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Distinguishing between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos withtwo-particle interferometry

Description: Two-particle interferometry, a second-order interferenceeffect, is explored as another possible tool to distinguish betweenmassive Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. A simple theoretical framework isdiscussed in the context of several gedanken experiments. The method canin principle provide both the mass scale and the quantum nature of theneutrino for a certain class of incoherent left-handed sourcecurrents.
Date: March 2, 2006
Creator: Gutierrez, Thomas D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of mine collapses, explosions and earthquakes using INSAR: a preliminary investigation

Description: Interferograms constmcted from satellite-borne synthetic aperture radar images have the capability of mapping sub-cm ground surface deformation over areas on the order of 100 x 100 km with a spatial resolution on the order of 10 meters. We investigate the utility of synthetic aperture radar interferomehy (InSAR) used in conjunction with regional seismic methods in detecting and discriminating different types of seismic events in the context of special event analysis for the CTBT. For this initial study, we carried out elastic dislocation modeling of underground explosions, mine collapses and small (M<5.5) shallow earthquakes to produce synthetic interferograms and then analyzed satellite radar data for a large mine collapse. The synthetic modeling shows that, for a given magnitude each type of event produces a distinctive pattern of ground deformation that can be recognized in, and recovered from, the corresponding interferogram. These diagnostic characteristics include not only differences in the polarities of surface displacements but also differences in displacement amplitudes from the different sources. The technique is especially sensitive to source depth, a parameter that is crucial in discriminating earthquakes from the other event types but is often very poorly constrained by regional seismic data alone. The ERS radar data analyzed is from a M<sub>L</sub> 5.2 seismic event that occurred in southwestern Wyoming on February 3,1995. Although seismic data from the event have some characteristics of an underground explosion, based on seismological and geodetic data it has been identified as being caused by a large underground collapse in the Solvay Mine. Several pairs of before-collapse and after-collapse radar images were phase processed to obtain interferograms. The minimum time separation for a before-collapse and after-collapse pair was 548 days. Even with this long time separation, phase coherence between the image pairs was acceptable and a deformation map was successfully obtained. Two images, separated ...
Date: July 7, 1998
Creator: Foxall, B; Sweeney, J J & Walter, W R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lithographic characterization of low-order aberrations in a 0.3-NAEUV microfield exposure tool

Description: Although tremendous progress has been made in the crucial area of fabrication of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection optics, the realization diffraction-limited high numerical aperture (NA) optics (above 0.2 NA) remains a concern. The highest NA EUV optics available to date are the 0.3-NA Microfield Exposure Tool (MET) optics used in an experimental exposure station at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [1] and commercial METs [2] at Intel and SEMATECH-North. Even though these optics have been interferometrically demonstrated to achieve diffraction-limited wavefront quality, the question remains as to whether or not such performance levels can be maintained after installation of the optics into the exposure tool. Printing-based quantitative aberration measurements provide a convenient mechanism for the characterization of the optic wavefront error in the actual lithography tool. We present the lithographic measurement of low-order aberrations in the Berkeley MET tool, including a quantitative measurement of astigmatism and spherical error and a qualitative measurement of coma. The lithographic results are directly compared to interferometry results obtained from the same optic. Measurements of the Berkeley MET indicate either an alignment drift or errors in the interferometry on the order of 0.5 to 1 nm.
Date: March 1, 2006
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick; Cain, Jason; Dean, Kim & Goldberg, Kenneth A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of diagnostics for high-energy petawatt pulses

Description: Applications accessed by high energy petawatt (HEPW) lasers require complete, single-shot characterization of pulse spatial, temporal, and energy characteristics. We describe techniques that enable single-shot characterization of the temporal shape and pulse contrast of HEPW pulses with &gt;10{sup 8} dynamic range over a ns-temporal window. Approaches to measure pulse durations that span two orders of magnitude will be discussed. Finally, we describe a novel implementation of spectrally dispersed two-beam interferometry for measurement of the phase difference between two HEPW pulses. This technique can be applied to dispersion and B-integral measurements in a HEPW system, as well as to achieve precise timing of nanosecond pulses. Lastly, spectrally dispersed interferometry represents an ideal technique to enable coherent addition of HEPW pulses for production of ultrahigh intensities.
Date: June 15, 2006
Creator: Jovanovic, I; Hernandez, J; Appel, G; Barker, D; Betts, S; Brewer, W et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foundations of VISAR analysis.

Description: The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) is a widely used diagnostic at Sandia National Laboratories. Although the operating principles of the VISAR are well established, recently deployed systems (such as the fast push-pull and air delay VISAR) require more careful consideration, and many common assumptions about VISAR are coming into question. This report presents a comprehensive review of VISAR analysis to address these issues. Detailed treatment of several interferometer configurations is given to identify important aspects of the operation and characterization of VISAR systems. The calculation of velocity from interferometer measurements is also described. The goal is to derive the standard VISAR analysis relationships, indicate when these relationships are valid, and provide alternative methods when the standard analysis fails.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Dolan, Daniel H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Single pulse phase-control interferometric coherent anti-StokesRaman scattering spectroscopy (CARS)

Description: In coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy (CARS) experiments, usually the amplitude of the signal is measured and the phase information is lost. With a polarization- and phase-controlled pulse shaping technique, the relative phase between the resonant and non-resonant CARS signals is controlled, and spectral interferometry is performed without an interferometer. Both the real and imaginary parts of the background-free resonant CARS spectrum are measured via spectral interferometry between the resonant and non-resonant signals from the same sample. The resonant signal is amplified significantly by homodyne mixing with the non-resonant signal as a local oscillator, greatly improving the detection limit.
Date: September 28, 2005
Creator: Lim, Sang-Hyun; Caster, Allison G. & Leone, Stephen R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and fabrication of advanced EUV diffractive elements

Description: As extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography approaches commercial reality, the development of EUV-compatible diffractive structures becomes increasingly important. Such devices are relevant to many aspects of EUV technology including interferometry, illumination, and spectral filtering. Moreover, the current scarcity of high power EUV sources makes the optical efficiency of these diffractive structures a paramount concern. This fact has led to a strong interest in phase-enhanced diffractive structures. Here we describe recent advancements made in the fabrication of such devices.
Date: November 16, 2003
Creator: Naulleau, Patrick P.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Salmassi, Farhad; Anderson, Erik H. & Gullikson, Eric M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wide baseline optical interferometry with Laser Guide Stars

Description: Laser guide stars have been used successfully as a reference source for adaptive optics systems. We present a possible method for utilizing laser beacons as sources for interferometric phasing. The technique would extend the sky coverage for wide baseline interferometers and allow interferometric measurement and imaging of dim objects.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Gavel, D. T., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pion Interferometry in AU+AU Collisions at the AGS

Description: Two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations have been studied using the BNL-E866 Forward Spectrometer in 11.6 A {center_dot} GeV/c Au + Au collisions. The data were analyzed using three-dimensional correlation parameterizations to study transverse momentum-dependent source parameters. The freeze-out time and the duration of emission were derived from the source radii parameters.
Date: January 9, 1999
Creator: Lee, J. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental measurements of shock properties of stishovite

Description: We have synthesized, characterized and performed Hugoniot measurements on monolithic samples of stishovite, a high pressure polymorph of silica. Synthesis was accomplished in a multianvil press with pyrophyllite gaskets and carbon heaters. The samples had densities ranging from 3.80 to 4.07, corresponding to stishovite volume fractions of 0.7 to 0.87, a range confirmed by NMR analysis. They had no significant impurities except less than 1% carbon. Samples {approximately} 1 mm thick and 3 mm diameter were tested in reverse- and forward-ballistics modes on a two-stage light gas gun, using velocity interferometry diagnostics. Impact velocities ranged from 4.0 to 6.5 km/sec. Hugoniot stresses for the four successful tests ranged from 65 to 225GPa. At higher stresses significant uncertainties arise due to impact tilt/nonplanariy issues. Results are consistent with earlier predictions of the stishovite Hugoniot based on quartz-centered Hugoniot data, static-compression (diamond-anvil cell) data and hydrostatic multianvil cell data. Release behavior appears to be frozen. These results are remarkable in view of the small size of the samples used.
Date: October 1, 1995
Creator: Furnish, M.D. & Ito, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An adaptive optic for correcting low-order wavefront aberrations

Description: Adaptive Optics used for correcting low-order wavefront aberrations were tested and compared using interferometry, beam propagation, and a far-field test. Results confirm that the design and manufacturing specifications were met. Experimental data also confirms theoretical performance expectations, indicating the usefulness of these optics (especially in a laser-beam processing system), and identifying the resulting differences between the two fabrication methods used to make the optics.
Date: September 2, 1999
Creator: Thompson, C A & Wilhelmsen, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutral Kaon Interferometry in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) =200 GeV

Description: We present the first statistically meaningful results fromtwo-K0s interferometry in heavy-ion collisions. A model that takes theeffect of the strong interaction into account has been used to fit themeasured correlation function. The effects of single and coupled channelwere explored. At the mean transverse mass m_T = 1.07 GeV, we obtain thevalues R = 4.09 +- 0.46 (stat.) +- 0.31 (sys) fm and lambda = 0.92 +-0.23 (stat) +- 0.13 (sys), where R and lambda are the invariant radiusand chaoticity parameters respectively. The results are qualitativelyconsistent with m_T systematics established with pions in a scenariocharacterized by a strong collective flow.
Date: August 5, 2006
Creator: Abelev, B.I.; Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett,J.; Anderson, B.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: An optical fiber-based frequency and timing distribution system based on the principle of heterodyne interferometry has been in development at LBNL for several years. The fiber drift corrector has evolved from an RF-based to an optical-based system, from mechanical correctors (piezo and optical trombone) to fully electronic, and the electronics from analog to fully digital, all using inexpensive off-the-shelf commodity fiber components. Short-term optical phase jitter and long-term phase drift are both in the femtosecond range over distribution paths of 2 km or more.
Date: October 17, 2009
Creator: Staples, J.W.; Byrd, J.; Doolittle, L.; Huang, G. & Wilcox, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface Figure Metrology for CELT Primary Mirror Segments

Description: The University of California and California Institute of Technology are currently studying the feasibility of building a 30-m segmented ground based optical telescope called the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT). The early ideas for this telescope were first described by Nelson and Mast and more recently refined by Nelson. In parallel, concepts for the fabrication of the primary segments were proposed by Mast, Nelson and Sommargren where high risk technologies were identified. One of these was the surface figure metrology needed for fabricating the aspheric mirror segments. This report addresses the advanced interferometry that will be needed to achieve 15nm rms accuracy for mirror segments with aspheric departures as large as 35mm peak-to-valley. For reasons of cost, size, measurement consistency and ease of operation we believe it is desirable to have a single interferometer that can be universally applied to each and every mirror segment. Such an instrument is described in this report.
Date: February 27, 2001
Creator: Sommargren, G; Phillion, D; Seppala, L & Lerner, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A 3-D SAR approach to IFSAR processing

Description: Interferometric SAR (IFSAR) can be shown to be a special case of 3-D SAR image formation. In fact, traditional IFSAR processing results in the equivalent of merely a super-resolved, under-sampled, 3-D SAR image. However, when approached as a 3-D SAR problem, a number of IFSAR properties and anomalies are easily explained. For example, IFSAR decorrelation with height is merely ordinary migration in 3-D SAR. Consequently, treating IFSAR as a 3-D SAR problem allows insight and development of proper motion compensation techniques and image formation operations to facilitate optimal height estimation. Furthermore, multiple antenna phase centers and baselines are easily incorporated into this formulation, providing essentially a sparse array in the elevation dimension. This paper shows the Polar Format image formation algorithm extended to 3 dimensions, and then proceeds to apply it to the IFSAR collection geometry. This suggests a more optimal reordering of the traditional IFSAR processing steps.
Date: March 1, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THRIVE : a data reduction program for three-phase PDV/PDI and VISAR measurements.

Description: THRIVE (THRee Interferometer VElocimetry) is an analysis package for reducing three-phase interferometry measurements. Three-phase displacement interferometry measurements are the primary application of this program, although velocity interferometry is also supported. THRIVE uses a push-pull approach to transform measured signals to a pair of quadrature signals, from which fringe shift, target position, and target velocity are inferred. The program can analyze the signals in an ideal sense or compensate for non-ideal measurement conditions using ellipse characterization. The program can be run in any current version of MATLAB (release 2007a or later) or as a Windows XP executable.
Date: June 1, 2008
Creator: Jones, Scott Christopher & Dolan, Daniel H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shock analysis using the multi point velocimeter (VISAR).

Description: The velocity of short duration high-amplitude shock waves and high-speed motion created by sources such as explosives, high energy plasmas and other rapid-acceleration devices are difficult to measure due to their fast reaction times. One measurement tool frequently used is VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector). VISAR is an optical-based system that utilizes Doppler interferometry techniques to measure the complete time-history of the motion of a surface. This technique is gaining worldwide acceptance as the tool of choice for measurement of shock phenomena. However, one limitation of the single point VISAR is that it measures only one point on a surface. The new Multi Point VISAR remedies the single point VISAR's limitation by using multiple fiber optics and sensors to send and receive information. Upcoming programs that need analysis of large diameter flyers prompted the concept and design of a single cavity-multiple fiber optic Multi Point VISAR (MPV). Preliminary designs and the testing of a single cavity prototype in 1996 supported the theory of compact fiber optic bundle systems for development into the Multi Point VISAR. The new MPV was used to evaluate the performance of two components; a piezo-driven plane wave generating isolator, and a slim-loop ferroelectric (SFE)-type fireset.
Date: October 1, 2003
Creator: Fleming, Kevin James & Broyles, Theresa A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quarterly Report for High NA Optics Development: Q3-1999 International Sematech Project LITH 112

Description: This quarterly report provides a status update for each of the milestones for the International Sematech project on the development of high-NA optics for a small-field EUVL exposure tool. The optical design has been completed, which employs two aspheric mirrors yielding diffraction-limited imaging within a 600 {micro}m x 200 {micro}m field with a numerical aperture of 0.3 and a 5x reduction. Preliminary aerial image calculations show good resolution of 30nm features with partially coherent illumination. Contracts have been awarded for the fabrication and multilayer coating of the mirror elements and a detailed specification package has been generated for one of the mirror substrates (M1). Metrology instrumentation is being assembled and fabrication has been initiated on M1. Key progress includes the design and fabrication of kinematic mounting fixtures that enable the vendor to perform interferometry in a geometry compatible with PO Box fixturing. The first substrate is proceeding according to schedule, with delivery expected in December 1999.
Date: October 8, 1999
Creator: Taylor, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 1

Description: The objective of this study was to investigate the film formation properties of refrigeration lubricants using the ultrathin film elastohydrodynamic (EHD) interferometry technique and to study the effects of refrigerants on film formation. Film thickness measurements were conducted as a function of lubricant viscosity, speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. Based on the EHD film thickness data, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated for the test fluids at different temperatures and the effects of refrigerants on pressure-viscosity properties were investigated.
Date: April 1, 1999
Creator: Gunsel, Selda & Pozebanchuk, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of soft x-ray laser interferometry to study large-scale-length, high-density plasmas

Description: We have employed a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, using a Ne-like Y x- ray laser at 155 {Angstrom} as the probe source, to study large-scale- length, high-density colliding plasmas and exploding foils. The measured density profile of counter-streaming high-density colliding plasmas falls in between the calculated profiles using collisionless and fluid approximations with the radiation hydrodynamic code LASNEX. We have also performed simultaneous measured the local gain and electron density of Y x-ray laser amplifier. Measured gains in the amplifier were found to be between 10 and 20 cm{sup {minus}1}, similar to predictions and indicating that refraction is the major cause of signal loss in long line focus lasers. Images showed that high gain was produced in spots with dimensions of {approximately} 10 {mu}m, which we believe is caused by intensity variations in the optical drive laser. Measured density variations were smooth on the 10-{mu}m scale so that temperature variations were likely the cause of the localized gain regions. We are now using the interferometry technique as a mechanism to validate and benchmark our numerical codes used for the design and analysis of high-energy-density physics experiments. 11 refs., 6 figs.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Wan, A.S.; Barbee, T.W., Jr. & Cauble, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing of optical components to assure performance in a high acerage power environment

Description: Evaluation and testing of the optical components used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant is critical for qualification of suppliers, development of new optical multilayer designs and monufacturing processes, and assurance of performance in the production cycle. The range of specifications requires development of specialized test equipment and methods which are not routine or readily available in industry. Specifications are given on material characteristics such as index homogeneity, subsurface damage left after polishing, microscopic surface defects and contamination, coating absorption, and high average power laser damage. The approach to testing these performance characteristics and assuring the quality throughout the production cycle is described.
Date: June 24, 1997
Creator: Chow, R.; Taylor, J.R.; Eickelberg, W.K. & Primdahl, K.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carrier Noise Reduction in Speckle Correlation Interferometry by a Unique Averaging Technique

Description: We present experimental result of carrier speckle noise averaging by a novel approach to generate numerous identical correlation fringes with randomly different speckles. The surface under study is sprayed with a new dry paint or a layer each time for the repetitive experiments to generate randomly different surfaces of the carrier speckle patterns.
Date: January 20, 1999
Creator: Pechersky, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of residual stresses by local annealing to laser speckle pattern interferometry

Description: One of the most common methods of experimentally determining residual stresses is Blind Hole Drilling (BHD). A new method which is a thermo-optical analog to BHD is being developed. This method uses local heating to anneal a tiny spot and uses laser speckle interferometry to measure the strain that results. This strain is used to determine the state of stress prior to heating. The peak temperatures are on the order of 200 Celsius so that for most metals, there will be no changes in phase or other material properties except for a slight reduction in yield stress. Preliminary experiments with type 304 stainless steel were performed using resistance heating. The experimental results were in excellent agreement with finite element model predictions of the process. Subsequently, the resistance heating was replaced with laser heating. The heat input (22.5 Watt peak) from a small sealed radio frequency excited Carbon Dioxide laser was used. In order to both control the heating temperature and efficiently couple the infrared photons from the laser into the test specimen, a substance known as Liquid Temperature Indicating Paint was used. Without this substance the laser power would be so large as to make this approach impractical. Furthermore the measurement and control for the heat input would be very complicated. Using this laser heating approach was successful in obtaining similar results to those obtained in other work. Since this laser based technique is a thermo-optical analog to blind hole drilling a simple stress model is required to interpret the measured results. This simple stress model is presented. As in BHD, the simple model must be modified by empirical coefficients to be useful. These empirical coefficients are determined by experimentation and/or numerical analysis
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Pechersky, M. & Vikram, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department