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Accuracy of CO2 sensors in commercial buildings: a pilotstudy

Description: Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors are often deployed in commercial buildings to obtain CO{sub 2} data that are used to automatically modulate rates of outdoor air supply. The goal is to keep ventilation rates at or above code requirements, but to also to save energy by avoiding over ventilation relative to code requirements. However, there have been many anecdotal reports of poor CO{sub 2} sensor performance in actual commercial building applications. This study evaluated the accuracy of 44 CO{sub 2} sensors located in nine commercial buildings to determine if CO{sub 2} sensor performance, in practice, is generally acceptable or problematic. CO{sub 2} measurement errors varied widely and were sometimes hundreds of parts per million. Despite its small size, this study provides a strong indication that the accuracy of CO{sub 2} sensors used in commercial buildings is frequently less than is needed to measure peak indoor-outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration differences with less than a 20% error. Thus, we conclude that there is a need for more accurate CO{sub 2} sensors and/or better sensor maintenance or calibration procedures.
Date: October 1, 2006
Creator: Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David & Sullivan, Douglas P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical assessment of compliance with work place air sampling requirements at T Plant. Revision No. 1

Description: The US DOE requires its contractors to conduct air sampling to detect and evaluate airborne radioactive material in the workplace. Hanford Reservation T Plant compliance with workplace air sampling requirements has been assessed. Requirements, basis for determining compliance and recommendations are included.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Hackworth, M.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IEQ and the impact on building occupants

Description: Research into indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and its effects on health, comfort and performance of occupants is becoming increasingly essential. Facility managers are interested in IEQ's close relationship to energy use. Employers hope to enhance employee comfort and productivity, reduce absenteeism and health-care costs, and reduce risk of litigation. The rising interest in this field has placed additional pressure on the research community for practical guidelines on creating a safe, healthy and comfortable indoor environment.
Date: August 1, 2002
Creator: Kumar, Satish & Fisk, William J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Normal and seasonally amplified indoor radon levels

Description: Winter and summer indoor radon measurements are reported for 121 houses in Freehold, New Jersey. When presented as winter:summer ratios of indoor radon, the data closely approximate a lognormal distribution. The geometric mean is 1.49. Freehold is located on the fairly flat coastal plain. The winter:summer ratios are believed to represent the norm for regions of the U.S. with cold winters and hot summers. The Freehold data set can be compared to corresponding data sets from other locations to suggest seasonal perturbations of indoor radon arising from unusual causes.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L. & King, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-induced contaminant transport in near-surface soils with application to radon entry into buildings

Description: Indoor air exposures to gaseous contaminants originating in soil can cause large human health risks. To predict and control these exposures, the mechanisms that affect vapor transport in near-surface soils need to be understood. In particular, radon exposure is a concern since average indoor radon concentrations lead to much higher risks than are generally accepted for exposure to other environmental contaminants. This dissertation examines an important component of the indoor radon problem: the impacts of wind on soil-gas and radon transport and entry into buildings. The research includes experimental and modeling studies of wind`s interactions with a building`s superstructure and the resulting soil-gas and radon flows in the surrounding soil. In addition to exploring the effects of steady winds, a novel modeling technique is developed to examine the impacts of fluctuating winds on soil-gas and radon transport.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Riley, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Active airborne contamination control using electrophoresis

Description: In spite of our best efforts, radioactive airborne contamination continues to be a formidable problem at many of the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex sites. For workers that must enter areas with high levels of airborne contamination, personnel protective equipment (PPE) can become highly restrictive, greatly diminishing productivity. Rather than require even more restrictive PPE for personnel in some situations, the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is actively researching and developing methods to aggressively combat airborne contamination hazards using electrophoretic technology. With appropriate equipment, airborne particulates can be effectively removed and collected for disposal in one simple process. The equipment needed to implement electrophoresis is relatively inexpensive, highly reliable, and very compact. Once airborne contamination levels are reduced, less PPE is required and a significant cost savings may be realized through decreased waste and maximized productivity. Preliminary ``cold,`` or non-radioactive, testing results at the RFP have shown the technology to be effective on a reasonable scale, with several potential benefits and an abundance of applications.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Veatch, B. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toward resolving model-measurement discrepancies of radon entry into houses

Description: Analysis of the literature indicated that radon transport models significantly and consistently underpredict the advective entry into houses of soil-gas borne radon. Advective entry is the dominant mechanism resulting in high concentrations of radon indoors. The author investigated the source of the model-measurement discrepancy via carefully controlled field experiments conducted at an experimental basement located in natural soil in Ben Lomond, California. Early experiments at the structure confirmed the existence and magnitude of the model-measurement discrepancy, ensuring that it was not merely an artifact of inherently complex and poorly understood field sites. The measured soil-gas entry rate during structure depressurization was found to be an order of magnitude larger than predicted by a current three-dimensional numerical model of radon transport. The exact magnitude of the discrepancy depends on whether the arithmetic or geometric mean of the small-scale measurements of permeability is used to estimate the effective permeability of the soil. This factor is a critical empirical input to the model and was determined for the Ben Lomond site in the typical fashion using single-probe static depressurization measurements at multiple locations. The remainder of the dissertation research tests a hypothesis to explain the observed discrepancy: that soil permeability assessed using relatively small-scale probe measurements does not reflect bulk soil permeability for flows that is likely to occur at larger scales of several meters or more in real houses and in the test structure. The idea is that soil heterogeneity is of a nature that, as flows occur over larger scales, larger scales of heterogeneity are encountered that facilitate larger flux rates, resulting in a scale dependence of effective soil permeability.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Garbesi, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dexterity test data contribute to reduction in leaded glovebox gloves use

Description: Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (T A-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes. Using an integrated approach, controls have been developed and implemented through an efficient Glovebox Glove Integrity Program. A key element of this program is to consider measures that lower the overall risk of glovebox operations. Line management who own glovebox processes through this program make decisions on which type of glovebox gloves (hereafter referred to as gloves), the weakest component of this safety-significant system, would perform best in these aggressive environments. As Low as Reasonably Achievable considerations must be balanced with glove durability and worker dexterity, both of which affect the final overall risk of the operation. In the past, lead-loaded (leaded) gloves made from Hypalon(reg.) were the primary glove for programmatic operations at TA55. Replacing leaded gloves with unleaded gloves for certain operations would lower the overall risk as well as reduce the amount of mixed transuranic waste. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos National Laboratory Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. In this report, the pros and cons of wearing leaded gloves, the effect of leaded gloves versus unleaded gloves on task performance using standard dexterity tests, the justification for switching from leaded to unleaded gloves, and the pollution prevention benefits of this dramatic change in the glovebox system are presented.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Cournoyer, Michael E; Lawton, Cindy M; Castro, Amanda M; Costigan, Stephen A & Schreiber, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indoor radon and lung cancer in the radium dial workers

Description: Internally deposited radium has long been known to have tumorigenic effects in the form of sarcomas of the bone and carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells. However, the radium dial workers were also exposed to radiation hazards other than that occurring from ingestion of the radium paint, viz., external gamma radiation and elevated concentrations of airborne radon. The uranium miners were also exposed to high concentrations of radon in the 1950s and later, and numerous cases of lung cancer have occurred in that population. However, unlike the atmosphere in the uranium mines, the air in the dial painting plants was probably rather clean and perhaps not much different from the air in many houses. In view of the current concern over the possibility of lung cancer fin the general population being caused by radon (progeny) in houses, it is important to examine the mortality due to this usually fatal disease in the dial workers and to attempt to relate it to their exposure to radon, to the extent that this is possible.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Neuberger, J.S. & Rundo, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric relative concentrations in building wakes

Description: This report documents the ARCON96 computer code developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation for potential use in control room habitability assessments. It includes a user`s guide to the code, a description of the technical basis for the code, and a programmer`s guide to the code. The ARCON96 code uses hourly meteorological data and recently developed methods for estimating dispersion in the vicinity of buildings to calculate relative concentrations at control room air intakes that would be exceeded no more than five percent of the time. The concentrations are calculated for averaging periods ranging from one hour to 30 days in duration. ARCON96 is a revised version of ARCON95, which was developed for the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Changes in the code permit users to simulate releases from area sources as well as point sources. The method of averaging concentrations for periods longer than 2 hours has also been changed. The change in averaging procedures increases relative concentrations for these averaging periods. In general, the increase in concentrations is less than a factor of two. The increase is greatest for relatively short averaging periods, for example 0 to 8 hours and diminishes as the duration of the averaging period increases.
Date: May 1997
Creator: Ramsdell, J. V., Jr. & Simonen, C. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solid waste transuranic storage and assay facility indoor air sampling

Description: The purpose of the study is to collect and analyze samples of the indoor air at the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF), Westinghouse Hanford. A modified US EPA TO-14 methodology, using gas chromatography/mass spectrography, may be used for the collection and analysis of the samples. The information obtained will be used to estimate the total release of volatile organic compounds from TRUSAF to determine the need for air emmission permits.
Date: August 20, 1996
Creator: Pingel, L.A., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IEQ and the impact on employee sick leave

Description: When selecting minimum ventilation rates, employers should balance the well-recognized energy costs of providing higher minimum ventilation rates with the expected, but less well quantified, health benefits from a higher ventilation rate. This is a summary of the paper by Milton, et al. that found low employee sick leave associated with high ventilation rates in a set of buildings located in Massachusetts. A simple cost-benefit analysis also is presented.
Date: August 1, 2002
Creator: Kumar, Satish & Fisk, William J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of drum pressurization incident in the 331 Building, Room 175 on January 10, 1995

Description: On January 10, 1995, a pressurized drum incident occurred at the 331 Building, Room 175. On January 12, 1995, the Manager of the Life Sciences Center appointed members to an Investigation Board to investigate the incident (see Exhibit A). This incident was initially categorized as an Off-Normal Occurrence, but was later elevated to an Unusual Occurrence by the Occurrence Classifier. The scope of this investigation was to employ a formal method of root cause analysis, identify the methodology, and report the results of the analysis, fully explaining the technical elements of the causal sequence along with a description of the barriers that should have or could have prevented the occurrence. During the course of the investigation, the scene of the event was not accessible. Therefore, the investigation relied primarily on testimony from staff members directly involved and their management. In addition, other outside professionals were also consulted. The Investigation Board visited the previous location of the drum, 331A Building, Room 9; Room 173, which fronts room 175, was also visited. The Investigation Board reviewed selected documents, which are also listed.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Pollari, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radon entry into buildings: Effects of atmospheric pressure fluctuations and building structural factors

Description: An improved understanding of the factors that control radon entry into buildings is needed in order to reduce the public health risks caused by exposure to indoor radon. This dissertation examines three issues associated with radon entry into buildings: (1) the influence of a subslab gravel layer and the size of the openings between the soil and the building interior on radon entry; (2) the effect of atmospheric pressure fluctuations on radon entry; and (3) the development and validation of mathematical models which simulate radon and soil-gas entry into houses. Experiments were conducted using two experimental basements to examine the influence of a subslab gravel layer on advective radon entry driven by steady indoor-outdoor pressure differences. These basement structures are identical except that in one the floor slab lies directly on native soil whereas in the other the slab lies on a high-permeability gravel layer. The measurements indicate that a high permeability subslab gravel layer increases the advective radon entry rate into the structure by as much as a factor of 30. The magnitude of the enhancement caused by the subslab gravel layer depends on the area of the openings in the structure floor; the smaller the area of these openings the larger the enhancement in the radon entry rate caused by the subslab gravel layer. A three-dimensional, finite-difference model correctly predicts the effect of a subslab gravel layer and open area configuration on advective radon entry driven by steady indoor-outdoor pressure differences; however, the model underpredicts the absolute entry rate into each structure by a factor of 1.5.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Robinson, A.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of the radon source in North-Central Florida. Final report part 1 -- Final project report; Final report part 2 -- Technical report

Description: This report contains two separate parts: Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (final report part 1 -- final project report); and Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (technical report). The objectives were to characterize the radon 222 source in a region having a demonstrated elevated indoor radon potential and having geology, lithology, and climate that are different from those in other regions of the U.S. where radon is being studied. Radon availability and transport in this region were described. Approaches for predicting the radon potential of lands in this region were developed.
Date: December 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radon concentration and working level in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF)

Description: Radon-222 ({sup 222}Rn) and {sup 222}Rn progeny WL monitoring in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) was initiated to support regulatory compliance. Measurements were taken over two periods, in Test Alcove No. 1 of the ESF, about 60 m from the tunnel entrance. For both periods, {sup 222}Rn concentration was less than 10% of the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) set forth in DOE Order 5480.11. Thus, these assessments were sufficient to demonstrate regulatory compliance. Based on these findings, quarterly {sup 222}Rn and {sup 222}Rn progeny monitoring was initiated. Two systems each were employed for {sup 222}Rn and {sup 222}Rn progeny measurement. No significant differences were observed between the respective systems. An interesting finding was that at the time the measurements were taken, barometric pressure appeared to be the predominant factor controlling {sup 222}Rn concentration in the ESF. This was true even during periods of ventilation shutdown.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Stiver, J.H. & Tung, Chao-Hsiung
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical assessment of TRUSAF for compliance with work place air sampling. Revision 1

Description: The purpose of this Technical Work Document is to satisfy WHC-CM-1-6, the ``WHC Radiological Control Manual.`` This first revision of the original Supporting Document covers the period from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1994. WHC-CM-1-6 is the primary guidance for radiological control at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). As such, it complies with Title 10, Part 835 of the Code of Federal Regulations. In addition to WHC-CM-1-6, there is HSRCM-1, the ``Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual`` and several Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, national consensus standards, and reports that provide criteria, standards, and requirements for workplace air sampling programs. This document provides a summary of these, as they apply to WHC facility workplace air sampling programs. this document also provides an evaluation of the compliance of the TRUSAF workplace air sampling program to the criteria, standards, and requirements and documents. Where necessary, it also indicates changes needed to bring specific locations into compliance.
Date: January 23, 1995
Creator: Butler, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radon discrimination for work place air samples

Description: Gross alpha/beta measurement systems are designed solely to identify an incident particle as either an alpha or a beta and register a count accordingly. The tool of choice for radon identification, via decay daughters, is an instrument capable of identifying the energy of incident alpha particles and storing that information separately from detected alpha emissions of different energy. In simpler terms, the desired instrument is an alpha spectroscopy system. K Basins Radiological Control (KBRC) procured an EG&G ORTEC OCTETE PC alpha spectroscopy system to facilitate radon identification on work place air samples. The alpha spectrometer allows for the identification of any alpha emitting isotope based on characteristic alpha emission energies. With this new capability, KBRC will explicitly know whether or not there exists a true airborne concern. Based on historical air quality data, this new information venue will reduce the use of respirators substantially. Situations where an area remains ``on mask`` due solely to the presence of radon daughters on the grab air filter will finally be eliminated. This document serves to introduce a new method for radon daughter detection at the 183KE Health Physics Analytical Laboratory (HPAL). A new work place air sampling analysis program will be described throughout this paper. There is no new technology being introduced, nor any unproven analytical process. The program defined over the expanse of this document simply explains how K Basins Radiological Control will employ their alpha spectrometer.
Date: September 27, 1994
Creator: Bratvold, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collaborative Proposal: DUSEL R&D at the Kimballton Underground Facility (ICP-MS Confirmation, Material Assay, and Radon Reduction)

Description: Experiments measuring rare events, such as neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay, and those searching for, or measuring very weakly interacting particles, such as low energy solar neutrino experiments or direct dark matter searches, require ever lower backgrounds; particularly those from radioactive contamination of detector materials. The underground physics community strives to identify and develop materials with radioactive contamination at permissible levels, and to remove radioactive contaminants from materials, but each such material represents a separate dedicated research and development effort. This project attempted to help these research communities by expanding the capabilities in the United States, for indentifying low levels of radioactive contamination in detector materials through gamma ray spectroscopy. Additionally the project tried to make a cross comparison between well established gamma ray spectroscopy techniques for identifying radioactive contaminations and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy, which is a relatively new method for searching for uranium and thorium in materials. The project also studied the removal of radioactive radon gas for laboratory air, which showed that an inexpensive technologically simple radon scrubber can potentially be used for homes or businesses with high radon levels even after the employment of other mitigation techniques.
Date: November 30, 2010
Creator: Back, Henning O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radon source apportionment in the home, dosimetry and risk modeling. Final report, 1993--1997

Description: This research covered the following 3 topics in 4 years: (1) the source apportionment of {sup 222}Rn in the home; (2) the internal bronchial dosimetry of inhaled {sup 222}Rn decay products; and (3) the lung cancer risk from inhalation of the short lived decay products of {sup 222}Rn. A 4th year of support was appended to this grant with a switch in research effort to determine a method for long term measurement of the particle size distribution of the short lived decay products in homes.
Date: August 4, 1998
Creator: Harley, N.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indoor environment program. 1994 annual report

Description: Buildings use approximately one-third of the energy consumed in the United States. The potential energy savings derived from reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings are substantial, since energy use associated with conditioning and distributing ventilation air is about 5.5 EJ per year. However, since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants from indoor sources, reduction of ventilation can have adverse effects on indoor air quality, and on the health, comfort, and productivity of building occupants. The Indoor Environment Program in LBL`s Energy and Environment Division was established in 1977 to conduct integrated research on ventilation, indoor air quality, and energy use and efficiency in buildings for the purpose of reducing energy liabilities associated with airflows into, within, and out of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The Program is part of LBL`s Center for Building Science. Research is conducted on building energy use and efficiency, ventilation and infiltration, and thermal distribution systems; on the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and on exposure and health risks associated with indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semivolatile, and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Daisey, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of the atmospheric chemistry of radon progeny in laboratory and real indoor atmospheres. Final project report

Description: This report completes Clarkson University`s study of the chemical and physical behavior of the {sup 218}Po atom immediately following its formation by the alpha decay of radon. Because small changes in size for activity in the sub-10 nm size range result in large changes in the delivered dose per unit exposure, this behavior must be understood if the exposure to radon progeny and it dose to the cells in the respiratory tract are to be fully assessed. In order to pursue this general goal, two areas of radon progeny behavior are being pursued; laboratory studies under controlled conditions to better understand the fundamental physical and chemical processes that affect the progeny`s atmospheric behavior and studies in actual indoor environments to develop a better assessment of the exposure of the occupants of that space to the size and concentration of the indoor radioactive aerosol. Thus, two sets of specific goals have been established for this project. The specific tasks of the controlled laboratory studies are (1) Determine the formation rates of {circ}OH radicals formed by the radiolysis of air following radon decay; (2) Examine the formation of particles by the radiolytic oxidation of substances like SO{sub 2}, ethylene, and H{sub 2}S to lower vapor pressure compounds and determine the role of gas phase additives such as H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 3} in determining the particle size; (3) Measure the rate of ion-induced nucleation using a thermal diffusion cloud chamber, and (4) Measure the neutralization rate of {sup 218}PoO{sub x}{sup +} in O{sub 2} at low radon concentrations.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Hopke, P.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exposure to radon and radon progeny in the indoor environment. Final report

Description: This report discusses the work done by the Center for Energy and Environmental Studies at Princeton University as part of the radon research program. It involves radon measurements in various buildings, as well as the use of natural ventilation to mitigate radon levels. The report is divided into four chapters: The use of radon entry rate measurements to understand radon concentration in buildings; Use of natural basement ventilation to control radon in single family dwellings; The effect of natural ventilation on radon and radon progeny levels in houses; and Comparison of natural and forced ventilation for radon mitigation in houses.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Socolow, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alpha spectral analysis via artificial neural networks

Description: An artificial neural network system that assigns quality factors to alpha particle energy spectra is discussed. The alpha energy spectra are used to detect plutonium contamination in the work environment. The quality factors represent the levels of spectral degradation caused by miscalibration and foreign matter affecting the instruments. A set of spectra was labeled with a quality factor by an expert and used in training the artificial neural network expert system. The investigation shows that the expert knowledge of alpha spectra quality factors can be transferred to an ANN system.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Kangas, L. J.; Hashem, S.; Keller, P. E.; Kouzes, R. T. & Troyer, G. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department