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Public and Institutional Markets for ESCO Services: ComparingPrograms, Practices and Prformance

Description: Throughout the U.S. energy services company (ESCO) industry's history, public and institutional sector customers have provided the greatest opportunities for ESCOs to develop projects. Generally speaking, these facilities are large, possess aging infrastructure, and have limited capital budgets for improvements. The convergence of these factors with strong enabling policy support makes performance contracting an attractive and viable option for these customers. Yet despite these shared characteristics and drivers, there is surprising variety of experience among public/institutional customers and projects. This collaborative study examines the public/institutional markets in detail by comparing the overarching models and project performance in the federal government and the ''MUSH'' markets municipal agencies (state/local government), universities/colleges, K-12 schools,and hospitals that have traditionally played host to much of the ESCO industry's activity. Results are drawn from a database of 1634 completed projects held in partnership by the National Association of Energy Services Companies and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (the NAESCO/LBNL database), including 129 federal Super Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPC) provided by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (Strajnic and Nealon 2003). Project data results are supplemented by interviews with ESCOs.
Date: March 1, 2005
Creator: Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; McWilliams, Jennifer; Birr,Dave & Stoughton McMordie, Kate
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Personal observations on interdisciplinarity

Description: The author's assignment was to report on how I{sup 3} relates to professional societies and journals he has known, a not unreasonable request given past associations with the Materials Research Society (MRS) and its journal, JMR, particularly in their more formative years. Some recollections and some comments on current postures of MRS and JMR will be found in the section following. There are manifold anecdotes one might relate about overcoming (or not) barriers raised by disciplinary preconception and much revered institutional norms. But to what end? On recalling his own involvements and on trying to discern the common elements, the author concludes that lessons learned from such accounts are, at the detail level, too situation-specific to be generally useful while at the same time being easily generalized to a few tenets that most of us by now find obvious in principle but that provide no actionable roadmap for implementing I{sup 3} in a specific new arena. How can that be? Other contributors are submitting the I{sup 3}R challenge to scholarly analysis and reporting on significant impediments and enviable achievements. He notes that the common themes permeating the entire discussion reduce to a few fundamental aspects of human nature well known and ubiquitous not merely in the universe of science, technology and research, but in broader society. He feels it is important not to lose sight of this as one examines I{sup 3} problems and solutions, for it is often the larger context that rises to thwart the best of local intentions. He feels that humans are a risk averse species. This translates into resistance to change and thus to institutional inertia. When taken in concert with the subjective propensity to categorize and the objective need at any given stage of development to parse complex systems into manageable subunits, it becomes ...
Date: October 11, 1999
Creator: Kaufmann, E. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Institutional plan -- Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, 1993

Description: The US nuclear electric utility industry established the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) in 1979 to promote the highest levels of safety and reliability -- to promote excellence -- in the operation of its nuclear plants. After its formation, the Institute grew from a handful of on-loan personnel in late 1979 to an established work force of more than 400 permanent and on-loan personnel. INPO`s early years were marked by growth and evolution of its programs and organization. The Institute now focuses primarily on the effectiveness and enhancement of established programs and activities. For INPO to carry out its role, it must have the support of its members and participants and a cooperative but independent relationship with the NRC. A basis for that support and cooperation is an understanding of INPO`s role. This Institutional Plan is intended to provide that understanding by defining the Institute`s role and its major programs. This plan considers the existing and projected needs of the industry and the overall environment in which INPO and its members and participants operate.
Date: December 31, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Partnering with Sandia National Laboratories through alliances or consortia

Description: To better facilitate working with industry, groups of industrial participants, and partners in alliances or consortia, Sandia National Laboratories presents information helpful to those outside groups as to the forms of arrangements that may be used to better facilitate partnering relationships between Sandia National Laboratories and consortia or alliances of outside parties. It is expected that these alliances and consortia will include both large and small for-profit industrial concerns, as well as not-for-profit entities such as universities, institutes, other research facilities, and other nonprofit institutions or consortia containing institutions. The intent of this report is to provide such outside groups with information that will facilitate rapid interactions with Sandia National Laboratories through some of these forms of business which will be discussed in this report. These are not the only approaches to facilitating business interactions with Sandia National Laboratories and it is not intended that this report be legal advice or required approaches to doing business with Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this report is merely to suggest ways in which Sandia National Laboratories can work with outside parties in the most expeditious manner.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Winchell, B. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

Description: There is growing interest in energy efficiency (EE) among state policymakers as a result of increasing environmental concerns, rising electricity and natural gas prices, and lean economic times that motivate states to look more aggressively for cost-saving opportunities in public sector buildings. One logical place for state policymakers to demonstrate their commitment to energy efficiency is to 'lead by example' by developing and implementing strategies to reduce the energy consumption of state government facilities through investments in energy efficient technologies. Traditionally, energy efficiency improvements at state government facilities are viewed as a subset in the general category of building maintenance and construction. These projects are typically funded through direct appropriations. However, energy efficiency projects are often delayed or reduced in scope whereby not all cost-effective measures are implemented because many states have tight capital budgets. Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) offers a potentially useful strategy for state program and facility managers to proactively finance and develop energy efficiency projects. In an ESPC project, Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) typically guarantee that the energy and cost savings produced by the project will equal or exceed all costs associated with implementing the project over the term of the contract. ESCOs typically provide turnkey design, installation, and maintenance services and also help arrange project financing. Between 1990 and 2006, U.S. ESCOs reported market activity of {approx}$28 Billion, with about {approx}75-80% of that activity concentrated in the institutional markets (K-12 schools, colleges/universities, state/local/federal government and hospitals). In this study, we review the magnitude of energy efficiency investment in state facilities and identify 'best practices' while employing performance contracting in the state government sector. The state government market is defined to include state offices, state universities, correctional facilities, and other state facilities. This study is part of a series of reports prepared by Lawrence Berkeley National ...
Date: November 14, 2008
Creator: Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry E.; Birr, David; Donahue, Patricia et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Factors favorable to public participation success

Description: Categories of factors linked to successful public participation (PP) program outcomes include PP process, organizational context, sociopolitical context, strategic considerations and unique (special circumstances) factors. We re-order the long list factors according to how essential, important, and unique they are and discuss their significance and interrelationships. It is argued that bureacratic structure and operational modes are basically in conflict with features of successful PP programs (openness, two-way education, communication with nonexpert outsiders). If this is so, then it is not surprising that the factors essential for PP success in bureacracies involve extraordinary management efforts by agencies to bypass, compensate for, or overcome structural constraints. We conclude by speculating about the long-term viability of PP practices in the agency setting as well as the consequences for agencies that attempt the problematic task of introducing PP into their complex, mission-oriented organizations.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Peelle, E.; Schweitzer, M.; Munro, J.; Carnes, S. & Wolfe, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kyiv institutional buildings energy efficiency program: Draft procedures

Description: The Kyiv Institutional Buildings Energy Efficiency (KIBA) Project is being conducted to support the development of a program to improve the energy efficiency for heat and hot water provided by district heat in institutional (education, healthcare, and cultural) buildings owned and operated by State and Municipal Organizations in the City of Kyiv, Ukraine. KIBA is funded by the US Department of Energy and is being conducted in cooperation with the World Bank and the Ukrainian State Committee for Energy Conservation. This document provides a set of draft procedures for the installation of the efficiency measures to ensure that the quality of the installations is maximized and that cost is minimized. The procedures were developed as an integrated package to reflect the linkages that exist throughout the installation process.
Date: September 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pennsylvania life cycle costing manual

Description: Until the 1970s, it was commonplace for institutions and governments to purchase equipment based on lowest initial (first) costs. Recurring costs such as operational, maintenance, and energy costs often were not considered in the purchase decision. If an agency wanted to buy something, it published specifications and requested bids from several manufacturers. Often, the lowest bidder who met the specifications won the job, with no consideration given to the economic life of the equipment or yearly recurring costs such as energy and maintenance costs. The practice of purchasing based on lowest initial costs probably did not make good economic sense prior to 1970, and it certainly does not make good sense now. The wise person will consider all costs and benefits associated with a purchase, both initial and post-purchase, in order to make procurement decisions that are valid for the life of the equipment. This describes a method of financial analysis that considers all pertinent costs: life cycle costing (LCC).
Date: February 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Governmental structure of the Russian Federation with respect to environmental and energy programs

Description: An investigation was conducted by the Environmental Planning Group, Inc., to provide an overview of the structure of government environmental and energy programs in the Russian Federation. The investigation was undertaken to provide a baseline of information to the US Department of Energy (DOE), so that technologies applicable to DOE environmental restoration and monitoring programs can be identified, tested, and transferred. Data for the report were collected through a network of Russian and American sources knowledgeable about environmental and energy programs in the Russian Federation. Sources of information included both US and Russian government personnel, nongovernmental organizations, private consultants, and experts from the academic and scientific communities. The peculiarities of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) remain prevalent in the structure of the Newly Independent States, especially in Russia. The legacy of communism is visible in all aspects of society, most particularly in the extreme environmental degradation that has resulted from careless central planning and policies of forced industrialization. Reforms initiated under Mikhail Gorbachev during the period of Perestroika were aimed at shifting power from the party to the respective government organs. In 1992 the Commonwealth of Independent States was created, joining 11 of the 15 republics into a loose federation. The investigation undertaken by the Environmental Planning Group, Inc., focused on the executive organs of the present Russian government in an effort to define key ministries with environmental and energy responsibilities. The structure of the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources (Minpriroda) and the Ministry of Atomic Power (Minatom) are presented. The Academy of Sciences and other ministries that have relevance to the transfer of technologies are discussed, as well as research institutions in which technologies appropriate to DOE programs are likely to reside.
Date: September 1, 1992
Creator: Colangelo, R.V.; Reistroffer, E.L. (Environmental Planning Group, Inc., Elk Grove Village, IL (United States)) & Edgar, D.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of State Energy Conservation Program: 1979 energy savings indicators. [Estimated Btu's and dollars]

Description: This study reviewed 1979 energy savings reports provided by states for conservation measures in four major categories of State Energy Conservation Program services, namely: (1) industrial, commercial, and institutional; (2) residential; (3) thermal and lighting; and (4) transportation. Conservation measures in these categories constitute a major portion of the total estimated 1980 savings for the State Energy Conservation Program. This study only addressed measures in these categories for which usable documentation had been submitted by states. Based on a review of measures supported by available documentation, the study estimates that energy savings associated with the conservation measures reviewed were 108 TBtu's for the calendar year 1979. These estimated energy savings for 1979 were converted into 540 million dollars for 1979 and 2.8 billion dollars over the projected life of the conservation measures.
Date: June 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Institutional applications of solar total-energy systems. Draft final report. Volume 2. Appendixes

Description: The appendices present the analytical basis for the analysis of solar total energy (STE) systems. A regional-climate model and a building-load requirements model are developed, along with fuel-price scenarios. Life-cycle costs are compared for conventional-utility, total energy, and STE systems. Thermal STE system design trade-offs are performed and thermal STE system performance is determined. The sensitivity of STE competitiveness to fuel prices is examined. The selection of the photovoltaic array is briefly discussed. The institutional-sector decision processes are analyzed. Hypothetical regional back-up rates and electrical-energy costs are calculated. The algorithms and equations used in operating the market model are given, and a general methodology is developed for projecting the size of the market for STE systems and applied to each of 8 institutional subsectors. (LEW)
Date: July 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Institutional analysis for energy policy

Description: This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Morris, F.A. & Cole, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Institutional applications of solar total-energy systems. Draft final report

Description: Conceptual designs are presented for thermal and photovoltaic solar total energy (STE) systems optimized to have the lowest possible life-cycle costs. An analysis is made of the market for STE systems, synthesizing the results of interviews with institutional-sector decision-makers and representatives of utilities, component manufacturers, architect/engineers, contractors, and labor unions. The operation and outputs of the market model developed to estimate potential STE system sales and resultant energy savings are presented. Outlined are the preliminary guidelines for selecting sites and conducting the planned federal demonstration program. (LEW)
Date: July 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Category B: a survey of decision-makers in the HVAC marketplace. Final report

Description: A comprehensive evaluation of the market for solar heating and cooling products for new and retrofit markets is reported. The emphasis is on the analysis of solar knowledge among HVAC decision makers and a comprehensive evaluation of their solar attitudes and behavior. The data from each of the following sectors are described and analyzed: residential consumers, organizational and manufacturing buildings, HVAC engineers and architects, builders/developers, and commercial/institutional segments. (MHR)
Date: September 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State Energy Price System: 1983 update overview and documentation

Description: This report documents the update of the State Energy Price System (STEPS) for the 1970-1983 period. The STEPS data base, developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract to the Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration, contains national and state-level energy price data for ten fuels and five end-use sectors. STEPS is intended to provide energy price information for Federal, state, and local government and private sector applications. The primary objective of this study is to document the update of the price series to include data for 1983. Concurrent with the 1983 update, PNL also began verifying the reproducibility of individual prices in the data base for the 1970 to 1982 period. While the reproducibility check work is completed for six of the ten fuels and is integrated in the documentation for those fuels, the findings from this task are not discussed.
Date: December 1, 1985
Creator: Imhoff, K.L.; Fang, J.M. & McWethy, L.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department