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Using local momentum to disentangle angular distributions. [Optical model, DWBA]

Description: Optical model elastic and DWBA transfer angular distributions are studied by isolating their positive and negative deflection angle components. The local angular momentum of these amplitudes allows isolation of the regions of angular momentum space that are contributing to the different angular regions of the cross sections. This information can be employed to isolate features of the cross sections arising from orbiting, reflection, Coulomb rainbows, nuclear rainbows, Regge poles, etc. Specifically it is shown that the inner contribution to typical heavy-ion forward-angle elastic scattering is in the shadow of the nuclear rainbow and further that transfer angular distributions contain separate inner and outer contributions. Before discussing results, the idea of a ''local momentum'' is introduced and the decomposition of angular distributions into their positive and negative deflection angle components is briefly described. Results are shown for the reaction /sup 60/Ni(/sup 13/C,/sup 12/C)/sup 61/Ni at E = 60.8 MeV and for the elastic scattering of /sup 13/C on /sup 60/Ni at the same incident energy. (SDF)
Date: March 1, 1976
Creator: Fuller, R. C. & Moffa, P. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sequim Marine Research Laboratory routine environmental measurements during CY-1978. [Monitoring for laboratory-related radioactivity and pollutants in environment]

Description: Environmental data collected during 1978 in the vicinity of the Marine Research Laboratory show continued compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations and furthermore show no detectable change from conditions that existed in previous years. Samples collected for radiological analysis included soil, drinking water, bay water, clams, and seaweed. Radiation dose rates at 1 meter aboveground were also measured.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Houston, J.R. & Blumer, P.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pacific Northwest Laboratory monthly report to the Nuclear Research and Applications Division, for February 1976. [/sup 90/SrF/sub 2/]

Description: At Hanford, strontium is separated from the high-level waste, then converted to the fluoride, and doubly encapsulated in small, high-integrity containers for subsequent long-term storage. The fluoride conversion, encapsulation and storage take place in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facilities (WESF). This encapsulated strontium fluoride represents an economical source of /sup 90/Sr if the WESF capsule can be licensed for heat source applicatons under anticipated use conditions. The objectives of this program are to obtain the data needed to license /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat sources and specifically the WESF /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ capsules. The information needed for licensing can be divided into three general areas: (1) long-term SrF/sub 2/ compatibility data; (2) chemical and physical property data on /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/; and (3) capsule property data such as external corrosion resistance, crush strength, etc. The current program is designed to provide the required information.
Date: March 1, 1976
Creator: Fullam, H. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physical basis for large forward cross sections in /sup 60/Ni(/sup 18/O,/sup 16/O) reaction

Description: Experiments on the reaction /sup 60/Ni(/sup 18/O,/sup 16/O)/sup 62/Ni revealed an unexpectedly large forward cross section for production of the ground state, in contrast with an expected grazing peaked distribution. This has most recently been interpreted in terms of a surface transparent optical potential. In the inverse experiment, it is known that /sup 18/O is produced in its 2/sup +/ state with larger cross section than the ground state. This suggests that the above ground state reaction can also be produced with appreciable probability through the excitation of /sup 18/O in the incident channel, with a subsequent transfer of two neutrons to form the ground state of /sup 62/Ni. It is found that by including this process together with the direct transfer, the experimental data can be accounted for. The parameters of the optical potential employed are chosen so as to reproduce both the elastic and inelastic cross sections, and are of the normal strong absorbing type with no surface transparency. It is concluded that the projectile excitation is the physical process involved in the large forward cross section. In addition the interference of the direct and indirect processes can give rise to a minimum beyond the grazing peak followed by a secondary maximum, some indication of which can be found in the experiments on neighboring nuclei. The quantal deflection function is employed in a discussion of the S matrix and angular distribution emerging from this calculation and of the surface transparent potential parametrization of the effect. 5 figures, 1 table.
Date: March 1, 1976
Creator: Glendenning, N. K. & Wolschin, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stored energy of gamma-irradiated WIPP salt

Description: Samples of WIPP salt exposed at 363/sup 0/K to gamma radiation from a /sup 60/Co source were annealed at constant rates of heating in a differential scanning calorimeter in order to release the energy stored. Radiation doses were 2.2, 5.4, 8.2, 11 and 13 x 10/sup 9/ rad, and temperature scans were conducted from room temperature to 800/sup 0/K. The specific stored energy-dose relationship deduced from 80 K/min scans could be only approximately established due to the extreme variability of the specific energy in samples of a given dose. This variability probably results from unequal amounts of impurities in the 10 to 25 mg samples required for the calorimeter. The energy-dose relationship is best described empirically by lnQ/sub 0/(cal/g) = (-40.6 +- 2.6) + (1.84 +- 0.12) lnD(rad). Temperature scans of 10, 20, 40, and 80 K/min were performed to determine the activation energy E of the annealing process. For the four more highly dosed samples, E = 31.1 +- 5.6 kcal/mole. Based upon criteria established elsewhere, there appears to be no danger of the stored energy being released quickly in a nuclear waste repository of bedded salt, nor could serious consequences result from such a release by some unforeseen mechanism.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Moss, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal liquefaction process research quarterly report, October-December 1979

Description: This quarterly report summarizes the activities of Sandia's continuing program in coal liquefaction process research. The overall objectives are to: (1) provide a fundamental understanding of the chemistry of coal liquefaction; (2) determine the role of catalysts in coal liquefaction; and (3) determine the mechanism(s) of catalyst deactivation. The program is composed of three major projects: short-contact-time coal liquefaction, mineral effects, and catalyst studies. These projects are interdependent and overlap significantly.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Bickel, T.C.; Curlee, R.M.; Granoff, B.; Stohl, F.V. & Thomas, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Division quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1976

Description: The first in a series of quarterly progress reports on ERDA budgeted activities subcontracted to Allied Chemical Corporation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is presented. The work is performed by the Technical Division and is divided into three subjects. Fuel cycle research and development includes fluidized-bed calcination and post treatment of commercial nuclear fuel process waste; the storage of fission product noble gas; the catalyzed reaction between NO/sub x/ and NH/sub 3/; the adsorption and storage of /sup 129/I; evaporation of radioactive wastes; the removal of actinides from commercial high-level waste; reprocessing and waste treatment of HTGR fuel; and studies on natural fission reactors. Special materials production covers long-term management of ICPP high-level waste; ICPP fuel process improvements; advanced graphite fuels reprocessing; buried pipeline transfer systems; and ICPP waste management assistance. Other projects supporting energy development include geothermal energy development; inplant source term measurements; burnup methods for FBR fuels; nuclear materials security; absolute thermal fission yield measurements; analytical support to LWBR program; research on analytical methods; and environmental iodine species behavior.
Date: March 1, 1977
Creator: Slansky, C. M. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary evaluation of the gaseous effluent sampling system of the 296-P-3 portable exhauster, BY-Tank Farm

Description: This evaluation of the 296-P-3 stack sampling system is part of a larger study, sponsored by ARHCO and conducted by Battelle-Northwest, of effluent airborne particulate sampling systems in ARHCO facilities. The 296-P-3 stack is similar to many portable exhauster units deployed in the tank farms. The objectives of this study are: Evaluate the compliance of the particulate sampling system with ARHCO's Interim Criteria for such systems by using sampling theory; make recommendations for corrective action which will lead to a particulate sampling system in compliance with the Interim Criteria; and the conclusions and recommendations are to be generally applicable to sampling systems of the same type as at the 296-P-3 stack. This study is considered preliminary because no experiments have been conducted to verify the sampling system's performance. The following report includes a brief summary, a detailed description and evaluation of the sampling system, conclusions and recommendations for corrective action. The appendices contain a copy of the Interim Criteria, the ARHCO Emergency Procedure regarding radioactive gaseous discharges from this facility and calculations.
Date: March 1, 1977
Creator: Glissmeyer, J.A. & Schwendiman, L.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961

Description: The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ([sup 238]Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Young, J.A. & Thomas, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iodine-131 releases from the Hanford Site, 1944--1947

Description: Detailed results of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction project (HEDR) iodine-131 release reconstruction are presented in this volume. Included are daily data on B, D, and F Plant, reactor operations from the P-Department Daily Reports (General Electric Company 1947). Tables of B and T Plant material processed from the three principal sources on separations plant operations: The Jaech report (Jaech undated), the 200 Area Report (Acken and Bird 1945; Bird and Donihee 1945), and the Metal History Reports (General Electric Company 1946). A transcription of the Jaech report is also provided because it is computer-generated and is not readily readable in its original format. The iodine-131 release data are from the STRM model. Cut-by-cut release estimates are provided, along with daily, monthly, and yearly summations. These summations are based on the hourly release estimates. The hourly data are contained in a 28 megabyte electronic file. Interested individuals may request a copy.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Heeb, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iodine-131 releases from the Hanford Site, 1944--1947

Description: Releases of fission product iodine-131 are calculated for the 1944 through 1947 period from the Hanford Reservation. Releases to the atmosphere were from the ventilation stacks of T and B separation plants. A reconstruction of daily separation plant operations forms the basis of the releases. The reconstruction traces the iodine-131 content of each fuel discharge from the B, D, and F Reactors to the dissolving step in the separation plants. Statistical computer modeling techniques are used to estimate hourly release histories based on sampling mathematical distribution functions that express the uncertainties in the source data and timing. The reported daily, monthly, and yearly estimates are averages and uncertainty ranges are based on 100 independent Monte Carlo realizations'' of the hourly release histories.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Heeb, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural repository analogue program. Progress report, July 1-September 30, 1981

Description: A report on the immobilization of uranium in the earth's crust has been completed. Techniques have been developed to do a comprehensive mass inventory of the Oklo reactor zones. These techniques were applied to a compilation of data from Oklo zones 2 and 3-4. The study shows large deficiencies of neodymium, ruthenium, and mass 99 elements (/sup 99/Tc or /sup 99/Ru) in the reactor zones. The extent of these deficiencies are correlated with the intensity of the nuclear reactions. Analyses of ores from the Key Lake uranium mineralization show that 60 to 70% of the radiogenic lead is missing from the ores.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Curtis, D.B. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense waste processing facility precipitate hydrolysis process

Description: Sodium tetraphenylborate and sodium titanate are used to assist in the concentration of soluble radionuclide in the Savannah River Plant's high-level waste. In the Defense Waste Processing Facility, concentrated tetraphenylborate/sodium titanate slurry containing cesium-137, strontium-90 and traces of plutonium from the waste tank farm is hydrolyzed in the Salt Processing Cell forming organic and aqueous phases. The two phases are then separated and the organic phase is decontaminated for incineration outside the DWPF building. The aqueous phase, containing the radionuclides and less than 10% of the original organic, is blended with the insoluble radionuclides in the high-level waste sludge and is fed to the glass melter for vitrification into borosilicate glass. During the Savannah River Laboratory's development of this process, copper (II) was found to act as a catalyst during the hydrolysis reactions, which improved the organic removal and simplified the design of the reactor.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Doherty, J P; Eibling, R E & Marek, J C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Positron annihilation in solid and liquid Ni

Description: New techniques have been developed for the study of metals via positron annihilation which provide for the in-situ melting of the samples and subsequent measurements via Doppler broadening of positron-annihilation radiation. Here we report these metods currently in use at our laboratory; ion implantation of /sup 58/Co and the use of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ crucibles for in-situ melting followed by the decomposition of the Doppler-broadened spectrum into a parabolic and a Gaussian component. Our earliest results obtained for pure Ni in the polycrystalline solid and in the liquid state are compared. An interesting similarity is reported for the distributions of the high-momentum (Gaussian) component for positrons annihilating in vacancies at high temperatures and those annihilating in liquid Ni.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Fluss, M.J.; Smedskjaer, L.C.; Chakraborty, B. & Chason, M.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1992

Description: We describe the synthesis of the cis- and trans-iodovinyl isomers of the new ORNL cholinergic-muscarinicreceptorligand, 1 -azabicyclo[2.2-2]oct-3-yl[alpha]-hydroxy-[alpha]-(1-iodo-l-propen-3-yl)-[alpha]-phenylacetate ( IQNP''). This agent is prepared in high radiochemical yield, and the racemic mixture shows high specificity and selectivity for the cerebral and myocardial receptors. Since two chiral centers are present in this molecule, it is important to evaluate the importance of the absolute configuration of the two centers on receptor specificity. The tributyltin substrates were carefully separated by column chromatography, converted to the iodine-125 analogues by iododestannylation, and evaluated in rats in vivo. While the E'' (trans) isomer cleared rapidly from the receptor-rich areas of rat brain, the Z'' (cis) isomer showed high uptake in these areas but also high concentration in the cerebellum. In contrast, the E,Z-isomeric mixture showed good uptake and retention in the receptor rich areas. Also described in this report is a description of neutron flux measurements in the hydraulic tube position at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Also during this period, samples of [l-125]- and [l-131]-labeled racemic IQNP'' were supplied through a collaborative program with the Brookhaven National Laboratory for high resolution autoradiographic studies in rat tissues.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive contamination in the environs of the Hanford Works for the period July, August, September 1948

Description: This report summarizes the radioactive contamination measured at the Hanford Works and vicinity for the quarter July, August, and September 1948. Topics discussed are: meteorology; airborne contamination and contamination of the Columbia River; vegetation; drinking water; and in Hanford Wastes.
Date: March 10, 1949
Creator: Singlevich, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive contamination in the environs of the Hanford Works for the period October, November, December 1949

Description: This report summarizes the measurements made for radioactive contamination in the environs of the Hanford Works. The principal sources of the radioactivity originating as a result of operations at Hanford which affect the environment in this area are the two waste stacks in the separations area and the cooling water from the four pile areas. Measurements are also made on samples taken from the Hanford waste systems which are primarily confined within the project proper. Although monthly summaries of these data are reported in Health Instrument Divisions Environs reports, a somewhat more detailed discussion of these data is covered in the quarterly report. In this manner, a better evaluation of possible trends can be detected as a result of the increased number of measurements made available by combining the data for a three month period. The following areas are discussed: meteorology, radioactive contamination of vegetation, airborne contamination and air radiation levels, radioactive contamination in Hanford wastes, radioactive contamination in the Columbia and Yakima rivers; beta activity in rain and snow, and radioactive contamination in drinking water and test wells.
Date: March 2, 1950
Creator: Paas, H.J. & Singlevich, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Incentives for Partitioning, Revisited

Description: The incentives for separating and eliminating various elements from radioactive waste prior to final geologic disposal were investigated. Exposure pathways to humans were defined, and potential radiation doses to an individual living within the region of influence of the underground storage site were calculated. The assumed radionuclide source was 1/5 of the accumulated high-level waste from the US nuclear power economy through the year 2000. The repository containing the waste was assumed to be located in a reference salt site geology. The study required numerous assumptions concerning the transport of radioactivity from the geologic storage site to man. The assumptions used maximized the estimated potential radiation doses, particularly in the case of the intrusion water well scenario, where hydrologic flow field dispersion effects were ignored. Thus, incentives for removing elements from the waste tended to be maximized. Incentives were also maximized by assuming that elements removed from the waste could be eliminated from the earth without risk. The results of the study indicate that for reasonable disposal conditions, incentives for partitioning any elements from the waste in order to minimize the risk to humans are marginal at best.
Date: March 24, 1980
Creator: Cloninger, M. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of small mammal populations inhabiting the environs of a low-level radioactive waste pond.

Description: This study was designed to determine the kinds of small mammals living adjacent to 216-U-10 Pond, the radiation exposures these mice received, and the level and type of radionuclides assimilated while living next to this pond and the 216-Z-19 Ditch. Four species of mice were trapped including the Great Basin pocket mouse, deer mouse, house mouse, and the western harvest mouse. Animals were collected throughout the study and composite tissue samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Also, an analysis for /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am was performed. The most abundant gamma emitter was /sup 137/Cs with the highest levels occurring at three trapping locations: one near the 216-Z-19 Ditch and two locations adjacent to the pond. House mice captured near the 216-Z-19 Ditch showed the highest levels with one gastrointestinal (GI) tract sample having 1600 pCi /sup 137/Cs/g dry weight. Four tissue types from resident mice were analyzed for Pu and Am concentrations. The tissues analyzed were fur-skin, liver, lung, and muscle-bone. The highest concentration detected was 2.03 pCi /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu/g dry weight in a fur-skin sample from house mice captured on the meadow transect near the pond. Results from radiochemical analyses of mouse tissues showed that pocket mice have the lowest concentrations of radionuclides. Another part of this study involved dosimeters implanted in resident mice to determine gamma exposure. Analyses revealed that mice living in the meadow transect adjacent to the pond receive the highest exposure. Again, house mice had the highest, with an average 54.9 R/yr. Dosimeters were placed in the soil along the trapping transects to measure gamma and thermal neutron exposure rates. The top decimeter of soil had the highest exposure rate with a mean of 75 R/yr in the meadow. Neutron dose in the soil was also highest near ...
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Gano, K.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical approaches to and interpretations of data on time, rate, and cause of death of mice exposed to external gamma irradiation

Description: Young adult male and female mice of inbred strains, A, BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C57L, and B6CF/sub 1/ and F/sub 2/ hybrids were exposed to daily duration-of-life external /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. irradiation. Age at death was recorded, and most decedents were necropsied to ascertain occurrence of major types of tumors. Age- and cause-specific mortality or incidence rates were derived, and their regressions on age were fitted with polynomial equations by least-squares procedures. Age-specific and age-adjusted integrated lifetime risk in excess of the control population was expressed as the mortality ratio (irradiated/control). Linear and nonlinear functions and widely different life expectancies can be accommodated by this technique. These basic actuarial statistics provide a means for comparative analysis of dose-response functions, sex and genetic variables, relative vs. absolute risk, protraction or dose-rate factors, and major contributing causes of excess risk. They also provide a basis for extrapolation to man. As examples, life shortening in days per rad (4 days/100 rads accumulated) is generally independent of sex, genotype, and daily dose rate. The integrated average lifetime risk of death related to all tumors (0.025%/rad) is largely independent of sex, genotype and dose-rates <12 rads/day, despite the fact that tumor incidence varies by a factor of 2 to 3 among genotypes. At low exposure rates, tumor-related mortality accounts for 80% of the excess risk, and life shortening is a function only of accumulated dose, independent of dose rate below 12 rads/day. The radiobiological effectiveness for low daily exposure levels is less than that for single exposures by a factor of 5 to 10. Life shortening following low daily exposure rates is induced at the rate of .03 to .06 days/R for the mouse, which extrapolates to about 1 to 2 days/R for man.
Date: March 13, 1978
Creator: Grahn, D.; Sacher, G.A.; Lea, R.A.; Fry, R.J.M. & Rust, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Transport Division. 1980 report

Description: Aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial studies and instrumentation developments are described in a series of articles. More details about specific studies are given in publications listed at the end of the report.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Adams, S.E.; Fliermans, C.B.; Garrett, A.J. & Halverson, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

Description: Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of [sup 137]Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of [sup 137]Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope [sup 137]Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Positrons from supernova and the origin of the galactic-center positron-annihilation radiation

Description: The emission of positrons from supernova ejecta is dicussed in terms of the galactic-center annihilation radiation. The positrons from the radioactive sequences /sup 56/Ni..-->../sup 56/Co..-->../sup 56/Fe are the most numerous source from supernova. Only type I supernova will allow a significant fraction to escape the expanding ejecta. For a neutron star model of a type I SN a fraction 4 x 10/sup -3/ of the escaped positron is enough to create the observed several year fluctuation of the annihilation radiation. The likelihood of this model is discussed in terms of other astrophysical evidence as well as the type I SN light curve.
Date: March 17, 1983
Creator: Colgate, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department