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OSHA State Plans: In Brief, with Examples from California and Arizona

Description: This report examines various state plans under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSH Act), which authorizes states to establish their own occupational safety and health plans and preempt standards established and enforced by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). OSHA must approve state plans if they are "at least as effective" as OSHA's standards and enforcement. The report provides specific examples from California and Arizona
Date: June 3, 2016
Creator: Szymendera, Scott D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Worker Safety in the Construction Industry: The Crane and Derrick Standard

Description: This report first examines the incidence of fatal and nonfatal on-the-job injuries in the private sector. It next analyzes the causes of fatalities in the construction industry and the involvement of cranes in those deaths. The report then addresses the status of a proposed rule to update the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) crane and derrick standard. It closes with an overview of jurisdictions having safety regulations for cranes more stringent, in whole or part, than the existing federal standard.
Date: September 9, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA): A Summary

Description: This report summarizes the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and the major regulatory programs that mandate reporting by industrial facilities of releases of hazardous chemicals to the environment, as well as local planning to respond in the event of significant, accidental releases.
Date: February 2, 2010
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Worker Safety in the Construction Industry: The Crane and Derrick Standard

Description: This report first examines the incidence of fatal and nonfatal on-the-job injuries in the private sector. It next analyzes the causes of fatalities in the construction industry and the involvement of cranes in those deaths. The report then addresses the status of a proposed rule to update the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) crane and derrick standard. It closes with an overview of jurisdictions having safety regulations for cranes more stringent, in whole or part, than the existing federal standard.
Date: November 21, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA): A Summary

Description: This report summarizes the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and the major regulatory programs that mandate reporting by industrial facilities of releases of hazardous chemicals to the environment, as well as local planning to respond in the event of significant, accidental releases.
Date: October 28, 2010
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA): A Summary

Description: This report summarizes the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and the major regulatory programs that mandate reporting by industrial facilities of releases of potentially hazardous chemicals to the environment, as well as local planning to respond in the event of significant, accidental releases.
Date: April 5, 2012
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial Accidents in the California Oil Fields

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on a study of the causes of employee accidents in California oil fields during the year of 1921 - 1922. This investigation was conducted to develop safety procedures and future accident prevention. This report includes tables.
Date: December 1923
Creator: Miller, H. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA): A Summary

Description: This report summarizes the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and the major regulatory programs that mandate reporting by industrial facilities of releases of hazardous chemicals to the environment, as well as local planning to respond in the event of significant, accidental releases.
Date: March 4, 2009
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Life Stress and Industrial Accidents

Description: Traditional personality research on accident behavior has produced conflicting opinions as to the traits that describe the "accident-prone" personality type. Other research has shown that psychosocial life stress, while partially determining the temporal onset of a variety of illnesses, may also be a factor contributing to increased accident liability. This study examined the role of temporary and stress-producing life changes in groups of accident-free and accident-involved industrial employees. The accident sample was found to have significantly higher stress over baseline during the period of accident involvement, but generally lower pre-accident levels than the non-accident sample. A cause-effect analysis of the data from within the accident-involved sample proved inconclusive. Several implications for future research and managerial actions to alleviate stress were also discussed.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Huddleston, Charles T.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Comments on a paper tilted `The sea transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes: Unresolved safety issues`

Description: The cited paper estimates the consequences that might occur should a purpose-built ship transporting Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) be involved in a severe collision that causes the VHLW canisters in one Type-B package to spill onto the floor of a major ocean fishing region. Release of radioactivity from VHLW glass logs, failure of elastomer cask seals, failure of VHLW canisters due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and the probabilities of the hypothesized accident scenario, of catastrophic cask failure, and of cask recovery from the sea are all discussed.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Sprung, J.L.; McConnell, P.E.; Nigrey, P.J. & Ammerman, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Job Satisfaction and Group Industrial Accident Rates

Description: It was hypothesized that group industrial accident rates would be negatively related to job satisfaction. An employee opinion survey measuring satisfaction with various aspects of the job was administered to 1,577 non-exempt (hourly) field workers in 36 district offices of a Texas petroleum services company. Factor analysis of the survey revealed five interpretable sub-scales (factors) measuring five aspects of job satisfaction. Internal consistency reliability for each of the sub-scales and for the instrument as a whole was high (.83 or better). For each of the 36 districts, group accident rate for a six month period was determined. A correlational analysis was then done between district accident rate and the district satisfaction score for each factor and for total satisfaction. None of the correlations were significant.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Grant, Lynne Corney
Partner: UNT Libraries

Accidental Radiation Excursion at the Y-12 Plant, June 16, 1958: Final Report

Description: This report describes the circumstances leading to the accident, attempts to reconstruct the nuclear reactivity conditions, and reviews the dosimetric means and results which were used to help determine the exposure of affected employees.
Date: September 12, 1958
Creator: Patton, F. S.; Bailey, J. C.; Callihan, A. D.; Googin, J. M.; Jasny, G. R.; McAlduff, H. J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constructing Predictive Estimates for Worker Exposure to Radioactivity During Decommissioning: Analysis of Completed Decommissioning Projects - Master Thesis

Description: An analysis of completed decommissioning projects is used to construct predictive estimates for worker exposure to radioactivity during decommissioning activities. The preferred organizational method for the completed decommissioning project data is to divide the data by type of facility, whether decommissioning was performed on part of the facility or the complete facility, and the level of radiation within the facility prior to decommissioning (low, medium, or high). Additional data analysis shows that there is not a downward trend in worker exposure data over time. Also, the use of a standard estimate for worker exposure to radioactivity may be a best estimate for low complete storage, high partial storage, and medium reactor facilities; a conservative estimate for some low level of facility radiation facilities (reactor complete, research complete, pits/ponds, other), medium partial process facilities, and high complete research facilities; and an underestimate for the remaining facilities. Limited data are available to compare different decommissioning alternatives, so the available data are reported and no conclusions can been drawn. It is recommended that all DOE sites and the NRC use a similar method to document worker hours, worker exposure to radiation (person-rem), and standard industrial accidents, injuries, and deaths for all completed decommissioning activities.
Date: October 1, 2002
Creator: Dettmers, Dana Lee & Eide, Steven Arvid
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Script: News brief -- cave in]

Description: Script from the WBAP-TV station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about two Dallas construction workers rescued after the ditch they were working in suddenly collapsed.
Date: November 10, 1953
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Sheltering in buildings from large-scale outdoor releases

Description: Intentional or accidental large-scale airborne toxic release (e.g. terrorist attacks or industrial accidents) can cause severe harm to nearby communities. Under these circumstances, taking shelter in buildings can be an effective emergency response strategy. Some examples where shelter-in-place was successful at preventing injuries and casualties have been documented [1, 2]. As public education and preparedness are vital to ensure the success of an emergency response, many agencies have prepared documents advising the public on what to do during and after sheltering [3, 4, 5]. In this document, we will focus on the role buildings play in providing protection to occupants. The conclusions to this article are: (1) Under most circumstances, shelter-in-place is an effective response against large-scale outdoor releases. This is particularly true for release of short duration (a few hours or less) and chemicals that exhibit non-linear dose-response characteristics. (2) The building envelope not only restricts the outdoor-indoor air exchange, but can also filter some biological or even chemical agents. Once indoors, the toxic materials can deposit or sorb onto indoor surfaces. All these processes contribute to the effectiveness of shelter-in-place. (3) Tightening of building envelope and improved filtration can enhance the protection offered by buildings. Common mechanical ventilation system present in most commercial buildings, however, should be turned off and dampers closed when sheltering from an outdoor release. (4) After the passing of the outdoor plume, some residuals will remain indoors. It is therefore important to terminate shelter-in-place to minimize exposure to the toxic materials.
Date: June 1, 2004
Creator: Chan, W. R.; Price, P. N. & Gadgil, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling shelter-in-place including sorption on indoor surfaces

Description: Intentional or accidental large-scale airborne toxic releases (e.g. terrorist attacks or industrial accidents) can cause severe harm to nearby communities. As part of an emergency response plan, shelter-in-place (SIP) can be an effective response option, especially when evacuation is infeasible. Reasonably tight building envelopes provide some protection against exposure to peak concentrations when toxic release passes over an area. They also provide some protection in terms of cumulative exposure, if SIP is terminated promptly after the outdoor plume has passed. The purpose of this work is to quantify the level of protection offered by existing houses, and the importance of sorption/desorption to and from surfaces on the effectiveness of SIP. We examined a hypothetical chlorine gas release scenario simulated by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC). We used a standard infiltration model to calculate the distribution of time dependent infiltration rates within each census tract. Large variation in the air tightness of dwellings makes some houses more protective than others. Considering only the median air tightness, model results showed that if sheltered indoors, the total population intake of non-sorbing toxic gas is only 50% of the outdoor level 4 hours from the start of the release. Based on a sorption/desorption model by Karlsson and Huber (1996), we calculated that the sorption process would further lower the total intake of the population by an additional 50%. The potential benefit of SIP can be considerably higher if the comparison is made in terms of health effects because of the non-linear acute effect dose-response curve of many chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial substances.
Date: November 1, 2003
Creator: Chan, Wanyu R.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Nazaroff, William W.; Loosmore, Gwen A. & Sugiyama, Gayle A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DISPELLING MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS TO IMPLEMENT A SAFETY CULTURE

Description: Industrial accidents are typically reported in terms of technological malfunctions, ignoring the human element in accident causation. However, over two-thirds of all accidents are attributable to human and organizational factors (e.g., planning, written procedures, job factors, training, communication, and teamwork), thereby affecting risk perception, behavior and attitudes. This paper reviews the development of WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Program that addresses human and organizational factors from a top-down, bottom-up approach. This approach is derived from the Department of Energy's Integrated Safety Management System. As a result, dispelling common myths and misconceptions about safety, while empowering employees to ''STOP work'' if necessary, have contributed to reducing an unusually high number of vehicle, ergonomic and slip/trip/fall incidents successfully. Furthermore, the safety culture that has developed within WESKEM, LLC's workforce consists of three common characteristics: (1) all employees hold safety as a value; (2) each individual feels responsible for the safety of their co-workers as well as themselves; and (3) each individual is willing and able to ''go beyond the call of duty'' on behalf of the safety of others. WESKEM, LLC as a company, upholds the safety culture and continues to enhance its existing ES&H program by incorporating employee feedback and lessons learned collected from other high-stress industries, thereby protecting its most vital resource - the employees. The success of this program is evident by reduced accident and injury rates, as well as the number of safe work hours accrued while performing hands-on field activities. WESKEM, LLC (Paducah + Oak Ridge) achieved over 800,000 safe work hours through August 2002. WESKEM-Paducah has achieved over 665,000 safe work hours without a recordable injury or lost workday case since it started operations on February 28, 2000.
Date: February 27, 2003
Creator: Potts, T. Todd; Smith, Ken & Hylko, James M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Script: Acid]

Description: Script from the WBAP-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, covering a news story about two Dallas workers at Valley Steel Products being sprayed with sulfuric acid.
Date: August 6, 1956
Creator: WBAP-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Final Report for LDRD Project 05-ERD-050: "Developing a Reactive Chemistry Capability for the NARAC Operational Model (LODI)"

Description: In support of the National Security efforts of LLNL, this project addressed the existing imbalance between dispersion and chemical capabilities of LODI (Lagrangian Operational Dispersion Integrator--the NARAC operational dispersion model). We have demonstrated potentially large effects of atmospheric chemistry on the impact of chemical releases (e.g., industrial chemicals and nerve agents). Prior to our work, LODI could only handle chains of first-order losses (exponential decays) that were independent of time and space, limiting NARAC's capability to respond when reactive chemistry is important. We significantly upgraded the chemistry and aerosol capability of LODI to handle (1) arbitrary networks of chemical reactions, (2) mixing and reactions with ambient species, (3) evaporation and condensation of aerosols, and (4) heat liberated from chemical reactions and aerosol condensation (which can cause a cold and dense plume hugging the ground to rise into the atmosphere, then descend to the ground again as droplets). When this is made operational, it will significantly improve NARAC's ability to respond to terrorist attacks and industrial accidents that involve reactive chemistry, including many chemical agents and toxic industrial chemicals (TICS). As a dual-use, the resulting model also has the potential to be a state-of-the-art air-quality model. Chemical releases are the most common type of airborne hazardous release and many operational applications involve such scenarios. The new capability we developed is therefore relevant to the needs of the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and Department of Defense (DoD).
Date: February 11, 2008
Creator: Cameron-Smith, P; Grant, K & Connell, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Predicting Workers' Compensation Claims and On-the-Job Injuries Using Four Psychological Measures

Description: This study assessed the predictive validity of four independent factors (Rotter Locus of Control Scale, Safety Locus of Control, Organizational Attribution Style Questionnaire, and Rosenburg Self-Esteem Scale) in the establishment of a measure of safety consciousness in predicting on-the-job injuries and the filing of workers' compensation claims. A 125-item questionnaire was designed and administered to assess participants' disposition on each of the four psychological dimensions, demographic data and on-the-job injury information.
Date: August 1998
Creator: Fore, Todd A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Technical Advisory Team (TAT) report on the rocket sled test accident of October 9, 2008.

Description: This report summarizes probable causes and contributing factors that led to a rocket motor initiating prematurely while employees were preparing instrumentation for an AIII rocket sled test at SNL/NM, resulting in a Type-B Accident. Originally prepared by the Technical Advisory Team that provided technical assistance to the NNSA's Accident Investigation Board, the report includes analyses of several proposed causes and concludes that the most probable source of power for premature initiation of the rocket motor was the independent battery contained in the HiCap recorder package. The report includes data, evidence, and proposed scenarios to substantiate the analyses.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Stofleth, Jerome H.; Dinallo, Michael Anthony & Medina, Anthony J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department