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Formulas, Tables and Curves for Computing the Mutual Inductance of Two Coaxial Circles

Description: Scientific paper issued by the Bureau of Standards over the mutual inductance of two coaxial circles. As stated in the abstract, "a number of examples are given to show the methods of computation by the different formulas, tables, and charts" (p. 541). This paper includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: August 5, 1924
Creator: Curtis, Harvey L. & Sparks, C. Matilda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radio-Frequency Resistance and Inductance of Coils Used in Broadcast Reception

Description: Technical paper issued by the Bureau of Standards over radio-frequency resistance in radio reception. As stated in the introduction, "the purpose of this paper is to present data on the radio-frequency resistance and inductance of coils within the range of frequencies used in radiotelephone broadcasting" (p. 651). This paper includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: October 22, 1925
Creator: Hund, August & De Groot, H. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Numerical Treatment of the Rf SQUID: II. Noise Temperature

Description: We investigate rf SQUIDs (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices), coupled to a resonant input circuit, a readout tank circuit and a preamplifier, by numerically solving the corresponding Langevin equations and optimizing model parameters with respect to noise temperature. We also give approximate analytic solutions for the noise temperature, which we reduce to parameters of the SQUID and the tank circuit in the absence of the input circuit. The analytic solutions agree with numerical simulations of the full circuit to within 10%, and are similar to expressions used to calculate the noise temperature of dc SQUIDs. The best device performance is obtained when {beta}{sub L}{prime} {triple_bond} 2{pi}LI{sub 0}/{Phi}{sub 0} is 0.6-0.8; L is the SQUID inductance, I{sub 0} the junction critical current and F{sub 0} the flux quantum. For a tuned input circuit we find an optimal noise temperature T{sub N,opt} {approx} 3Tf/f{sub c}, where T, f and f{sub c} denote temperature, signal frequency and junction characteristic frequency, respectively. This value is only a factor of 2 larger than the optimal noise temperatures obtained by approximate analytic theories carried out previously in the limit {beta}{sub L}{prime} << 1. We study the dependence of the noise temperature on various model parameters, and give examples using realistic device parameters of the extent to which the intrinsic noise temperature can be realized experimentally.
Date: January 15, 2007
Creator: Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter & Clarke, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Role of Quench-back in the Passive Quench Protection of Uncoupled Solenoids in Series with and without Coil Sub-division

Description: This paper is the final paper in a series of papers that discusses passive quench protection for high inductance solenoid magnets. This report describes how passive quench protection system may be applied to superconducting magnets that are connected in series but not inductively coupled. Previous papers have discussed the role of magnet sub-division and quench back from a conductive mandrel in reducing the hot-spot temperature and the peak coil voltages to ground. When magnets are connected in series, quench-back from a conductive mandrel can cause other magnets in a string to quench even without inductive coupling between magnets. The magnet mandrels must be well coupled to the magnet circuit that is being quenched. When magnet circuit sub-division is employed to reduce the voltages-to-ground within magnets, the resistance across the subdivision becomes the most important factor in the successful quenching of the magnet string.
Date: October 15, 2010
Creator: Guo, Xing Long; Green, Michael A; Wang, Li; Wu, Hong & Pan, Heng
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Limitations of the Conventional Phase Advance Method for Constant Power Operation of the Brushless DC Motor

Description: The brushless dc motor (BDCM) has high-power density and efficiency relative to other motor types. These properties make the BDCM well suited for applications in electric vehicles provided a method can be developed for driving the motor over the 4 to 6:1 constant power speed range (CPSR) required by such applications. The present state of the art for constant power operation of the BDCM is conventional phase advance (CPA) [1]. In this paper, we identify key limitations of CPA. It is shown that the CPA has effective control over the developed power but that the current magnitude is relatively insensitive to power output and is inversely proportional to motor inductance. If the motor inductance is low, then the rms current at rated power and high speed may be several times larger than the current rating. The inductance required to maintain rms current within rating is derived analytically and is found to be large relative to that of BDCM designs using high-strength rare earth magnets. Th us, the CPA requires a BDCM with a large equivalent inductance.
Date: October 29, 2001
Creator: Lawler, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LARGE SCALE DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER MODEL OF MAIN MAGNET SYSTEM AND FREQUENCY DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS

Description: Large accelerator main magnet system consists of hundreds, even thousands, of dipole magnets. They are linked together under selected configurations to provide highly uniform dipole fields when powered. Distributed capacitance, insulation resistance, coil resistance, magnet inductance, and coupling inductance of upper and lower pancakes make each magnet a complex network. When all dipole magnets are chained together in a circle, they become a coupled pair of very high order complex ladder networks. In this study, a network of more than thousand inductive, capacitive or resistive elements are used to model an actual system. The circuit is a large-scale network. Its equivalent polynomial form has several hundred degrees. Analysis of this high order circuit and simulation of the response of any or all components is often computationally infeasible. We present methods to use frequency decomposition approach to effectively simulate and analyze magnet configuration and power supply topologies.
Date: June 25, 2007
Creator: Zhang, W.; MARNERIS, I. & SANDBERG, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Numerical Treatment of the Rf SQUID: I. General Properties andNoise Energy

Description: We investigate the characteristics and noise performance of rf Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) by solving the corresponding Langevin equations numerically and optimizing the model parameters with respect to noise energy. After introducing the basic concepts of the numerical simulations, we give a detailed discussion of the performance of the SQUID as a function of all relevant parameters. The best performance is obtained in the crossover region between the dispersive and dissipative regimes, characterized by an inductance parameter {beta}{prime}{sub L} {triple_bond} 2{pi}LI{sub 0}/{Phi}{sub 0} {approx} 1; L is the loop inductance, I{sub 0} the critical current of the Josephson junction, and {phi}{sub 0} the flux quantum. In this regime, which is not well explored by previous analytical approaches, the lowest (intrinsic) values of noise energy are a factor of about 2 above previous estimates based on analytical approaches. However, several other analytical predictions, such as the inverse proportionality of the noise energy on the tank circuit quality factor and the square of the coupling coefficient between the tank circuit and the SQUID loop, could not be well reproduced. The optimized intrinsic noise energy of the rf SQUID is superior to that of the dc SQUID at all temperatures. Although for technologically achievable parameters this advantage shrinks, particularly at low thermal fluctuation levels, we give an example for realistic parameters that leads to a noise energy comparable to that of the dc SQUID even in this regime.
Date: January 15, 2007
Creator: Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter & Clarke, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contol of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors with Special Application to Motors with Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings

Description: A 30-pole, 6-kW prototype of a fractional-slot permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) design has been developed to operate at a maximum speed of 6000 rpm [1,2]. This machine has significantly more inductance than regular PMSMs with distributed windings. The prototype was delivered in April 2006 to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing and development of a suitable controller. To prepare for this test/control development effort, ORNL used PMSM models developed over a number of previous studies to preview the control issues that arise when a dynamic controller drives a high inductance PMSM machine during steady state performance evaluations. The detailed steady state model developed includes all motor and inverter loss mechanisms and was useful for assessing the performance of the dynamic controller before it was put into operation. This report documents the results of tests demonstrating the effectiveness of ORNL's simple low-cost control scheme during characterization of the fractional-slot concentrated windings (FSCW) PMSM motor. The control scheme is simple because only the supply voltage magnitude and the phase angle between the back-electromotive force (emf) and the supply voltage is controlled. It is low-cost because it requires no current or phase voltage sensors.
Date: July 31, 2007
Creator: Patil, N.; Lawler, J.S. & McKeever, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Passive modal damping with piezoelectric shunts

Description: The use of piezoelectric materials in conjunction with passive inductance-resistance-capacitance (RLC) circuits to dampen specific vibration modes is explored. The piezoelectric materials convert mechanical energy to electrical energy, which is then dissipated in the RLC circuit through joule heating. An impulse is applied to a simple cantilevered beam and by varying the inductance and resistance values, the natural oscillation frequency fcir the RLC circuit is tuned to dampen the first mode of vibration.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Granier, J. J. (John J.); Haundhausen, R. J. (R. Jason) & Gaytan, G. E. (Gabriel E.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Loop-to-loop coupling.

Description: This report estimates inductively-coupled energy to a low-impedance load in a loop-to-loop arrangement. Both analytical models and full-wave numerical simulations are used and the resulting fields, coupled powers and energies are compared. The energies are simply estimated from the coupled powers through approximations to the energy theorem. The transmitter loop is taken to be either a circular geometry or a rectangular-loop (stripline-type) geometry that was used in an experimental setup. Simple magnetic field models are constructed and used to estimate the mutual inductance to the receiving loop, which is taken to be circular with one or several turns. Circuit elements are estimated and used to determine the coupled current and power (an equivalent antenna picture is also given). These results are compared to an electromagnetic simulation of the transmitter geometry. Simple approximate relations are also given to estimate coupled energy from the power. The effect of additional loads in the form of attached leads, forming transmission lines, are considered. The results are summarized in a set of susceptibility-type curves. Finally, we also consider drives to the cables themselves and the resulting common-to-differential mode currents in the load.
Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Warne, Larry Kevin; Lucero, Larry Martin; Langston, William L.; Salazar, Robert Austin; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Basilio, Lorena I. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hybrid MOSFET/Driver for Ultra-Fast Switching

Description: The ultra-fast switching of power MOSFETs, in about 1ns, is very challenging. This is largely due to the parasitic inductance that is intrinsic to commercial packages used for both MOSFETs and drivers. Parasitic gate and source inductance not only limit the voltage rise time on the MOSFET internal gate structure but can also cause the gate voltage to oscillate. This paper describes a hybrid approach that substantially reduces the parasitic inductance between the driver and MOSFET gate, as well as between the MOSFET source and its external connection. A flip chip assembly is used to directly attach a die-form power MOSFET and driver on a PCB. The parasitic inductances are significantly reduced by eliminating bond wires and minimizing lead length. The experimental results demonstrate ultra-fast switching of the power MOSFET with excellent control of the gate-source voltage.
Date: July 14, 2009
Creator: Tang, T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Power Supplies for Precooler Ring

Description: Eight power supplies will energize the antiproton Precooler ring. there will be two series connected supplies per quadrant. These supplies will power 32 dipole and 19 quadrupole magnets. The resistance and inductance per quadrant is R = 1.4045 Ohms and L = 0.466. Each powr supply will have 12-phase series bridge rectifiers and will be energized from the 480 V 3-phase grid. The total of eight power supplies are numbered IA, IIA, IIIA, IVA, and IB, IIB, IIIB, and IVB. Each quadrant will contain one A and one B supply. A block diagram of the Precooler ring with its power supplies is shown in Figure 1.
Date: December 12, 1980
Creator: Fuja, Raymond & Praeg, Walter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hybrid MOSFET/Driver for Ultra-Fast Switching

Description: The ultra-fast switching of power MOSFETs, in {approx}1ns, is very challenging. This is largely due to the parasitic inductance that is intrinsic to commercial packages used for both MOSFETs and drivers. Parasitic gate and source inductance not only limit the voltage rise time on the MOSFET internal gate structure but can also cause the gate voltage to oscillate. This paper describes a hybrid approach that substantially reduces the parasitic inductance between the driver and MOSFET gate as well as between the MOSFET source and its external connection. A flip chip assembly is used to directly attach the die-form power MOSFET and driver on a PCB. The parasitic inductances are significantly reduced by eliminating bond wires and minimizing lead length. The experimental results demonstrate ultra-fast switching of the power MOSFET with excellent control of the gate-source voltage.
Date: July 11, 2008
Creator: Tang, T. & Burkhart, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measured longitudinal beam impedance of booster gradient magnets

Description: The Booster gradient magnets have no vacuum pipe which forces the beam image current to flow along the laminated pole tips. Both D and F style magnets were measured with a stretched wire to determine the longitudinal beam impedance caused by these laminations. Results are compared to calculations done 30 years ago. The inductive part of the magnet impedance is interesting because it partially compensates for the negative inductance effects of space charge on the beam. An R/L circuit consisting of 37K{center_dot} in parallel with between 40 and 100uH is a reasonable approximation to the total impedance of Booster magnet laminations.
Date: August 24, 2001
Creator: Fellenz, James L Crisp and Brian J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multilevel DC Link Inverter for Brushless Permanent Magnet Motors with Very Low Inductance

Description: Due to their long effective air gaps, permanent magnet motors tend to have low inductance. The use of ironless stator structure in present high power PM motors (several tens of kWs) reduces the inductance even further (< 100 {micro}H). This low inductance imposes stringent current regulation demands for the inverter to obtain acceptable current ripple. An analysis of the current ripple for these low inductance brushless PM motors shows that a standard inverter with the most commonly used IGBT switching devices cannot meet the current regulation demands and will produce unacceptable current ripples due to the IGBT's limited switching frequency. This paper introduces a new multilevel dc link inverter, which can dramatically reduce the current ripple for brushless PM motor drives. The operating principle and design guidelines are included.
Date: October 29, 2001
Creator: Su, G. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A fast injection kicker magnet for the Tevatron

Description: A new proton injection kicker system is required for the Tevatron in the Run II era. The new system was designed to supply 1.25 kG-m into a magnetic aperture of 48 mm vertical x 71 mm horizontal x 5 m long with a 396 ns bunch spacing. The system was designed to be upgraded to 132 ns bunch spacing with additional pulse supplies. The design of the magnet incorporated some novel features in order to meet these requirements. These include adjustable bus spacing to set the inductance and balanced positive and negative high voltage buses. This system has been installed in the Tevatron.
Date: July 25, 2001
Creator: Chris C Jensen, Bruce Hanna and Robert Reilly
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MOS-Gated Thyristors (MCTs) for Repetitive High Power Switching

Description: Certain applications for pulse power require narrow, high current pulses for their implementation. This work was performed to determine if MCTS (MOS Controlled Thyristors) could be used for these applications. The MCTS were tested as discharge switches in a low inductance circuit delivering 1 {micro}s pulses at currents between roughly 3 kA and 11 kA, single shot and repetitively at 1, 10 and 50 Hz. Although up to 9000 switching events could be obtained, all the devices failed at some combination of current and repetition rate. Failure was attributed to temperature increases caused by average power dissipated in the thyristor during the switching sequence. A simulation was performed to confirm that the temperature rise was sufficient to account for failure. Considerable heat sinking, and perhaps a better thermal package, would be required before the MCT could be considered for pulse power applications.
Date: January 13, 2000
Creator: BAYNE,S.B.; PORTNOY,W.M.; ROHWEIN,G.J. & HEFNER,A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Partial core pulse transformer

Description: A light-weight partial-core pule transformer is provided for generating high voltage output pulses with low distortion. The transformer includes sets of ferrite bars arranged so as to extend longitudinally along the inside and outside surfaces of a high frequency cylindrical coil winding-pair. The ferrite bars are arranged in pairs with the bars of each pair being located on opposite sides of winding-pair. The bars are preferably disposed in a radially symmetric arrangement around the winding-pair, and each has a length at least equal to the width of the winding-pair.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Lawson, R.N. & Rohwein, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sandia Smart Anti-Islanding Project; Summer 2001: Task II Investigation of the Impact of Single-Phase Induction Machines in Islanded Loads: Summary of Results

Description: Islanding, the supply of energy to a disconnected portion of the grid, is a phenomenon that could result in personnel hazard, interfere with reclosure, or damage hardware. Considerable effort has been expended on the development of IEEE 929, a document that defines unacceptable islanding and a method for evaluating energy sources. The worst expected loads for an islanded inverter are defined in IEEE 929 as being composed of passive resistance, inductance, and capacitance. However, a controversy continues concerning the possibility that a capacitively compensated, single-phase induction motor with a very lightly damped mechanical load having a large rotational inertia would be a significantly more difficult load to shed during an island. This report documents the result of a study that shows such a motor is not a more severe case, simply a special case of the RLC network.
Date: May 1, 2002
Creator: ROPP, MIKE; BONN, RUSSELL H.; GONZALEZ, SIGIFREDO & WHITAKER, CHUCK
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasma considerations in the IPNS RCS.

Description: Significant ionization appears to occur in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) during its 14 ms acceleration period leading to plasma formation and neutralization. The beam may in fact be over-neutralized, causing the tune to increase during the acceleration cycle. The overall tune shift in the RCS appears to be close to +0.5. The presence of plasma may help explain why longitudinal phase modulation can so quickly couple to transverse motion. In addition, plasmas tend to be inductive and the RCS appears to exhibit a relatively high inductance. Measurements of the electron cloud and plasma densities adjacent to the beam should be made. In addition to the RFA and Swept Analyzer diagnostics mentioned at the Workshop, other techniques might be attempted. If plasma is present, then a small, biased-probe might be useful (e.g., a Langmuir probe), or with the proper choice of geometry, an optics-based measurement for line density (e.g., an interferometer) might be employed, perhaps using microwaves for increased sensitivity.
Date: February 21, 2002
Creator: Dooling, J. C.; McMichael, G. E. & Brumwell, F. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Compact High Gradient Pulsed Magnetic Quadpole

Description: A design for a high gradient, low inductance pulsed quadrupole magnet is presented. The magnet is a circular current dominated design with a circular iron return yoke. Conductor angles are determined by a method of direct multipole elimination which theoretically eliminates the first four higher order multipole field components. Coils are fabricated from solid round film-insulated conductor, wound as a single layer ''non-spiral bedstead'' coil having a diagonal leadout entirely within one upturned end. The coils are wound and stretched straight in a special winder, then bent in simple fixtures to form the upturned ends.
Date: July 5, 2005
Creator: Shuman, D.; Faltens, A.; Kajiyama, Y.; Kireeff-Covo, M. & Seidl, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department