512 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases From Internal-Combustion Engines

Description: The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.
Date: August 17, 1933
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C. & Tessmann, Arthur M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of inlet-air temperature and cylinder displacement on charge temperature of internal combustion engines

Description: Report discussing the effect of inlet-air temperature and cylinder displacement on the charge temperature of an internal-combustion engine at the end of the induction stroke. The experiment to test various types of cylinders and their results on the air temperature and pressure is described.
Date: January 1944
Creator: Sanders, Newell D. & Bolz, Ray E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bagnulo Heavy Fuel Internal Combustion Engine and Its Employment in Aviation

Description: We see with great satisfaction that Bagnulo's studies and experiments on his high-speed, heavy-fuel engines, promise to solve not only the general problem of economical power and hence of thermal efficiency, but also all other special problems, of weight and space, and, what is still more important, range of error.
Date: March 1922
Creator: Fiore, Amedeo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Practical Hints on Running a Gas Engine

Description: "In this bulletin: General suggestions to inexperienced operators of gas engines on how to avoid or remedy the more common forms of engine trouble. Directions for making tests to locate trouble in the ignition system or the fuel system. A discussion of various methods of starting in cold weather. A 'trouble chart,' in which possible sources of trouble are listed, with brief outlines of measures that may be taken to remedy the trouble." -- p. 2
Date: 1919
Creator: Yerkes, Arnold P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion optimization studies for stratified charge and diesel engines. Progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

Description: Progress to date is reasonably within the contract schedule in that: (1) the transparent-piston, transparent-head engine is in routine use for visualization experiments; (2) the gaseous fuel injector is routinely used with gaseous propane as a fuel injected into the motored engine; (3) high speed filming and short duration pulsed light single exposure techniques are being used to obtain shadow and schlieren records of gaseous and liquid jets; (4) an LDV system for measuring in-cylinder velocities has been implemented and data is presently being taken and analyzed; (5) engine cylinder pressure data can now be taken and reduced with the minicomputer; and an infrared emission absorption technique has been used to measure engine cylinder temperature; (6) an alternative approach to the modeling of gaseous jets has yielded a characteristic time for steadying of the jet, which in the long run should allow a more efficient computational procedure; (7) work on the definition of appropriate equations for thick sprays has continued; (8) two DISC meetings have been attended, one of which was hosted by Princeton, and the results of the program have been made known to researchers and automotive industries; and (9) the pulsed illumination television system has been successfully used to obtain visual data on engine cyclic variations.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Steinberger, R.L. & Bracco, F.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Efficiency evaluation of the DISC (direct-injection stratified charge), DHC (dilute homogeneous charge), and DI Diesel engines (direct-injection diesel)

Description: The thermodynamic laws governing the Otto and diesel cycle engines and the possible approaches that might be taken to increase the delivered efficiency of the reciprocating piston engine are discussed. The generic aspects of current research are discussed and typical links between research and the technical barriers to the engines' development are shown. The advanced engines are discussed individually. After a brief description of each engine and its advantages, the major technical barriers to their development are discussed. Also included for each engine is a discussion of examples of the linkages between these barriers and current combustion and thermodynamic research. For each engine a list of questions is presented that have yet to be resolved and could not be resolved within the scope of this study. These questions partially indicate the limit to the state of knowledge regarding efficiency characteristics of the advanced engine concepts. The major technical barriers to each of the engines and their ranges of efficiency improvement are summarized.
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: Hane, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The railplug: Development of a new ignitor for internal combustion engines

Description: The goal of the railplug project is to commercialize this miniaturized railgun as an engine technology as rapidly as possible. To improve the technology transfer process, a board of industrial advisors was established. A list of representatives is included at the end of this annual report. The Railplug External Advisory Board (REAB) met in Austin on March 17--18, 1991 to discuss the project plan. A list of comments from the REAB is included at the end of this progress report, along with our written response to those comments. An alternate first'' meeting with some representatives of the REAB was held on July 9, 1991. This meeting was attended by most of the board members who were unable to attend the first meeting. The second meeting of the REAB was held in Toronto, Canada, on October 10, 1991. A list of the board members comments from this meeting is included at the end of this report, along with our written response to those comments. These meetings have proven to be most useful in assuring that this project is conducted as efficiently as possible. The railplug project is essentially divided into three main tasks: (1) Railplug system development; (2) application of railplugs to engines; and (3) railplug durability. The status of each of these tasks is described below.
Date: October 1, 1991
Creator: Matthew, R.D.; Nichols, S.P. & Weldon, W.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computational and experimental study of a railplug ignitor

Description: The plasma plume generated by a new type of high energy Janitor known as the railplug, is examined. The railplug is a miniaturized railgun that has the potential for improving ignition characteristics of combustible mixtures in engines. The objective of the study is to gain an uderstanding of the characteristics of the plasma created by a transparent railplug, and to validate a multidimensional computer simulation of the plasma and shock fronts. The nature of the plume emitted by the railplug was examined for three levels of electrical energy while firing into air at a pressure of 1 atm. The computer model is to be used to predict trends in railplug performance for various railplug designs, energies, and ambient conditions. The velocity of the plasma movement inside a transparent railplug was measured, as well as the velocity of the plume ejected from the cavity. A shock is produced at the initiation point of the arc and propagates down the cavity, eventually exiting the plug. The velocity of the shock was both measured experimentally and simulated by the model. The computer simulation produces a mushroom-shaped plasma plume at the railplug exit similar to that observed in the shadowgraph photos: The simulation also reproduced the toroidal circulation observed at the plug exit in the shadowgraphs, the radial expansion and the penetration depth of the plume. The trend of linearly increasing plasma kinetic energy with stored electrical energy predicted by the simulation was verified by shadowgraph photos. The agreement between the experiments and the simulations suggests that the multidimensional model holds promise is a predictive design tool.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Ellzey, J.L.; Hall, M.J.; Zhao, X. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering) & Tajima, H. (Miyazaki Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas turbine engines and transmissions for bus demonstration programs. Technical status report, 31 July 1979--31 October 1979

Description: The report summarizes the DDA activities for the effort performed on the procurement and delivery of eleven Allison GT 404-4 gas turbine engines and five HT740CT and six V730CT Allison automatic transmissions and the required associated software. The contract requires the delivery of the engines and transmissions for the Greyhound and Transit Coaches, respectively. In addition, software items such as cost reports, technical reports, installation drawings, acceptance test data and parts lists are required. A recent decision by the DOE will modify the build configuration for the last four (4) Transit Coach engines. It was decided by the DOE at a meeting in Washington, DC on March 28, 1979 with representatives from DDA, NASA/LeRC, JPL and Booz-Allen and Hamilton that these engines are to be built with ceramic regenerators. (TFD)
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Nigro, D.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of tribological research and development needs for lubrication of advanced heat engines

Description: The continuous evolution of higher power density propulsion systems has always fueled the search for materials and lubricants with improved thermal and/or durability characteristics. Tribology of the upper cylinder region is the major technology roadblock in the path of the adiabatic diesel engine which has an energy reduction potential that exceeds that of all other engine development types. This tribology assessment resulted in the following major conclusions: a low friction and a low wear seal between the ring belt and cylinder bore are the most critical tribology functions in the diesel combustion chamber; development of solid lubrication systems will not satisfy the simultaneous low friction and low wear requirements in the upper cylinder area; development of separate upper cylinder liquid lubrication systems offers the most attractive design alternative for meeting the operational goals of future ''minimum cooled'' diesel engines.
Date: September 1, 1985
Creator: Fehrenbacher, L.L. & Levinson, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical simulation of reactive flow in internal combustion engines. [CONCHAS-SPRAY code]

Description: Multidimensional numerical simulations of the reactive fluid flow in an internal combustion engine cylinder are useful in helping engine designers obtain insight into the physical mechanisms governing efficiency and pollutant formation. A comprehensive numerical model for internal combustion engine cylinder simulations that has been developed at Los Alamos is described. The model is currently embodied in a two-dimensional (axisymmetric) computer code called CONCHAS-SPRAY. Work is in progress on a three-dimensional code with the same features.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Cloutman, L.D.; Dukowicz, J.K. & Ramshaw, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Baseline gas turbine development program. Twenty-first quarterly progress report

Description: Progress is reported for a program whose goals are to demonstrate an experimental upgraded gas turbine-powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine-powered, compact-size American automobile. Activity during this twenty-first program quarter has continued to emphasize development towards correcting a power deficiency in the upgraded engine. Efforts are also being directed towards reducing fuel usage through improved heat recovery and towards improving the mechanical reliability and control of the engine.
Date: January 31, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Gaseous Sphere Injection Method for Modeling Under-expanded H2 Injection

Description: A methodology for modeling gaseous injection has been refined and applied to recent experimental data from the literature. This approach uses a discrete phase analogy to handle gaseous injection, allowing for addition of gaseous injection to a CFD grid without needing to resolve the injector nozzle. This paper focuses on model testing to provide the basis for simulation of hydrogen direct injected internal combustion engines. The model has been updated to be more applicable to full engine simulations, and shows good agreement with experiments for jet penetration and time-dependent axial mass fraction, while available radial mass fraction data is less well predicted.
Date: December 3, 2010
Creator: Whitesides, R.; Hessel, R. P.; Flowers, D. L. & Aceves, S. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

Description: Berkeley Lab has for several years been developing methods for selection of optimal microgrid systems, especially for commercial building applications, and applying these methods in the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This project began with 3 major goals: (1) to conduct detailed analysis to find the optimal equipment combination for microgrids at a few promising commercial building hosts in the two favorable markets of California and New York, (2) to extend the analysis capability of DER-CAM to include both heat and electricity storage, and (3) to make an initial effort towards adding consideration of power quality and reliability (PQR) to the capabilities of DER-CAM. All of these objectives have been pursued via analysis of the attractiveness of a Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid consisting of multiple nameplate 100 kW Tecogen Premium Power Modules (CM-100). This unit consists of an asynchronous inverter-based variable speed internal combustion engine genset with combined heat and power (CHP) and power surge capability. The essence of CERTS Microgrid technology is that smarts added to the on-board power electronics of any microgrid device enables stable and safe islanded operation without the need for complex fast supervisory controls. This approach allows plug and play development of a microgrid that can potentially provide high PQR with a minimum of specialized site-specific engineering. A notable feature of the CM-100 is its time-limited surge rating of 125 kW, and DER-CAM capability to model this feature was also a necessary model enhancement.
Date: March 10, 2009
Creator: Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Coffey, Brian & Aki, Hirohisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary Report on the Transportation Combustion Engine Efficiency Colloquium Held at USCAR, March 3 and 4, 2010

Description: This report summarizes results from an invited two-day colloquium of twenty-nine combustion engine experts from academia, industry, and national labs that was convened March 3rd and 4th, 2010, at the headquarters of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) in Southfield, Michigan. The colloquium was held at the request of The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT) to review and assess the current state of transportation combustion engine technology from theoretical and practical perspectives. In the ensuing discussions, the experts were able to reach a broad consensus on some important questions regarding current fuel efficiency limits. They also identified technology barriers and recommended specific near and longer-term R&D priorities for DOE's consideration. Internal combustion engines currently play a dominant role in U.S. transportation and are expected to continue to do so well beyond 2020 [1]. Because of this, the Department of Energy (DOE) has placed high priority on promoting technologies that maximize combustion engine fuel efficiency while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions. Identification of the most promising paths to achieve these goals has recently become more complicated as non-traditional transportation fuels and hybrid electric vehicles become widely available. To reassess the state of combustion engine science and identify new opportunities for technology breakthroughs, an invited colloquium of combustion engine experts was convened on March 3rd and 4th, 2010, at the headquarters of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) in Southfield, Michigan. The colloquium objectives were: (1) Review and assess the current state of transportation combustion engine technology from both theoretical and practical perspectives; (2) Arrive at a consensus on the theoretical and practical fuel efficiencies that can be achieved; and (3) Recommend near and longer-term R&D priorities for DOE to consider in developing their strategic planning for reaching efficiency goals. This report ...
Date: November 1, 2010
Creator: Daw, C Stuart; Graves, Ronald L; Caton, Jerald A & Wagner, Robert M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Linear air-fuel sensor development

Description: The electrochemical zirconia solid electrolyte oxygen sensor, is extensively used for monitoring oxygen concentrations in various fields. They are currently utilized in automobiles to monitor the exhaust gas composition and control the air-to-fuel ratio, thus reducing harmful emission components and improving fuel economy. Zirconia oxygen sensors, are divided into two classes of devices: (1) potentiometric or logarithmic air/fuel sensors; and (2) amperometric or linear air/fuel sensors. The potentiometric sensors are ideally suited to monitor the air-to-fuel ratio close to the complete combustion stoichiometry; a value of about 14.8 to 1 parts by volume. This occurs because the oxygen concentration changes by many orders of magnitude as the air/fuel ratio is varied through the stoichiometric value. However, the potentiometric sensor is not very sensitive to changes in oxygen partial pressure away from the stoichiometric point due to the logarithmic dependence of the output voltage signal on the oxygen partial pressure. It is often advantageous to operate gasoline power piston engines with excess combustion air; this improves fuel economy and reduces hydrocarbon emissions. To maintain stable combustion away from stoichiometry, and enable engines to operate in the excess oxygen (lean burn) region several limiting-current amperometric sensors have been reported. These sensors are based on the electrochemical oxygen ion pumping of a zirconia electrolyte. They typically show reproducible limiting current plateaus with an applied voltage caused by the gas diffusion overpotential at the cathode.
Date: December 14, 1996
Creator: Garzon, F. & Miller, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-stage selection catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} in lean burn engine exhaust

Description: Recent studies suggest that the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} is an important intermediate step in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. These studies have prompted the development of schemes that use an oxidation catalyst to convert NO to NO{sub 2}, followed by a reduction catalyst to convert NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2}. Multi-stage SCR offers high NO{sub x} reduction efficiency from catalysts that, separately, are not very active for reduction of NO, and alleviates the problem of selectivity between NO reduction and hydrocarbon oxidation. A plasma can also be used to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2}. This paper compares the multi-stage catalytic scheme with the plasma-assisted catalytic scheme for reduction of NO{sub x} in lean-bum engine exhausts. The advantages of plasma oxidation over catalytic oxidation are presented.
Date: January 26, 1998
Creator: Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.O.; Merritt, B.T. & Vogling, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

First-year progress report

Description: A very extensive experimental and computational project on in-cylinder injection via a liquid-only pulsating-poppet injector was completed with many new interesting developments (e.g. assessment of exciplex errors, liquid sheet computation, new way of comparing measurements and computations).
Date: October 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of oxygen-enriched combustion system on a light-duty vehicle to reduce cold-start emissions

Description: The oxygen content in the ambient air drawn by combustion engines can be increased by polymer membranes. The authors have previously demonstrated that 23 to 25% (concentration by volume) oxygen-enriched intake air can reduce hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), air toxics, and ozone-forming potential (OFP) from flexible-fueled vehicles (FFVs) that use gasoline or M85. When oxygen-enriched air was used only during the initial start-up and warm-up periods, the emission levels of all three regulated pollutants [CO, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and NO{sub x}] were lower than the U.S. EPA Tier II (year 2004) standards (without adjusting for catalyst deterioration factors). In the present work, an air separation membrane module was installed on the intake of a 2.5-L FFV and tested at idle and free acceleration to demonstrate the oxygen-enrichment concept for initial start-up and warm-up periods. A bench-scale, test set-up was developed to evaluate the air separation membrane characteristics for engine applications. On the basis of prototype bench tests and from vehicle tests, the additional power requirements and module size for operation of the membrane during the initial period of the cold-phase, FTP-75 cycle were evaluated. A prototype membrane module (27 in. long, 3 in. in diameter) supplying about 23% oxygen-enriched air in the engine intake only during the initial start-up and warm-up periods of a 2.5-L FFV requires additional power (blower) of less than one horsepower. With advances in air separation membranes to develop compact modules, oxygen enrichment of combustion air has the potential of becoming a more practical technique for controlling exhaust emissions from light-duty vehicles.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Sekar, R. & Poola, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Future market for ceramics in vehicle engines and their impacts

Description: Ceramic engine components have potential to improve vehicle fuel economy. Some recent tests have also shown their environmental benefits, particularly in reducing particulate emissions in heavy-duty diesel engines. The authors used the data from a survey of the US vehicle engine and component manufacturers relating to ceramic engine components to develop a set of market penetration models. The survey identified promising ceramic components and provided data on the timing of achieving introductory shares in light and heavy-duty markets. Some ceramic components will penetrate the market when the pilot-scale costs are reduced to one-fifth of their current values, and many more will enter the market when the costs are reduced to one-tenth of the current values. An ongoing ceramics research program sponsored by the US Department of Energy has the goal of achieving such price reductions. The size and value of the future ceramic components market and the impacts of this market in terms of fuel savings, reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, and potential reduction in other criteria pollutants are presented. The future ceramic components market will be 9 million components worth $29 million within 5 years of introduction and will expand to 692 million components worth $3,484 million within 20 years. The projected annual energy savings are 3.8 trillion Btu by 5 years, increasing to 526 trillion Btu during the twentieth year. These energy savings will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 41 million tons during the twentieth year. Ceramic components will help reduce particulate emissions by 100 million tons in 2030 and save the nation`s urban areas $152 million. The paper presents the analytical approach and discusses other economic impacts.
Date: February 1995
Creator: Vyas, A.; Hanson, D. & Stodolsky, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

Description: Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.
Date: August 4, 1998
Creator: McGill, R.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department