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Utilization of coal mine ventilation exhaust as combustion air in gas-fired turbines for electric and/or mechanical power generation. Semi-annual topical report, June 1995--August 1995

Description: Methane emitted during underground coal mining operations is a hazard that is dealt with by diluting the methane with fresh air and exhausting the contaminated air to the atmosphere. Unfortunately this waste stream may contain more than 60% of the methane resource from the coal, and in the atmosphere the methane acts as a greenhouse gas with an effect about 24.5 times greater than CO{sub 2}. Though the waste stream is too dilute for normal recovery processes, it can be used as combustion air for a turbine-generator, thereby reducing the turbine fuel requirements while reducing emissions. Preliminary analysis indicates that such a system, built using standard equipment, is economically and environmentally attractive, and has potential for worldwide application.
Date: December 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low NO{sub x} turbine power generation utilizing low Btu GOB gas. Final report, June--August 1995

Description: Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is second only to carbon dioxide as a contributor to potential global warming. Methane liberated by coal mines represents one of the most promising under exploited areas for profitably reducing these methane emissions. Furthermore, there is a need for apparatus and processes that reduce the nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from gas turbines in power generation. Consequently, this project aims to demonstrate a technology which utilizes low grade fuel (CMM) in a combustion air stream to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in the operation of a gas turbine. This technology is superior to other existing technologies because it can directly use the varying methane content gases from various streams of the mining operation. The simplicity of the process makes it useful for both new gas turbines and retrofitting existing gas turbines. This report evaluates the feasibility of using gob gas from the 11,000 acre abandoned Gateway Mine near Waynesburg, Pennsylvania as a fuel source for power generation applying low NO{sub x} gas turbine technology at a site which is currently capable of producing low grade GOB gas ({approx_equal} 600 BTU) from abandoned GOB areas.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.; Gabrielson, J. & Glickert, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a catalytic system for gasification of wet biomass

Description: A gasification system is under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory that can be used with high-moisture biomass feedstocks. The system operates at 350 C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet biomass can be fed as a slurry to the reactor without drying. Through the development of catalysts, a useful processing system has been produced. This paper includes assessment of processing test results of different catalysts. Reactor system results including batch, bench-scale continuous, and engineering-scale processing results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of this catalytic gasification system to biomass. The system has utility both for direct conversion of biomass to fuel gas or as a wastewater cleanup system for treatment of unconverted biomass from bioconversion processes. By the use of this system high conversion of biomass to fuel gas can be achieved. Medium-Btu is the primary product. Potential exists for recovery/recycle of some of the unreacted inorganic components from the biomass in the aqueous byproduct stream.
Date: August 1, 1993
Creator: Elliott, D. C.; Sealock, L. J.; Phelps, M. R.; Neuenschwander, G. G. & Hart, T. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the Battelle Agglomerating Ash Burner Process for the production of medium Btu gas

Description: The Battelle Agglomerating Ash Burner Process is in an early developmental stage. As a means for determining the magnitude of the incentive for expenditure of further development effort on this process, conceptual process design and associated cost estimates were prepared on the basis of anticipated, but unproven, process and equipment performance. On the basis of the postulated performance, the estimated cost for the product gas, assuming private financing, is $2.82/MM Btu. It is concluded that the process merits further development.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Chang, T.Y. & West, A.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1993--1994 interim report

Description: Process development research is continuing on a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system that has been demonstrated to convert organics in water (dilute or concentrated) to useful and environmentally safe gases. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEESO), treats a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from hazardous organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of continuous-feed, tubular reactors systems for testing catalysts and feedstocks in the process. A range of catalysts have been tested, including nickel and other base metals, as well as ruthenium and other precious metals. Results of extensive testing show that feedstocks, ranging from 2% para-cresol in water to potato waste and spent grain, can be processed to > 99% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The product fuel gas contains from 40% up to 75% methane, depending on the feedstock. The balance of the gas is mostly carbon dioxide with < 5% hydrogen and usually < 1% ethane and higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics from 10 to 1,000 mg/l COD, depending on the feedstock. The level of development of TEES has progressed to the initial phases of industrial process demonstration. Testing of industrial waste streams is under way at both the bench scale and engineering scale of development.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Deverman, G.S.; Werpy, T.A.; Phelps, M.R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. 1996 DOE annual technical report, January--December 1996

Description: Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project uses a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,000 tons per day of coal to syngas. The gasification plant is coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 BTUs/cf (HHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product. Approximately 10% of the raw, hot syngas at 900 F is designed to pass through an intermittently moving bed of metal-oxide sorbent which removes sulfur-bearing compounds from the syngas. PPS-1 will be the first unit in the world to demonstrate this advanced metal oxide hot gas desulfurization technology on a commercial unit. The emphasis during 1996 centered around start-up activities.
Date: December 31, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Co-production of electricity and alternate fuels from coal. Final report, August 1995

Description: The Calderon process and its process development unit, PDU, were originally conceived to produce two useful products from a bituminous coal: a desulfurized medium BTU gas containing primarily CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O; and a desulfurized low BTU gas containing these same constituents plus N{sub 2} from the air used to provide heat for the process through the combustion of a portion of the fuel. The process was viewed as a means for providing both a synthesis gas for liquid fuel production (perhaps CH{sub 3}OH, alternatively CH{sub 4} or NH{sub 3}) and a pressurized, low BTU fuel gas, for gas turbine based power generation. The Calderon coal process comprises three principle sections which perform the following functions: coal pyrolysis in a continuous, steady flow unit based on coke oven technology; air blown, slagging, coke gasification in a moving bed unit based on a blast furnace technology; and a novel, lime pebble based, product gas processing in which a variety of functions are accomplished including the cracking of hydrocarbons and the removal of sulfur, H{sub 2}S, and of particulates from both the medium and low BTU gases. The product gas processing unit, based on multiple moving beds, has also been conceived to regenerate the lime pebbles and recover sulfur as elemental S.
Date: December 31, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plan for obtaining data required for retrofitting burners to industrial fuel gas. Part I. Technical plan for combustion system data (Deliverable No. 44)

Description: At the outset of Contract No. ET-77-C-01-2582, it was recognized that most but not all natural gas customers could use the product of the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant. It was further recognized that, for some of the processes, retrofit information and performance data would have to be developed to make the change possible. Consequently, the program work plan includes Task IX-7, Distribution and Utilization Characteristics of Gas Output. The purposes of this task are: (a) to determine which industrial customers and processes can use the output gas, (b) to identify the required information and performance data necessary for the change, (c) to develop the information and data not available from other sources, and (d) to provide assistance to burner manufactures and current MLGW customers preparing to use the output gas. The total scope of Task IX-7 and the level of effort required are a function of both the type and number of customers. This could not be determined prior to initiation of the contract; consequently, Task IX-7 was proposed as a two-part effort. Under the current contract, a preliminary evaluation of potential MLGW customers and their processes was funded and completed as the first step. This evaluation determined which customers and processes could use the output of the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant. It also identified what information and performance data were needed to achieve the changeover.
Date: January 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1988

Description: The Department of Energy is investigating a process concept called Mild Gasification in which rapid devolatilization of coal under mild conditions of temperature and pressure would yield three product slates: a low- or medium-BTU gas, a valuable hydrocarbon condensate, and a reactive char. The ongoing objective of this program is to develop a continuous mild gasification process which will produce a product mix that optimizes process economics. In order to provide the incentive for private industry to commercialize the process, it is necessary to demonstrate yields and qualities in a versatile continuous process development unit (PDU). This unit must be capable of assessing both coal- and process-specific effects in a cost-effective and timely manner. Based on literature reviews and experimental verification, a data base will be developed correlating coal and process parameters with product characteristics. This will provide process developers with the information necessary to derive site-specific economics which will be crucial for the commercialization of the mild gasification process. The literature review and market assessment has been completed under Task 1 of the program. Under Task 2, coal-specific tests are being conducted on three AMAX coals: Chinook, an Indiana {number_sign}3 bituminous coal; Delta, an Illinois {number_sign}6 bituminous coal; and Eagle Butte, a Wyodak subbituminous coal. Various methods of char upgrading are being conducted by AMAX R&D of Golden, Colorado. The upgraded char is then combined with iron ore and tested for pig iron production under an AMAX subcontract to Pellet Technology Corporation of Marquette, Michigan. In addition to the test program, process development and scaleup information is being developed for a 1 ton/hr pilot plant unit. Plans for Tasks 2 and 3, equipment modifications, and report. Results include: char analysis, condensable analysis, waste water analysis, and gas analysis.
Date: July 1, 1988
Creator: Ness, R. O. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program

Description: The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H{sub 2} mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO{sub x} (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.
Date: November 1, 1992
Creator: Calderon, A.; Madison, E. & Probert, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of industrial markets for low and medium Btu coal gasification. [Forecasting]

Description: Low- and medium-Btu gases (LBG and MBG) can be produced from coal with a variety of 13 existing and 25 emerging processes. Historical experience and previous studies indicate a large potential market for LBG and MBG coal gasification in the manufacturing industries for fuel and feedstocks. However, present use in the US is limited, and industry has not been making substantial moves to invest in the technology. Near-term (1979-1985) market activity for LBG and MBG is highly uncertain and is complicated by a myriad of pressures on industry for energy-related investments. To assist in planning its program to accelerate the commercialization of LBG and MBG, the Department of Energy (DOE) contracted with Booz, Allen and Hamilton to characterize and forecast the 1985 industrial market for LBG and MBG coal gasification. The study draws five major conclusions: (1) There is a large technically feasible market potential in industry for commercially available equipment - exceeding 3 quadrillion Btu per year. (2) Early adopters will be principally steel, chemical, and brick companies in described areas. (3) With no additional Federal initiatives, industry commitments to LBG and MBG will increase only moderately. (4) The major barriers to further market penetration are lack of economic advantage, absence of significant operating experience in the US, uncertainty on government environmental policy, and limited credible engineering data for retrofitting industrial plants. (5) Within the context of generally accepted energy supply and price forecasts, selected government action can be a principal factor in accelerating market penetration. Each major conclusion is discussed briefly and key implications for DOE planning are identified.
Date: July 30, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Quarterly progress report, October 1-December 31, 1982

Description: The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) process analysis; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) process component engineering and design; and (5) laboratory support studies involving gas solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior. 9 figures, 19 tables.
Date: April 21, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Fourth quarter progress report, July 1-September 30, 1982

Description: The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Technical progress summaries and reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) process development unit (PDU) test operations and results (gasifier test TP-033-1 and maintenance and modifications); (2) process analysis (environmental characterization results, coal gas combustion results, and fines elutriation and consumption results); (3) cold flow scaleup (modifications and maintenance, operations, and data analysis); (4) process and component engineering and design (hot fines recycle modifications, and hot recycled fines); (5) laboratory support studies (gas-solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior). 23 figures, 23 tables.
Date: February 17, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1982

Description: The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) process analysis; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) process and component engineering and design; and (5) laboratory support studies. Some of the highlights for this period are: TP-032-1, a single stage, oxygen-steam blown gasifier test was conducted in three operational phases from March 30, 1982 through May 2, 1982; TP-032-2 was conducted in two operational phases from May 20, 1982 through May 27, 1982; TP-032-1 and TP-032-2 successfully served as shakedown and demonstrations of the full cyclone cold wall; no visible deposits were found on the cold wall after processing highly fouling coals; samples of product gas produced during TP-032-1, were passed through four different scrubbing solutions and analyzed for 78 EPA primary organic pollutants, all of which were found to be below detection limits; TP-M004, a CO/sub 2/ tracer gas test, was initiated and completed; data analysis of test TP-M002-2 was completed and conclusions are summarized in this report; design, procurement and fabrication of the solids injection device were completed; laboratory studies involved gas-solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior. 2 references, 11 figures, 39 tables.
Date: October 21, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Conceptual design and evaluation of commercial plant. Volume III. Economic analyses (Deliverable Nos. 15 and 16)

Description: This report presents the results of Task I of Phase I in the form of a Conceptual Design and Evaluation of Commercial Plant report. The report is presented in four volumes as follows: I - Executive Summary, II - Commercial Plant Design, III - Economic Analyses, IV - Demonstration Plant Recommendations. Volume III presents the economic analyses for the commercial plant and the supporting data. General cost and financing factors used in the analyses are tabulated. Three financing modes are considered. The product gas cost calculation procedure is identified and appendices present computer inputs and sample computer outputs for the MLGW, Utility, and Industry Base Cases. The results of the base case cost analyses for plant fenceline gas costs are as follows: Municipal Utility, (e.g. MLGW), $3.76/MM Btu; Investor Owned Utility, (25% equity), $4.48/MM Btu; and Investor Case, (100% equity), $5.21/MM Btu. The results of 47 IFG product cost sensitivity cases involving a dozen sensitivity variables are presented. Plant half size, coal cost, plant investment, and return on equity (industrial) are the most important sensitivity variables. Volume III also presents a summary discussion of the socioeconomic impact of the plant and a discussion of possible commercial incentives for development of IFG plants.
Date: January 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes

Description: Bench-scale reactor tests are in progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for treating a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. This report describes a test program which used a continuous-feed tubular reactor. This test program is an intermediate stage in the process development. The reactor is a laboratory-scale version of the commercial concept as currently envisioned by the process developers. An energy benefit and economic analysis was also completed on the process. Four conceptual commercial installations of the TEES process were evaluated for three food processing applications and one organic chemical manufacturing application. Net energy production (medium-Btu gas) was achieved in all four cases. The organic chemical application was found to be economically attractive in the present situation. Based on sensitivity studies included in the analysis, the three food processing cases will likely become attractive in the near future as waste disposal regulations tighten and disposal costs increase. 21 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1991
Creator: Elliott, D C; Neuenschwander, G G; Baker, E G; Sealock, Jr, L J & Butner, R S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low/medium Btu coal gasification assessment program for potential users in New Jersey: executive summary

Description: This preliminary study evaluation has manifested an overall technical and economic feasibility for producing a medium Btu quality gas (MBG) from coal at PSE and G's Sewaren Generating Station in New Jersey. The production of MBG for use as a fuel gas for on-site power plant boilers or for distribution to industrial customers appears to be economically attractive. The economic attractiveness of MBG is very dependent on the location of sufficient numbers of industrial customers near the gasification facilities and on high utilization of the gasification plant. The Sewaren Generating Station was identified as potentially the most suitable site for a gasification plant. The Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP) was selected as the gasifier type due to a combination of efficiency and pilot plant experience. Further, it has the advantage of being a pressurized process, capable of supplying the gas without downstream compression which is required if the gas is to be transported to industrial consumers. The TCGP can handle the high sulfur eastern coals chosen as a feedstock. All equipment downstream of the gasifier is commercially proven. For maximum efficiency and flexibility, it would be desirable to consider the integration of the gasification process with a methanol synthesis plant, consuming up to 25% of the MBG produced. Such a combination scheme would allow storage of MBG when its demand is low and thereby increasing the gasifier capacity factor and minimizing its turndown requirements.
Date: May 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

Description: This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.
Date: November 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coal gasification for the coproduction of electricity and fertilizer

Description: TVA is proposing to develop and commercially demonstrate the coproduction of electricity and fertilizer (urea) using integrated gasification/combined cycle (IGCC) technology. The coal-based coproduction demonstration project will show that the coproduction process can economically and environmentally enhance the production of both electric power and urea. As conceptualized, the proposed coproduction demonstration project facility would be designed for a nominal electrical capacity of about 250 megawatts (MW), Table I. During normal operation, the facility would produce about 150 MW of base-load electrical power and 1,000 tons per day of urea. Sulfur from the coal would be recovered as elemental sulfur. During peak power demand, the fertilizer capacity could be reduced or bypassed and the full 250 MW could be made available. This scheme would allow continuous operation of the gasifier at 100% of its rated capacity which would reduce the annual revenue requirements for power generation by permitting the production of fertilizer. As TVA`s vision of this proposal matures (i.e., as consideration is given to alternative schemes, as TVA reviews its power demands, and as more detailed engineering estimates are developed), the nature and scope of cyclic-operation may be altered.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Kelly, D. A.; Nichols, D. E. & Faucett, H. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced coal gasification system for electric power generation. Third quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

Description: The operation, maintenance and modifications to the Westinghouse gasification process development unit during the quarter are reviewed. The tests of the gasifier-agglomerator included direct coal feed as well as oxygen-blown gasification of a char or coal bed. Then the whole system was tested in single and double stage operation. Laboratory support involved fluidized bed test facilities at ambient temperature and at design temperature for devolatilization and gasification studies. Other laboratory systems were related to thermal analysis and pressurized high temperature studies of gasification and gas cleaning. (LTN)
Date: July 25, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Breckinridge Project, initial effort

Description: Report IV, Volume 6 provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to Gasification and Purification (Plant 12). Gasification and Purification (Plant 12) produces makeup hydrogen for H-COAL Preheating and Reaction (Plant 3), and produces a medium Btu fuel gas for consumption in fired heaters. The following information is included: a description of the plant&#x27;s process design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and a process flow diagram; an equipment list, including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components; and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume. Gasification and Purification (Plant 12) utilizes process technology from three licensors: gasification of vacuum bottoms using the Texaco process, shift conversion using the Haldor Topsoe process, and purification of fuel gas and shifted gas using the Allied Chemical Selexol process. This licensed technology is proprietary in nature. As a result, this volume does not contain full disclosure of these processes although a maximum of information has been presented consistent with the confidentiality requirements. Where data appears incomplete in this volume, it is due to the above described limitations. Full data concerning this plant are available for DOE review at the Houston offices of Bechtel Petroleum, Inc.
Date: unknown
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion of coal-gas fuels in a staged combustor

Description: Gaseous fuels produced from coal resources have been considered for use in industrial gas turbines. Such fuels generally have heating values much lower than the typical gaseous fuel, natural gas; the low heating value could result in unstable or inefficient combustion. Additionally, coal gas fuels may contain ammonia which if oxidized in an uncontrolled manner could result in unacceptable NO/sub x/ exhaust emission levels. Previous investigations have indicated that staged, rich-lean combustion represents a desirable approach to achieve stable, efficient, low NO/sub x/ emission operation for coal-derived liquid fuels containing up to 0.8-wt % nitrogen. An experimental program has been conducted to determine whether this fuel tolerance can be extended to include coal-derived gaseous fuels. The results of tests with three nitrogen-free fuels having heating values of 100, 250, and 350 Btu/scf and a 250 Btu/scf heating value doped to contain 0.7% ammonia are presented. The test results permit the following conclusions to be drawn: (1) Staged, rich-lean combustion represents the desirable approach to achieve ultra-low NO/sub x/ and CO emissions for coal gas fuels with heating values of 210 kJ/mol (238 Btu/scf) or higher. (2) Lean combustion represents the desirable approach to achieve ultra-low NO/sub x/ and CO emissions for coal gas fuels with low heating values (84 kJ/mol (95 Btu/scf)). (3) Staged combustion has the ability to limit NH/sub 3/ to NO/sub x/ conversion rates to less than 5%. NO/sub x/ emissions below the EPA limit can readily be achieved.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Rosfjord, T J; McVey, J B; Sederquist, R A & Schultz, D F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Process designs and cost estimates for a medium Btu gasification plant using a wood feedstock

Description: A gasification plant to effect the conversion of wood to medium-Btu gas has been designed. The Purox gasifier and associated equipment were selected as a prototype, since this system is nearer to commercialization than others considered. The object was to determine the cost of those processing steps common to all gasification schemes and to identify specific research areas. A detailed flowsheet and mass-balance are presented. Capital investment statements for three plant sizes (400, 800, 1,600 oven-dry tons per day) are included along with manufacturing costs for each of these plants at three feedstock prices: $10, $20, $30 per green ton (or $20, $40, $60 per dry ton). The design incorporates a front-end handling system, package cryogenic oxygen plant, the Purox gasifier, a gas-cleaning train consisting of a spray scrubber, ionizing wet scrubber, and condenser, and a wastewater treatment facility including a cooling tower and a package activated sludge unit. Cost figures for package units were obtained from suppliers and used for the oxygen and wastewater treatment plants. The gasifier is fed with wood chips at 20% moisture (wet basis). For each pound of wood, 0.32 lb of oxygen are required, and 1.11 lb of gas are produced. The heating value of the gas product is 300 Btu/scf. For each Btu of energy input (feed + process energy) to the plant, 0.91 Btu exists with the product gas. Total capital investments required for the plants considered are $9, $15, and $24 million (1978) respectively. In each case, the oxygen plant represents about 50% of the total investment. For feedstock prices from $10 to $30 per green ton ($1.11 to $3.33 per MM Btu), break-even costs of fuel gas range from $3 to $7 per MM Btu. At $30/ton, the feedstock cost represents approximately 72% of the total product cost for the ...
Date: February 1, 1979
Creator: Desrosiers, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

Description: Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. Technical assistance will be provided to enhance the skills ofPGN and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, and a Gas Technology Unit similar to the Institute of Gas Technology will be established at Indonesia's Research and Development Center for Oil and Gas (LEMIGAS) in Jakarta. 14 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Klass, D.L. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)) & Khwaja, S. (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department