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Results of Deep-Well Injection Testing at Mulberry, Florida

Description: From abstract: At the Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporation plant, Mulberry, Florida, high-chloride, acidic liquid wastes are injected into a dolomite section at depths below about 4,000 feet below land surface. Sonar caliper logs made in April 1976 revealed a solution chamber that is about 100 feet in height and has a maximum diameter of 23 feet in the injection zone.
Date: February 1982
Creator: Hickey, John J. & Wilson, William E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polymer pendant crown thioethers for removal of mercury from acidic wastes

Description: Removal and immobilization of mercury ions from industrial waste streams is a difficult and expensive problem requiring an efficient and selective extractant that is resistant to corrosive conditions. We have now developed an acid-resistant thiacrown polymer that has potential utility as a selective and cost-effective Hg<sup>2+</sup> extractant. Copolymerization of a novel C-substituted thiacrown, N,N-(4-vinylbenzylmethyl)-2-aminomethyl- ,4,&l 1,14- pentathiacycloheptadecane, with DVB (80% divinylbenzene) using a radical initiator generated a highly cross-linked polymer containing pendant thiacrowns. Mercury extraction capabilities of the polymer were tested in acidic media (pH range: 1.5 to 6.2) and the extraction of Hg<sup>2+</sup> was determined to be 95<sup>+</sup>% with a mixing time of 30 minutes. The thiacrown polymer was also determined to be selective for Hg*+, competing ions such as Pb<sup>2+</sup>, Cd<sup>2+</sup>, A1<sup>3+</sup>, and Fe<sup>3+</sup>. even in the presence of high concentrations of The bound Hg<sup>2+</sup> ions can then be stripped from the polymer, allowing the polymer to be reused without significant loss of loading capacity.
Date: December 22, 1998
Creator: Baumann, T F; Fox, G A & Reynolds, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste minimization plan, T plant facilities

Description: This document contains the waste minimization plan for the T Plant facilities, located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. A waste minimization plan is one part of a multi-faceted waste management program; this waste minimization plan documents the goals and techniques of the waste minimization program, identifies methods for evaluating the program and ensuring quality assurance, and establishes the current baseline waste generation volume estimates.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Kover, K.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Verification of DST energy deposition rates and development of correction for gamma losses

Description: Energy deposition rates (dose rates) within dispersed and layered organic waste in a series of double shell tank mixes were recently calculated with the results shown in Attachment 1. An independent verification is required for the tank mixes shown in bold print in the attachment. In addition, it is desired that a simple method be developed for correcting for gamma losses from a waste layer when calculating energy deposition rates. A cylindrical layer of liquid waste (supernate) is assumed in which an organic component may by uniformly dispersed, or separated as a layer floating on top. No alpha, beta or gamma losses from the supernate were assumed for the dispersed case. For the layered case the gamma dose rate 5 cm into the organic layer was calculated using MICROSHIELD. Dispersed organic cases:
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Himes, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rapid, automated gas chromatographic detection of organic compounds in ultra-pure water

Description: An automated gas chromatography was used to analyze water samples contaminated with trace (parts-per-billion) concentrations of organic analytes. A custom interface introduced the liquid sample to the chromatography. This was followed by rapid chromatographic analysis. Characteristics of the analysis include response times less than one minute and automated data processing. Analytes were chosen based on their known presence in the recycle water streams of semiconductor manufacturers and their potential to reduce process yield. These include acetone, isopropanol, butyl acetate, ethyl benzene, p-xylene, methyl ethyl ketone and 2-ethoxy ethyl acetate. Detection limits below 20 ppb were demonstrated for all analytes and quantitative analysis with limited speciation was shown for multianalyte mixtures. Results are discussed with respect to the potential for on-line liquid process monitoring by this method.
Date: February 15, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recommendation for funding the 1992 Global Change Summer Institute: Industrial ecology and global change

Description: A summer institute on Industrial Ecology and Global Change was held at Snow Mass, Colorado, July 20--31, 1992. Topics of discussion included the following: the patterns and prospects of global industrialization; the vulnerability of the global environment to human activity; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of the major biogeochemical cycles in which this activity is embedded; how industrial activity might be reconfigured in response to a deeper understanding of associated exotic disturbances of the environment; interactions of human activity with basic environmental cycles; human activity in the form of exotic disturbance of the environment; and the dynamics of industrial development and the environmental implications.
Date: December 31, 1992
Creator: Fein, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts

Description: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide. The WMAC team at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts. Foundry operations include mixing and mold formation, core making, metal pouring, shakeout, finishing, and painting. Cutting, shaping, and welding are the principal metal fabrication operations. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations indicated that paint-related wastes are generated in large quantities, and that significant waste reduction and cost savings could be realized by installing a dry powder coating system or by replacing conventional air spray paint guns with high-volume low-pressure spray guns. This research brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Fleischman, M.; Harris, J.J.; Handmaker, A. & Looby, G.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The DOE Subsurface Microbial Culture Collection at Florida State University. Final Technical Report, January 16, 1996--February 15, 1997

Description: This report describes the research that supports the Subsurface Science Program by maintaining a culture collection of microorganisms isolated from deep terrestrial subsurface environments (the Subsurface Microbial Culture Collection, or SMCC). The general distribution of cultures and data was identified as an important function of the SMCC. The accomplishments related to this function of the culture collection are described.
Date: May 25, 1998
Creator: Balkwill, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 2

Description: Experimental effort for the program to evaluate physical properties of kraft black liquors is now proceeding well. Experimental work includes pulping, liquor analysis, lignin purification and characterization, vapor-liquid equilibria, heat capacity, heats of solution and combustion, and viscosity measurements. Measurement of thermal conductivity has not yet begun. Collection of the data necessary for development of generalized correlations is proceeding, but will require about two more years. The digester is operating very well. It is now possible to operate the digester as a closed, rotating reactor or as a batch reactor with liquor circulation. When operated with liquor circulation, temperatures within the chip bed can be monitored during cooking. Cooking is reproducible, and cooks are being performed to produce liquors for experimental studies. The digester could be further modified to permit us to conduct rapid exchange batch pulping or to permit us to simulate continuous pulping. Liquors to be used in experimental studies are concentrated in our large scale evaporator or in our small scale evaporator. The large scale evaporator is used to concentrate liquors to about 50% solids for storage and for use in studies requiring high solids liquors. The small scale evaporator is used for preparing final samples to as high as 85% solids and for measuring vapor-liquid equilibria. Liquors are now routinely analyzed to determine all components, except higher molecular weight organic acids and extractives. Lignin determination by uv-visible means has been improved. Lignin purification from black liquor has been improved and lignin molecular weights are determined routinely. Work on lignin molecular weight distribution is still not satisfactory, but recent developments holds promise.
Date: December 1, 1990
Creator: Fricke, A. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of microporous carbon filters as catalysts for ozone decomposition

Description: Ozone is produced in small quantities in photocopiers and laser printers in the workplace and large quantities in industrial waste water treatment facilities. Carbon filters are commonly used to decompose this unwanted ozone. The three most important factors in producing a filter for this purpose are flow properties, efficiency, and cost. Most ozone decomposition applications require very low back-pressure at modest flow rates. The tradeoff between the number of pores and the size of the pores will be discussed. Typical unfiltered emissions in the workplace are approximately 1 ppm. The maximum permissible exposure limit, PEL, for worker exposure to ozone is 0.1 ppm over 8 hours. Several methods have been examined to increase the efficiency of ozone decomposition. Carbon surfaces were modified with catalysts, the surface activated, and the surface area was increased, in attempts to decompose ozone more effectively. Methods to reduce both the processing and raw material costs were investigated. Several sources of microporous carbon were investigated as ozone decomposition catalysts. Cheaper processing routes including macropore templating, faster drying and extracting methods were also studied.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Whinnery, L.; Coutts, D.; Shen, C.; Adams, R.; Quintana, C. & Showalter, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final construction quality assurance report for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V, Area 2, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) has finished construction of Area 2 of the Y-12 Plant Industrial Landfill (ILF-V), classified as a Class 2 Landfill. This final Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report provides documentation that Area 2 was constructed in substantial compliance with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved design, as indicated and specified in the permit drawings, approved changes, and specifications. This report applies specifically to the Area 2 excavation, compacted clay soil liner, geomembrane liner, granular leachate collection layer, protective soil cover, and the leachate collection system. An ``As-Built`` survey was performed and is included. The drawings provide horizontal and vertical information for Area 2, the anchor trench, the leachate collection pipe, the temporary access road, and cross-sections of Area 2. This report provides documentation of the following items: the excavation activities of Area 2; the maximum recompacted coefficient of hydraulic conductivity or permeability of the soil is less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second (cm/sec); the total thickness of the compacted clay soil liner equals a minimum of 2 feet; a 40 mil impermeable geomembrane (polypropylene) flexible membrane liner (FML) and 16 oz. geotextile fabric was placed in direct contact with the compacted clay soil liner; a 12 inch granular leachate collection layer was installed and covered with a 8 oz. geotextile separation fabric; the installation of the leachate collection piping; and the two foot protective clay soil cover.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Bessom, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New information on disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns

Description: Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build-up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build-up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Veil, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electroless nickel bath recycle. Project accomplishment summary for DOE Technology Transfer Initiative project 93-Y12P-086-C1

Description: The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems plating group has decades of experience in electroless nickel plating. The group conceived of, established the validity of, and patented the ENVIRO-CP process for plating bath rejuvenation, which eliminates the generation of hazardous waste from plating processes. Fidelity Chemical Products Corporation supplies chemicals to and has knowledge of the plating industry. A second partner (CRADA identity protected) conducts production plating. The objective of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) project was to transfer the ENVIRO-CP process to the plating industry. Energy Systems personnel were to evaluate and modify the general process so that it could be used for a specific plating process, working in concert with the partner. Technical results/accomplishments: the plating solutions and the ENVIRO-CP process were analyzed and modified for direct use in the partner`s plating facility. An engineering flowsheet and pilot plant production-scale equipment were designed. Some pilot-scale equipment was fabricated; the balance will be procured and the system tested when the partner is able to budget for purchase of the remaining equipment.
Date: March 22, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of ultrasound in solvent extraction of nickel and gallium

Description: The effects of ultrasound on the rate of solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70, and gallium with Kelex 100 were investigated. These solvent extraction systems are noted by their sluggish nature. Low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound increased the rates of extraction of nickel by factors of four to seven. The ultrasound had no effect on the final chemical equilibrium. Gallium extraction rates were enhanced with the use of ultrasound by as much as a factor of 15. Again, the ultrasound had no effect on extraction equilibrium. For both nickel and gallium, the enhanced rates were attributed to increased interfacial surface area associated with ultrasonically induced cavitation and microdroplet formation. The stability of the microdroplets permitted intermittent application of ultrasound with corresponding decreases in ultrasonic energy requirements. The lowest energy consumption was observed with short (0.25 to 5 s) bursts of high power (41 to 61 W) ultrasonic inputs. The study also provided insight into the factors that affect the complex extraction of gallium from sodium aluminate solutions. The rate controlling step was found to be the dehydration of the gallate ion, Ga(OH)4, and the first complex formation between gallium and Kelex 100. Sodium was found to enhance the extraction rate up to a point, beyond which increased concentration was detrimental. Increasing aluminum concentration was found to slow extraction rates. Modifiers and diluents were shown to markedly affect extraction rates even without ultrasound. Ketone modifiers, particularly 2-undecanone, when used with Kermac 470B or Escaid 200 diluents enhanced extraction rates of gallium to the point that the use of ultrasound provided no additional benefits. The positive effects of ketone modifiers for the solvent extraction of gallium had not been previously reported.
Date: July 1996
Creator: Pesic, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL`s sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL`s outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE`s purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives.
Date: September 11, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dual shell reactor vessel: A pressure-balanced system for high pressure and temperature reactions

Description: The main purpose of this work was to demonstrate the Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Vessel (DSPBV) as a safe and economical reactor for the hydrothermal water oxidation of hazardous wastes. Experimental tests proved that the pressure balancing piston and the leak detection concept designed for this project will work. The DSPBV was sized to process 10 gal/hr of hazardous waste at up to 399{degree}C (750{degree}F) and 5000 psia (34.5 MPa) with a residence time of 10 min. The first prototype reactor is a certified ASME pressure vessel. It was purchased by Innotek Corporation (licensee) and shipped to Pacific Northwest Laboratory for testing. Supporting equipment and instrumentation were, to a large extent, transported here from Battelle Columbus Division. A special air feed system and liquid pump were purchased to complete the package. The entire integrated demonstration system was assembled at PNL. During the activities conducted for this report, the leak detector design was tested on bench top equipment. Response to low levels of water in oil was considered adequate to ensure safety of the pressure vessel. Shakedown tests with water only were completed to prove the system could operate at 350{degree}C at pressures up to 3300 psia. Two demonstration tests with industrial waste streams were conducted, which showed that the DSPBV could be used for hydrothermal oxidation. In the first test with a metal plating waste, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and cyanide concentrations were reduced over 90%. In the second test with a munitions waste, the organics were reduced over 90% using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as the oxidant.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Robertus, R.J.; Fassbender, A.G. & Deverman, G.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor salt deposition studies

Description: Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with Foster Wheeler Development Corp. and GenCorp, Aerojet to develop and evaluate a new supercritical water oxidation reactor design using a transpiring wall liner. In the design, pure water is injected through small pores in the liner wall to form a protective boundary layer that inhibits salt deposition and corrosion, effects that interfere with system performance. The concept was tested at Sandia on a laboratory-scale transpiring wall reactor that is a 1/4 scale model of a prototype plant being designed for the Army to destroy colored smoke and dye at Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas. During the tests, a single-phase pressurized solution of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was heated to supercritical conditions, causing the salt to precipitate out as a fine solid. On-line diagnostics and post-test observation allowed us to characterize reactor performance at different flow and temperature conditions. Tests with and without the protective boundary layer demonstrated that wall transpiration provides significant protection against salt deposition. Confirmation tests were run with one of the dyes that will be processed in the Pine Bluff facility. The experimental techniques, results, and conclusions are discussed.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Haroldsen, B.L.; Mills, B.E.; Ariizumi, D.Y. & Brown, B.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ozone/UV treatment to enhance biodegradation of surfactants in industrial wastewater. CRADA final report

Description: The new owners of a surfactant manufacturing plant wanted to triple production but were limited by the plant`s wastewater treatment capacity. Mass balance calculations indicated that little aerobic biodegradation was occurring in the plant`s wastewater treatment system. Literature reviews and laboratory tests confirmed that as much as 60% of the plant`s products might resist aerobic biodegradation. Overall chemical losses, both solid and aqueous, were estimated at 3.8% of theoretical. Organic loadings to the wastewater treatment system were 170 kg/d of which 50 kg/d reached the biological treatment system. Pollution prevention measures have allowed a > 20% increase in production levels with a > 30% decrease in effluent volume and no increase in discharge of chemical oxygen demand (COD). A new dissolved air flotation (DAF) system removes 70% of the organic loading. Sludge volumes are lower by an order of magnitude than with the clarifier/drum-filter process it replaced.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Cline, J.E.; Sullivan, P.F.; Lovejoy, M.A.; Collier, J. & Adams, C.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Separation and recovery of thermoplastics by froth floatation

Description: This paper describes efforts by Argonne National Laboratory to develop a froth flotation process for separating and recovering plastics from mixed plastics waste streams generated from shredding obsolete appliances and automobiles. A process for recovering and separating equivalent-density ABS and HIPS from obsolete appliances was developed and pilot-tested with a through-put of 1,250 lbs/hr. The basic process is outlined; unit operations and equipment are discussed, and material balances are presented. The resulting ABS product was analyzed and its physical and mechanical properties were established. Its properties resembled those of virgin, mid-grade ABS that is commercially sold today and is widely used by the automotive industry. Injection-molding tests were also conducted by automotive-components suppliers, using the 100% recovered ABS. Headlamp back-cans and automotive ventilation-system duct components were injection molded and the results showed that the recovered ABS met the specifications for these applications. These results confirmed that the recovered ABS can be used as a substitute for virgin plastic materials for molding highly complex automotive component designs, and in parts for other durable goods. Economic analysis of a commercial-scale system was also performed using manufacturers' equipment quotes and operating data from the pilot plant, and it predicts a simple payback of less than 2 years for plants producing about 850 tons per year of ABS.
Date: October 22, 1999
Creator: Karvelas, D. E.; Jody, B. J.; Pomykala, J., Jr. & Daniels, E. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seismic analysis of Industrial Waste Landfill 4 at Y-12 Plant

Description: This calculation was to seismically evaluate Landfill IV at Y-12 as required by Tennessee Rule 1200-1-7-04(2) for seismic impact zones. The calculation verifies that the landfill meets the seismic requirements of the Tennessee Division of Solid Waste, ``Earthquake Evaluation Guidance Document.`` The theoretical displacements of 0.17 in. and 0.13 in. for the design basis earthquake are well below the limiting seimsic slope stability design criteria. There is no potential for liquefaction due to absence of chohesionless soils, or for loss or reduction of shear strength for the clays at this site as result of earthquake vibration. The vegetative cover on slopes will most likely be displaced and move during a large seismic event, but this is not considered a serious deficiency because the cover is not involved in the structural stability of the landfill and there would be no release of waste to the environment.
Date: April 7, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Southeastern Environmental Resources Alliance [Status report on completion milestones incorporated in the Cooperative Agreement, and draft start-up plan March 24, 1995]

Description: The Southeastern Environmental Resources Alliance (SERA) is a joint effort between the US Department of Energy, the states of Georgia and South Carolina, and Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The original proposal for SERA, submitted under the Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), is based on improving the competitiveness of manufacturers within Georgia and South Carolina by addressing the costs associated with environmental and waste management issues. By using the many technologies available through the national laboratories, universities, the Savannah River Site, and the commercial sector, SERA will improve the competitive position of companies that would otherwise have no access to those technologies. This Start-Up Plan details the steps SERA will take to begin effective operations by June 1, 1995, and will focus on the short-term needs of the program. This plan will serve as a supplement to the original SERA proposal, and will address the major milestones included in the Department of Energy`s Cooperative Agreement. Also documented are the planning processes that SERA will use to ensure the long-term viability of the program. The planning process will include additional work elements that are referenced by the original proposal, but, for the purposes of program start-up, are not immediately addressed. The major milestones and schedules are provided for each goal.
Date: December 31, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Race, region and risk: An examination of minority proximity to noxious facilities

Description: The past decade has given rise to terms like environmental racism, eco-racism, and environmental inequities to characterize a disproportional distribution of environmental disamenities among minority communities. Much of the literature supports the contention that racial and ethnic minorities and low-income groups bear a disproportionate burden of risk from hazardous activities and substances in the environment. This study expands the scope of prior studies by employing county-level data for the entire nation and including a broad range of facility types associated with environmental disamenities. In addition, it addresses the issue of the distribution of noxious facilities among white and non-white populations in an attempt to determine the relative exposure to risk among different racial and ethnic groups. In addition, the authors also explore the relative importance of nonurban versus urban residence.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Nieves, A.L. & Nieves, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department