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Wild Horse 69-kV transmission line environmental assessment

Description: Hill County Electric Cooperative Inc. (Hill County) proposes to construct and operate a 69-kV transmission line from its North Gildford Substation in Montana north to the Canadian border. A vicinity project area map is enclosed as a figure. TransCanada Power Corporation (TCP), a Canadian power-marketing company, will own and construct the connecting 69-kV line from the international border to Express Pipeline`s pump station at Wild Horse, Alberta. This Environmental Assessment is prepared for the Department of Energy (DOE) as lead federal agency to comply with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), as part of DOE`s review and approval process of the applications filed by Hill County for a DOE Presidential Permit and License to Export Electricity to a foreign country. The purpose of the proposed line is to supply electric energy to a crude oil pump station in Canada, owned by Express Pipeline Ltd. (Express). The pipeline would transport Canadian-produced oil from Hardisty, Alberta, Canada, to Caster, Wyoming. The Express Pipeline is scheduled to be constructed in 1996--97 and will supply crude oil to refineries in Wyoming and the midwest.
Date: December 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reducing the cost of energy delivery disruptions: The role of advanced technology

Description: In July and August 1996, the electric grid in the western Unite States experienced widespread power outages from southern California to western Canada. These large disruptions reminded us of the vulnerability of our energy delivery systems. While these disruptions may have been isolated events, there are a growing number of threats to the security, stability, reliability and safety of our national energy delivery systems. For a fraction of the billions of dollars a year these outages cost our economy, technologies could be developed that would reduce the threats and consequences of such disturbances. Many of these same developments also would better enable our energy delivery systems to accommodate the demands of pending competition in the energy marketplace. 10 refs.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Brown, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of the transmission grid on market power

Description: If competition could extend without hindrance through the entire extent of an electrically connected power grid, the US would have just two electricity markets, each with a uniform price. These markets would be competitive indeed. Unfortunately, losses and congestion present barriers to competition and thereby provide the likelihood of significantly increased market power. This paper begins the analysis of congestion as it affects the physical extent of markets and thereby affects the degree of market power. This is new territory; very little has previously been written in this area. Although the theoretical developments reported here rely on complex economic analysis, and although the market behaviors described are extremely subtle, several broad generalizations relevant to policy analysis can be made. From these generalizations one major policy conclusion can be drawn: In an unregulated market it will be socially beneficial to build a grid that is more robust than what is optimal in a regulated environment. Unused capacity may be needed. For a line to support full competition it may need to have a capacity that is much greater than the flow that will take place on it under full competition. Markets do not have sharp boundaries. Even with only one line the two busses may be in different regions, the same region, or partially in each other`s region. Increasing capacity is more effective on a small line. If connecting two busses with a very strong line will reduce market power, then the first MW of connecting capacity will have the most impact and each additional MW will have less. A congested line will cut a market into two non-competing regions. In each region the generators will markup according to the elasticity of the demand in only their region. A generator may reduce output in order to congest a line and increase ...
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Stoft, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A DSP based power electronics interface for alternate/renewable energy systems. Quarterly report 3.

Description: This report is an update on the research project involving the implementation of a DSP based power electronics interface for alternate/renewable energy systems that was funded by the Department of Energy under the Inventions and Innovations program 1998. The objective of this research is to develop a utility interface (dc to ac converter) suitable to interconnect alternate/renewable energy sources to the utility system. The DSP based power electronics interface in comparison with existing methods will excel in terms of efficiency, reliability and cost. Moreover DSP-based control provides the flexibility to upgrade/modify control algorithms to meet specific system requirements. The proposed interface will be capable of maintaining stiffness of the ac voltages at the point of common coupling regardless of variation in the input dc bus voltage. This will be achieved without the addition of any extra components to the basic interface topology but by inherently controlling the inverter switching strategy in accordance to the input voltage variation.
Date: March 31, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Removing Barriers to Utility Interconnected Photovoltaic Inverters

Description: The Million Solar Roofs Initiative has motivated a renewed interest in the development of utility interconnected photovoltaic (UIPV) inverters. Government-sponsored programs (PVMaT, PVBONUS) and competition among utility interconnected inverter manufacturers have stimulated innovations and improved the performance of existing technologies. With this resurgence, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to assist industry initiatives to overcome barriers to UIPV inverters. In accordance with newly adopted IEEE 929-2000, the utility interconnected PV inverters are required to cease energizing the utility grid when either a significant disturbance occurs or the utility experiences an interruption in service. Compliance with IEEE 929-2000 is being widely adopted by utilities as a minimum requirement for utility interconnection. This report summarizes work done at the SNL balance-of-systems laboratory to support the development of IEEE 929-2000 and to assist manufacturers in meeting its requirements.
Date: October 3, 2000
Creator: Gonzalez, S.; Bonn, R.H. & Ginn, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RTG resource book for western states and provinces: Final proceedings

Description: The Western Interstate Energy Board held a workshop and liaison activities among western states, provinces, and utilities on the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). Purpose of the activities was to examine the policy implications for western states and provinces in the formation of RTGs in the West, the implications for western ratepayers and utilities of the RTG formation and potential impacts of RTGs on the western electricity system. The workshop contributed to fulfilling the transmission access and competition objectives of Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.
Date: December 31, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multilevel converters for power system applications

Description: Multilevel converters are emerging as a new breed of power converter options for power system applications. These converters are most suitable for high voltage high power applications because they connect devices in series without the need for component matching. One of the major limitations of the multilevel converters is the voltage unbalance between different levels. To avoid voltage unbalance between different levels, several techniques have been proposed for different applications. Excluding magnetic-coupled converters, this paper introduces three multilevel voltage source converters: (1) diode-clamp, (2) flying-capacitors, and (3) cascaded inverters with separate dc sources. The operation principle, features, constraints, and potential applications of these converters will be discussed.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Lai, J.S.; Stovall, J.P. & Peng, F.Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Antitrust concerns in the modern public utility environment

Description: Direct regulation of public utility activity and behavior has been the predominant approach to protect the public interest in this country. Changes in technology, as well as new thinking about the optimum role of regulation, have created a changing atmosphere in all of the traditional public utility industries. Competitive markets for many of the products and services in these industries have been developing. While monopoly power will continue to exist in certain parts of these industries and require direct regulation, in many areas a growing reliance upon competition as the best method of serving the public interest is developing. With this shift in emphasis from regulation to free markets, the antitrust laws take on new importance for these industries. In the absence of direct regulator control, those laws are society`s primary method of insuring the markets necessary to make competition an effective device for protecting the public interest. This study provides an overview of the antitrust laws, briefly describes the applicable theoretical underpinnings, and then turns to areas where public utility activity may pose special problems or conflicts with prevailing antitrust policy.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Meeks, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National electrical code changes for 1996 and USA participation in International Energy Agency activities related to photovoltaics safety and grid interconnection

Description: As photovoltaic (PV) systems gain more acceptance in utility-interactive applications throughout the world, many organizations are placing increasingly higher priorities on writing guidelines, codes and standards. These guidelines and codes are being written to improve safety, installation, acceptance, listing or certification of the PV components or systems. Sandia National Laboratories` PV System Applications Department is working closely with the PV industry to address issues that are associated with fire and personnel safety and with National Electrical Code (NEC) requirements. Additionally, the United States has agreed to participate in two of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Annexes (topical tasks) of the Implementing Agreement for a Cooperative Programme on Photovoltaic Power Systems. This paper describes events and activities associated with the NEC and the IEA that are being led by Sandia National Laboratories with broad participation by the US PV industry.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Bower, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

Description: In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This report describes the results of a comprehensive survey conducted by LBNL in support of the Customer Response Task Force and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into wholesale markets in the SPP region. LBNL conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs administered by SPP's member utilities. Survey respondents were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g. seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. Nearly all of the 30 load-serving entities in SPP responded to the survey. Of this group, fourteen SPP member utilities administer 36 DR programs, five dynamic pricing tariffs, and six voluntary customer response initiatives. These existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs have a peak demand reduction potential of 1,552 MW. Other major findings of this study are: o About 81percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;14percent. o Arkansas accounts for ~;;50percent of the DR resources in the SPP footprint; these DR resources are primarily managed by cooperatives. o Publicly-owned cooperatives accounted for 54percent of the existing DR resources among SPP members. For these entities, investment in DR is often ...
Date: January 30, 2009
Creator: Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Heffner, Grayson & Goldman, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simplifying generator siting and contract options

Description: This paper demonstrates the application of a clustering method designed to aggregate effects of individual generation shift factors,while preserving acceptable parallel path characteristics. It illustrates how several statisticalmetrics and modeling heuristics are used to determine criteria for clustering acceptance. Tradeoffs between cluster precision and effective cluster aggregation are illustrated using a 4-area system. These tradeoffs are shown to affect final cluster acceptability. The paper applies the technique to generator siting and contract option application to reduce transmission modeling complexity and suggests it can be used as a screening method to identify the need for detailed system studies.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Kavicky, J.A. & Shahidehpour, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the California WEPEX applications to FERC

Description: The major theme of this report is that the Western Power Exchange (WEPEX) Applications prevent the Independent System Operator (ISO) from clearing the market, and that this is the root of the most important problems. The proposed rules at fault (1) prevent the Power Exchange (PX) and other Scheduling Coordinators from passing on all of their bids to the ISO, and (2) prevent the ISO from dispatching beyond the point at which congestion is eliminated. Although it is generally accepted that these restrictions prevent the ISO from achieving the least-cost dispatch, many other consequences of this market-clearing failure have not been widely recognized. These include sub-optimal dispatches by the PX when the system is uncongested, congestion charges that reward power flow in the congested direction, and incentives for Scheduling Coordinators to ignore known intra-zone congestion. But the most pernicious effect of failing to clear the market may be decreased system reliability. Four minor themes will also be considered but in less detail. Most importantly the author describes several examples of unequal treatment for the PX. Second, he discusses the ambiguities introduced by zonal pricing. WEPEX`s zonal system is based on a view of congestion that largely ignores loop flow and consequently has not been well defined. Third, WEPEX appears to have invented a new definition of the transmission congestion contract (TCC) that is based on actual instead of pre-specified flows. The author shows that this ruins the incentive properties of TCCs, but that this problem is partially rectified by the market in TCCs. Lastly, he discusses losses. The WEPEX proposal intentionally avoids marginal-cost pricing of losses. What has not been recognized is that it significantly increases use of the power grid. Because this effect is greatest during peak usage, it will necessitate costly grid expansion.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Stoft, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The future of GPS-based electric power system measurements, operation and control

Description: Much of modern society is powered by inexpensive and reliable electricity delivered by a complex and elaborate electric power network. Electrical utilities are currently using the Global Positioning System-NAVSTAR (GPS) timekeeping to improve the network`s reliability. Currently, GPS synchronizes the clocks on dynamic recorders and aids in post-mortem analysis of network disturbances. Two major projects have demonstrated the use of GPS-synchronized power system measurements. In 1992, the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) sponsored Phase Measurements Project used a commercially available Phasor Measurements Unit (PMU) to collect GPS-synchronized measurements for analyzing power system problems. In 1995, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) under DOE`s and EPRI`s sponsorship launched the Wide Area Measurements (WAMS) project. WAMS demonstrated GPS-synchronized measurements over a large area of their power networks and demonstrated the networking of GPS-based measurement systems in BPA and WAPA. The phasor measurement technology has also been used to conduct dynamic power system tests. During these tests, a large dynamic resistor was inserted to simulate a small power system disturbance.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Rizy, D. T.; Wilson, R. E.; Martin, K. E.; Litzenberger, W. H.; Hauer, J. F.; Overholt, P. N. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ORCED: A model to simulate the operations and costs of bulk-power markets

Description: Dramatic changes in the structure and operation of US bulk-power markets require new analytical tools. The authors developed the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model to analyze a variety of public-policy issues related to the many changes underway in the US electricity industry. Such issues include: policy and technology options to reduce carbon emissions from electricity production; the effects of electricity trading between high- and low-cost regions on consumers and producers in both regions; the ability of the owners of certain generating units to exercise market power as functions of the transmission link between two regions and the characteristics of the generating units and loads in each region; and the market penetration of new energy-production and energy-use technologies and the effects of their adoption on fuel use, electricity use and costs, and carbon emissions. ORCED treats two electrical systems connected by a single transmission link ORCED uses two load-duration curves to represent the time-varying electricity consumption in each region. The two curves represent peak and offpeak seasons. User specification of demand elasticities permits ORCED to estimate the effects of changes in electricity price, both overall and hour by hour, on overall electricity use and load shapes. ORCED represents the electricity supply in each region with 26 generating units. The two regions are connected by a single transmission link. This link is characterized by its capacity (MW), cost ({cents}/kWh), and losses (%). This report explains the inputs to, outputs from, and operation of ORCED. It also presents four examples showing applications of the model to various public-policy issues related to restructuring of the US electricity industry.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Hadley, S. & Hirst, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of power quality applications of energy storage systems

Description: Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories contracted Sentech, Inc., to assess the impact of power quality problems on the electricity supply system. This report contains the results of several studies that have identified the cost of power quality events for electricity users and providers. The large annual cost of poor power quality represents a national inefficiency and is reflected in the cost of goods sold, reducing US competitiveness. The Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Program takes the position that mitigation merits the attention of not only the DOE but affected industries as well as businesses capable of assisting in developing solutions to these problems. This study represents the preliminary stages of an overall strategy by the ESS Program to understand the magnitude of these problems so as to begin the process of engaging industry partners in developing solutions.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Swaminathan, S. & Sen, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IEEE Std 929-2000 - Background, implications and requirements

Description: The newly revised standard, IEEE Std 929-2000, has significant positive implications for those designing inverters for utility-interconnected PV systems and for designers and installers of such systems. A working group of roughly 20 people, including PV systems designers/installers, PV inverter manufacturers and utility engineers spent close to 3 years developing a standard that would be useful and beneficial to all.
Date: April 11, 2000
Creator: Stevens, John W., III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of customer adoption of distributed energy resources

Description: This report describes work completed for the California Energy Commission (CEC) on the continued development and application of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This work was performed at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) between July 2000 and June 2001 under the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. Our research on distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid ({mu}Grid), a semiautonomous grouping of electricity-generating sources and end-use sinks that are placed and operated for the benefit of its members. Although a {mu}Grid can operate independent of the macrogrid (the utility power network), the {mu}Grid is usually interconnected, purchasing energy and ancillary services from the macrogrid. Groups of customers can be aggregated into {mu}Grids by pooling their electrical and other loads, and the most cost-effective combination of generation resources for a particular {mu}Grid can be found. In this study, DER-CAM, an economic model of customer DER adoption implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software is used, to find the cost-minimizing combination of on-site generation customers (individual businesses and a {mu}Grid) in a specified test year. DER-CAM's objective is to minimize the cost of supplying electricity to a specific customer by optimizing the installation of distributed generation and the self-generation of part or all of its electricity. Currently, the model only considers electrical loads, but combined heat and power (CHP) analysis capability is being developed under the second year of CEC funding. The key accomplishments of this year's work were the acquisition of increasingly accurate data on DER technologies, including the development of methods for forecasting cost reductions for these technologies, and the creation of a credible example California {mu}Grid for use in this study and in future work. The work performed during ...
Date: August 1, 2001
Creator: Marnay, Chris; Chard, Joseph S.; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Lipman, Timothy; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Ouaglal, Boubekeur et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interconnecting Single-Phase Generation to the Utility Distribution System

Description: One potentially large source of underutilized distributed generation (DG) capacity exists in single-phase standby backup gensets on farms served from single-phase feeder laterals. Utilizing the excess capacity would require interconnecting to the utility system. Connecting single-phase gensets to the utility system presents some interesting technical issues that have not been previously investigated. This paper addresses several of the interconnection issues associated with this form of DG including voltage regulation, harmonics, overcurrent protection, and islanding. A significant amount of single-phase DG can be accommodated by the utility distribution system, but there are definite limitations due to the nature and location of the DG. These limitations may be more restrictive than is commonly assumed for three-phase DG installed on stronger parts of the electric distribution system.
Date: December 5, 2001
Creator: Dugan, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of Test Facilities for Distributed Energy Resources

Description: Since initiating research on integration of distributed energy resources (DER) in 1999, the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) has been actively assessing and reviewing existing DER test facilities for possible demonstrations of advanced DER system integration concepts. This report is a compendium of information collected by the CERTS team on DER test facilities during this period.
Date: May 1, 2003
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantitative Assessment of Distributed Energy Resource Benefits

Description: Distributed energy resources (DER) offer many benefits, some of which are readily quantified. Other benefits, however, are less easily quantifiable because they may require site-specific information about the DER project or analysis of the electrical system to which the DER is connected. The purpose of this study is to provide analytical insight into several of the more difficult calculations, using the PJM power pool as an example. This power pool contains most of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, and Delaware. The techniques used here could be applied elsewhere, and the insights from this work may encourage various stakeholders to more actively pursue DER markets or to reduce obstacles that prevent the full realization of its benefits. This report describes methodologies used to quantify each of the benefits listed in Table ES-1. These methodologies include bulk power pool analyses, regional and national marginal cost evaluations, as well as a more traditional cost-benefit approach for DER owners. The methodologies cannot however determine which stakeholder will receive the benefits; that must be determined by regulators and legislators, and can vary from one location to another.
Date: May 22, 2003
Creator: Hadley, S.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Islanding Detection Methods for Utility-Interactive Inverters in Photovoltaic Systems

Description: This report describes the various methods and circuits that have been developed to detect an islanding condition for photovoltaic applications and presents three methods that have been developed to test those methods and circuits. Passive methods for detecting an islanding condition basically monitor parameters such as voltage and frequency and/or their characteristics and cause the inverter to cease converting power when there is sufficient transition from normal specified conditions. Active methods for detecting the island introduce deliberate changes or disturbances to the connected circuit and then monitor the response to determine if the utility grid with its stable frequency, voltage and impedance is still connected. If the small perturbation is able to affect the parameters of the load connection within prescribed requirements, the active circuit causes the inverter to cease power conversion and delivery of power to the loads. The methods not resident in the inverter are generally controlled by the utility or have communications between the inverter and the utility to affect an inverter shut down when necessary. This report also describes several test methods that may be used for determining whether the anti-islanding method is effective. The test circuits and methodologies used in the U.S. have been chosen to limit the number of tests by measuring the reaction of a single or small number of inverters under a set of consensus-based worst-case conditions.
Date: November 1, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department