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Information Technology: OMB and Agencies Need to Fully Implement Major Initiatives to Save Billions of Dollars

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "GAO has issued a number of key reports on the federal government's efforts to efficiently acquire and operate information technology (IT) investments and found that if major initiatives are fully implemented, billions of dollars in savings could be realized. In particular, GAO has made recommendations regarding the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) public website, known as the IT Dashboard, which provides detailed information on federal agencies' major IT investments; agencies' efforts to perform analyses on existing IT investments; and agencies' progress toward consolidating data centers."
Date: January 22, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: Responses to Subcommittee Post-Hearing Questions Regarding the FBI's Management Practices and Acquisition of a New Investigative Case Management System

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "This letter responds to follow-up questions about our September 14, 2005, testimony before Congress. In that testimony, we discussed the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) progress in building management capabilities essential to successfully modernizing its information technology (IT) systems. Systems modernization is a vital part of the FBI's ongoing efforts to transform itself in the wake of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks."
Date: December 21, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology Reform: Progress Made; More Needs to Be Done to Complete Actions and Measure Results

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "As discussed in our report, OMB and key federal agencies have made progress on selected action items identified in the IT Reform Plan, but there are several areas where more remains to be done. Of the 10 key action items we reviewed, 3 were completed and the other 7 were partially completed by December 2011. The action items that are behind schedule share a common reason for the delays: the complexity of the initiatives. In all seven of the cases, OMB and the federal agencies are still working on the initiatives. However, OMB and federal agencies have established time frames for completing only two of these initiatives."
Date: May 24, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: Immigration and Customs Enforcement Needs to Fully Address Significant Infrastructure Modernization Program Management Weaknesses

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) fiscal year 2006 appropriations act provided $40.15 million for the Immigration and Customs Enforcement's (ICE) program to modernize its information technology (IT) infrastructure. As mandated by the appropriations act, the department is to develop and submit for approval an expenditure plan for the program, referred to as "Atlas," that satisfies certain legislative conditions, including a review by GAO. In performing its review of the Atlas plan, GAO (1) determined whether the plan satisfies certain legislative conditions and (2) provided other observations about the plan and management of the program. To do this, GAO analyzed the fiscal year 2006 Atlas expenditure plan and supporting documents against the legislative conditions, federal requirements, and related best practices. GAO also interviewed relevant DHS officials."
Date: April 27, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: DHS Needs to Further Define and Implement Its New Governance Process

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has defined a vision for its new information technology (IT) governance process, which includes a tiered oversight structure that defines distinct roles and responsibilities throughout the department. The new governance framework and the associated policies and procedures are generally consistent with recent Office of Management and Budget (OMB) guidance and with best practices for managing projects and portfolios identified in GAO’s IT Investment Management framework, with two practices partially addressed and seven others fully addressed. For example, consistent with OMB guidance calling for the Chief Information Officer (CIO) to play a significant role in overseeing programs, DHS’s draft procedures require that lower-level boards overseeing IT programs include the DHS CIO, a component CIO, or a designated executive representative from a CIO office. In addition, consistent with practices identified in GAO’s IT Investment Management framework, DHS’s draft procedures identify key performance indicators for gauging portfolio performance. However, DHS’s policies and procedures have not yet been finalized, because, according to officials, the focus has been on piloting the new governance process. While it is important to conduct pilots to test processes and identify lessons learned, until the department finalizes the policies and procedures associated with the new IT governance, it will have less assurance that its new IT governance will be consistent with best practices and address previously identified weaknesses in investment management."
Date: July 25, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: Status and Challenges of Employee Exchange Program

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Recognizing the importance of human capital to information technology (IT) and the need to improve the skills of federal IT workers, Congress created the Information Technology Exchange Program (ITEP) as part of the E-Government Act of 2002. ITEP aims to improve federal IT skills through exchanges of staff between the government and the private sector. The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) was required to issue implementing regulations, which it did in September 2005, and to report semiannually to the Congress. OPM's regulations require that each participating agency develop an ITEP plan before proceeding with exchanges. Agencies' opportunity to begin exchanges ends in December 2007. GAO is required to evaluate the program by December 2006. As agreed, GAO's objectives were to determine (1) the status of the program and (2) challenges facing agencies. To address these objectives, GAO analyzed key documents and interviewed OPM, participating agencies, and others."
Date: December 15, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: OMB Can Make More Effective Use of Its Investment Reviews

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "For the President's Budget for Fiscal Year 2005, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) stated that of the nearly 1,200 major information technology (IT) projects in the budget, it had placed approximately half--621 projects, representing about $22 billion--on a Management Watch List, composed of mission-critical projects with identified weaknesses. GAO was asked to describe and assess OMB's processes for (1) placing projects on its Management Watch List and (2) following up on corrective actions established for projects on the list."
Date: April 15, 2005
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: Agencies Need to Improve the Accuracy and Reliability of Investment Information

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Each year, agencies submit to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a Capital Asset Plan and Business Case--the exhibit 300--to justify each request for a major information technology (IT) investment. The exhibit's content should reflect controls that agencies have established to ensure good project management, as well as showing that they have defined cost, schedule, and performance goals. It is thus a tool to help OMB and agencies identify and correct poorly planned or performing investments. In its budget and oversight role, OMB relies on the accuracy and completeness of this information. GAO was asked to determine the extent to which selected agencies have underlying support for the information in their fiscal year 2006 exhibit 300s. From five major departments having over $1 billion in IT expenditures in that year, GAO chose for analysis 29 exhibits for projects that supported a cross section of federal activities."
Date: January 12, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: Observations on Department of Defense's Draft Enterprise Architecture

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "The fiscal year 2003 Defense Authorization Act requires the Department of Defense (DOD) to develop by May 1, 2003, a financial management enterprise architecture, including a transition plan, that meets certain requirements. The act also requires that GAO submit to congressional defense committees an assessment of the architecture and transition plan within 60 days of their approval. As part of our ongoing work to satisfy this legislative requirement and at the request of Senate Subcommittee on Readiness and Management Support, Committee on Armed Services, staff, we briefed the Subcommittee on Readiness and Management Support, Senate Committee on Armed forces on March 4, 2003, on our preliminary assessment of the DOD draft architecture products dated February 7, 2003. As further requested by the staff, this letter transmits the observations we made during the briefing."
Date: March 28, 2003
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: Treasury Needs to Better Define and Implement Its Earned Value Management Policy

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In 2008, the Department of Treasury (Treasury) plans to spend approximately $3 billion on information technology (IT) investments--the third largest planned IT expenditure among civilian agencies. To more effectively manage such investments, in 2005 the Office of Management and Budget required agencies to use earned value management (EVM). EVM is a project management approach that, if implemented appropriately, provides objective reports of project status, produces early warning signs of impending schedule delays and cost overruns, and provides unbiased estimates of a program's total costs. GAO was asked to assess whether the department and its key component agencies (1) have the policies in place to effectively implement EVM and (2) are adequately using EVM techniques to manage critical system investments. GAO compared agency policies to best practices identified in the Cost Assessment Guide and reviewed the implementation of key EVM practices for several investments."
Date: September 22, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: FDA Needs to Fully Implement Key Management Practices to Lessen Modernization Risks

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "While FDA has taken several important steps toward modernizing its IT environment, much remains to be done. FDA reported spending about $400 million for IT investments in fiscal year 2011; however, the agency currently lacks a comprehensive IT inventory that identifies and provides key information about the systems it uses and is developing. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and GAO guidance call for federal agencies to maintain such an inventory in order to monitor and manage their IT investments. This inventory should include information on each system, such as costs, functionality or purpose, and status. However, FDA does not have such a comprehensive list of its systems. Instead, the agency points to budget documents required by OMB, which included information on 44 IT investments for fiscal year 2011. The agency also provided a partial list of 21 mission-critical systems and modernization initiatives. Nonetheless, agency officials acknowledged that these documents do not identify all FDA’s systems or the complete costs, purpose, or status of each system. Until the agency has a complete and comprehensive inventory, it will lack critical information needed to effectively assess its IT portfolio."
Date: March 15, 2012
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: Demand for the Social Security Administration's Electronic Data Exchanges Is Growing and Presents Future Challenges

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Federal and state agencies, including the Social Security Administration (SSA), routinely share data through electronic exchanges to help increase the efficiency of program operations, reduce program costs, and improve public service. In light of SSA's broad responsibility for carrying out data exchanges, GAO was asked to describe SSA's critical programs that exchange data with other federal and state agencies, as well as the information systems that they rely on; and determine challenges and limitations that SSA may face in effectively using its systems to carry out data exchanges in the future. To accomplish this, GAO reviewed and analyzed relevant agency documentation, held discussions with key agency officials, and reviewed selected exchange programs."
Date: December 4, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: Leveraging Best Practices to Help Ensure Successful Major Acquisitions

Description: Testimony issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Information technology (IT) acquisition best practices have been developed by both industry and the federal government. For example, the Software Engineering Institute has developed highly regarded and widely used guidance on best practices, such as requirements development and management, risk management, validation and verification, and project monitoring and control. GAO's own research in IT management best practices led to the development of the Information Technology Investment Management Framework, which describes essential and complementary IT investment management disciplines, such as oversight of system development and acquisition management, and organizes them into a set of critical processes for successful investments."
Date: November 13, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: Comments on Proposed OMB Guidance for Implementing the Government Paperwork Elimination Act

Description: Correspondence issued by the General Accounting Office with an abstract that begins "GAO commented on the "Proposed Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Procedures and Guidance on Implementing the Government Paperwork Elimination Act.""
Date: July 2, 1999
Creator: United States. General Accounting Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: OMB Has Made Improvements to Its Dashboard, but Further Work Is Needed by Agencies and OMB to Ensure Data Accuracy

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Each year the federal government spends billions of dollars on information technology (IT) investments. Given the importance of oversight, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) established a public Web site, referred to as the IT Dashboard, that provides detailed information on about 800 federal IT investments, including assessments of actual performance against cost and schedule targets (referred to as ratings). In the second of a series of Dashboard reviews, GAO was asked to (1) determine OMB's efforts to improve the Dashboard and how it is using data from the Dashboard, and (2) examine the accuracy of the Dashboard's cost and schedule performance ratings. To do so, GAO analyzed documentation on OMB oversight efforts and Dashboard improvement plans, compared the performance of 10 major investments from five agencies with large IT budgets against the ratings on the Dashboard, and interviewed OMB and agency officials."
Date: March 15, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: Near-Term Effort to Automate Paper-Based Immigration Files Needs Planning Improvements

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) relies on about 55 million paper-based files to adjudicate applications for immigration status and other benefits. Ensuring the currency and availability of these manual files, referred to as alien files, or A-Files, is a major challenge. To address this challenge, USCIS has initiated efforts, both long and near term, to automate the A-Files. The long-term effort is now being re-examined within the context of a larger USCIS organizational transformation initiative. In the near term, USCIS has begun a digitization program, which it estimates will cost about $190 million over an 8-year period to electronically scan existing paper files and store and share the scanned images. GAO was asked to determine whether USCIS was effectively managing its A-Files automation efforts."
Date: March 31, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: FBI Is Implementing Key Acquisition Methods on Its New Case Management System, but Related Agencywide Guidance Needs to Be Improved

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is 3 years into its 6-year, $451 million program known as Sentinel, which is to replace its antiquated, paper-based, legacy systems for supporting mission-critical intelligence analysis and investigative case management activities. Because of the importance of Sentinel to the bureau's mission operations, GAO was asked to conduct a series of reviews on the FBI's management of the program. This review focuses on whether the FBI is employing effective methods in acquiring commercial solutions for Sentinel. To do so, GAO researched relevant best practices; reviewed FBI policies and procedures, program plans, and other program documents; and interviewed appropriate program officials."
Date: September 23, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: Federal Laws, Regulations, and Mandatory Standards to Securing Private Sector Information Technology Systems and Data in Critical Infrastructure Sectors

Description: Correspondence issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Federal policy identifies 18 infrastructure sectors--such as banking and finance, energy, public health and healthcare, and telecommunications--that are critical to the nation's security, economy, public health, and safety. Because these sectors rely extensively on computerized information systems and electronic data, it is crucial that the security of these systems and data is maintained. Further, because most of these infrastructures are owned by the private sector, it is imperative that public and private entities work together to protect these assets. The federal government uses both voluntary partnerships with private industry and requirements in federal laws, regulations, and mandatory standards to assist in the security of privately owned information technology (IT) systems and data within critical infrastructure sectors. As agreed, our objectives were to (1) identify, for each critical infrastructure sector, the federal laws, regulations, and mandatory standards that pertain to securing that sector's privately owned IT systems and data and (2) identify enforcement mechanisms for each of the above laws, regulations, and mandatory standards."
Date: September 16, 2008
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: HUD Needs to Strengthen Its Capacity to Manage and Modernize Its Environment

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Information technology (IT) plays a critical role in the Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) ability to carry out its home ownership and community development mission, which was recently expanded under the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008. Pursuant to a congressional mandate to study HUD's IT environment, GAO reviewed the adequacy of key IT management and modernization controls within the department, including strategic planning and performance measurement, investment management, human capital management, enterprise architecture development and use, and modernization program office establishment. To do so, GAO compared HUD policies, guidance, plans, reports, and other products and actions to relevant aspects of statutory requirements, federal guidance, and related best practices."
Date: July 31, 2009
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: Treasury Needs to Strengthen Its Investment Board Operations and Oversight

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The Department of the Treasury relies extensively on information technology (IT) to carry out its mission. For fiscal year 2007, Treasury requested about $2.8 billion--the third largest planned IT expenditure among civilian agencies. GAO's objectives included (1) assessing Treasury's capabilities for managing its IT investments and (2) determining any plans the agency has for improving its capabilities. GAO used its IT investment management framework (ITIM) and associated methodology to address these objectives, focusing on the framework's stages related to the investment management provisions of the Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996."
Date: July 23, 2007
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: Additional OMB and Agency Actions Are Needed to Achieve Portfolio Savings

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "The 26 major federal agencies that were required to participate in the PortfolioStat initiative fully addressed four of seven key requirements established by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). However, only 1 of the 26 agencies addressed all the requirements. For example, agencies did not develop action plans that addressed all elements, such as criteria for identifying wasteful, low-value or duplicative information technology (IT) investments, or migrate two commodity IT areas—such as enterprise IT systems and IT infrastructure—to a shared service by the end of 2012."
Date: November 6, 2013
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: DHS Needs to Improve Its Independent Acquisition Reviews

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "Since its creation in 2003, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has been developing new information technology (IT) systems to perform both mission-critical and support functions; however, it has faced challenges in developing these systems. One way to manage the inherent risks of developing and acquiring systems is through independent verification and validation (IV&V)--a process conducted by a party independent of the development effort that provides an objective assessment of a project's processes, products, and risks throughout its life cycle and helps ensure that program performance, schedule, and budget targets are met. GAO was asked to determine (1) how DHS's IV&V policies and procedures for IT acquisitions compare with leading practices and (2) the extent to which DHS has implemented IV&V on its large IT system acquisitions. To do so, GAO assessed DHS's policy against industry standards and leading practice guides, as well as analyzed how eight selected IT programs had implemented IV&V."
Date: July 28, 2011
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Information Technology: Agencies and OMB Should Strengthen Processes for Identifying and Overseeing High Risk Projects

Description: A letter report issued by the Government Accountability Office with an abstract that begins "In August 2005, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issued a memorandum directing agencies to identify high risk information technology (IT) projects and provide quarterly reports on those with performance shortfalls--projects that did not meet criteria established by OMB. GAO was asked to (1) provide a summary identifying by agency the number of high risk projects, their proposed budget for fiscal year 2007, agency reasons for the high risk designation, and reported performance shortfalls; (2) determine how high risk projects were identified and updated and what processes and procedures have been established to effectively oversee them; and (3) determine the relationship between the high risk list and OMB's Management Watch List--those projects that OMB determines need improvements associated with key aspects of their budget justifications."
Date: June 15, 2006
Creator: United States. Government Accountability Office.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department