simulation produces a mushroom-shaped plasma plume at the railplug exit similar to that observed in the shadowgraph photos: The simulation also reproduced the toroidal circulation observed at the plug exit in the shadowgraphs, the radial expansion and the penetration depth of the plume. The trend of linearly increasing plasma kinetic energy with stored electrical energy predicted by the simulation was verified by shadowgraph photos. The agreement between the experiments and the simulations suggests that the multidimensional model holds promise is a predictive design tool.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Ellzey, J.L.; Hall, M.J.; Zhao, X. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering) & Tajima, H. (Miyazaki Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department