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Filamentation and Fundamental-Mode Operation in InGaN Quantum Well Lasers

Description: Filamentation, and consequently output beam quality in InGaN quantum-well lasers are found to be strong functions of quantum-well width because of the interplay of quantum-confined Stark effect and many-body interactions. For an In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}N/GaN gain medium the antiguiding factor in a thick 4nm quantum well is considerably smaller than that for a narrow 2nm one. As a result, lasers with the thicker quantum well maintain fundamental-mode operation with wider stripe widths and at significantly higher excitation levels.
Date: December 8, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Taming transport in InN

Description: The large electron affinity of InN, close to 6 eV and the largest of any III-V semiconductor, creates a strong driving force for native donor formation, both in the bulk and at surfaces and interfaces. Moreover, all InN surfaces, regardless of crystal orientation or doping, have been observed to have a surface accumulation layer of electrons, which interferes with standard electrical measurements. For these reasons, until recently, it was uncertain whether or not compensation by donor defects would prevent “real” p-type activity (i.e. existence of sufficiently shallow acceptors and mobile holes). A coordinated experimental approach using a combination of electrical (Hall effect) and electrothermal (Seebeck coefficient) measurements will be described that allows definitive evaluation of carrier transport in InN. In Mg-doped InN films, the sensitivity of thermopower to bulk hole conduction, combined with modeling of the parallel conducting layers (surface/bulk/interface), enables quantitative measurement of the free hole concentration and mobility. In undoped (n-type) material, combined Hall and thermopower measurements, along with a considering of the scattering mechanisms, leads to a quantitative understanding of the crucial role of charged line defects in limiting electron transport.
Date: May 29, 2011
Creator: Ager III, Joel W. & Miller, Nate R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of ICl- and IBr-Based Plasma Chemistries for Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of GaN, InN and AlN

Description: A parametric study of the etch characteristics of GaN, AIN and InN has been earned out with IC1/Ar and IBr/Ar chemistries in an Inductively Coupled Plasma discharge. The etch rates of InN and AIN were relatively independent of plasma composition, while GaN showed increased etch rates with interhalogen concentration. Etch rates for all materials increased with increasing rf chuck power, indicating that higher ion bombardment energies are more efficient in enhancing sputter resorption of etch products. The etch rates increased for source powers up to 500 W and remained relatively thereafter for all materials, while GaN and InN showed maximum etch rates with increasing pressure. The etched GaN showed extremely smooth surfaces, which were somewhat better with IBr/Ar than with IC1/Ar. Maximum selectivities of- 14 for InN over GaN and >25 for InN over AIN were obtained with both chemistries.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Abernathy, C.R.; Cho, H.; Donovan, S.M.; Hahn, Y.B.; Han, J.; Hays, D.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantum Well Width Dependence of Threshold Current Density in InGaN Lasers

Description: The quantum confined Stark effect was found to result in a strong quantum well width dependence of threshold current density in strained group-III nitride quantum well lasers. For an In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}N/GaN structure with quantum well width in the neighborhood of 3.5nm, our analysis shows that the reduction in spontaneous emission loss by the electron-hole spatial separation outweighs the corresponding reduction in gain to produce a threshold current density minimum.
Date: March 16, 1999
Creator: Amano, H.; Chow, W.W.; Han, J. & Takeuchi, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wet Chemical Etching Survey of III-Nitrides

Description: Wet chemical etching of GaN, InN, AlN, InAlN and InGaN was investigated in various acid and base solutions at temperatures up to 75 C. Only KOH-based solutions were found to etch AlN and InAlN. No etchants were found for the other nitrides, emphasizing their extreme lack of chemical reactivity. The native oxide on most of the nitrides could be removed in potassium tetraborate at 75 C, or HCl/H{sub 2}O at 25 C.
Date: February 4, 1999
Creator: Abernathy, C. R.; Cho, H.; Hays, D. C.; MacKenzie, J. D.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Degradation of blue AlGaN/InGaN/GaN LEDs subjected to high current pulses

Description: Short-wavelength, visible-light emitting optoelectronic devices are needed for a wide range of commercial applications, including high-density optical data storage, full-color displays, and underwater communications. In 1994, high-brightness blue LEDs based on gallium nitride and related compounds (InGaN/AlGaN) were introduced by Nichia Chemical Industries. The Nichia diodes are 100 times brighter than the previously available SiC blue LEDs. Group-III nitrides combine a wide, direct bandgap with refractory properties and high physical strength. So far, no studies of degradation of GaN based LEDs have been reported. The authors study, reported in this paper, focuses on the performance of GaN LEDs under high electrical stress conditions. Their observations indicate that, in spite of a high defect density, which normally would have been fatal to other III-V devices, defects in group-III nitrides are not mobile even under high electrical stress. Defect tubes, however, can offer a preferential path for contact metals to electromigrate towards the p-n junction, eventually resulting in a short. The proposed mechanism of GaN diode degradation raises concern for prospects of reliable lasers in the group-III nitrides grown on sapphire.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Barton, D.L.; Zeller, J.; Phillips, B.S.; Chiu, P.C.; Askar, S.; Lee, D.S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical Properties of InGaAsN: A New 1eV Bandgap Material System

Description: InGaAsN is a new semiconductor alloy system with the remarkable property that the inclusion of only 2% nitrogen reduces the bandgap by more than 30%. In order to help understand the physical origin of this extreme deviation from the typically observed nearly linear dependence of alloy properties on concentration, we have investigated the pressure dependence of the excited state energies using both experimental and theoretical methods. We report measurements of the low temperature photohnninescence energy of the material for pressures between ambient and 110 kbar. We describe a simple, density-functional-theory-based approach to calculating the pressure dependence of low lying excitation energies for low concentration alloys. The theoretically predicted pressure dependence of the bandgap is in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Based on the results of our calculations, we suggest an explanation for the strongly non-linear pressure dependence of the bandgap that, surprisingly, does not involve a nitrogen impurity band. Addhionally, conduction-band mass measurements, measured by three different techniques, will be described and finally, the magnetoluminescence determined pressure coefficient for the conduction-band mass is measured.
Date: January 25, 1999
Creator: Allerman, A.A.; Fritz, I.J.; Jones, E.D.; Kurtz, S.R.; Modine, N.A.; Tozer, S.T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microscopic Theory of Optical Nonlinearities and Spontaneous Emission Lifetime in Group-III Nitride Quantum Wells

Description: Microscopic calculations of the absorption/gain and luminescence spectra are presented for wide bandgap Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}N/GaN quantum well systems. Whereas structures with narrow well widths exhibit the usual excitation dependent bleaching of the exciton resonance without shifting spectral position, a significant blue shift of the exciton peak is obtained for wider quantum wells. This blue shift, which is also present in the excitation dependent luminescence spectra, is attributed to the interplay between the screening of a strain induced piezoelectric field and the density dependence of many-body Coulomb effects. The calculations also show an over two orders of magnitude increase in the spontaneous electron-hole-pair lifetime with well width: due to the reduction of the electron-hole wavefunction overlap in the wider wells. The resulting decrease in spontaneous emission loss is predicted to lead to improved threshold properties in wide quantum well lasers.
Date: March 16, 1999
Creator: Chow, W.; Kira, M. & Koch, S.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effects of Biaxial Strain and Chemical Ordering on the Band Gap of InGaN

Description: The authors have performed first-principles calculations to examine the effects of biaxial strain and chemical ordering on the band gap of wurtzite In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}N in the range 0 {le} x {le} 0.5. The results for unstrained, random alloys are in good agreement with theoretical estimates and measurements on unstrained zinc-blende alloys, but are in poor agreement with recent measurements on strained wurtzite alloys which display significantly lower gaps. Biaxial strain is found to have a non-linear effect on calculated alloy gaps, increasing them for x < 0.25 and decreasing them for x > 0.25. However, the overall agreement with measured wurtzite values remains poor. Chemical ordering along the [0001] direction in strained alloys is found to decrease the band gaps considerably, yielding much improved agreement with measurements. They discuss their results with regard to current theories concerning the optical properties of wurtzite InGaN alloys.
Date: July 17, 2000
Creator: Wright, Alan F. & van Schilfgaarde, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High rate dry etching of GaN, AlN and InN in ECR Cl{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar plasmas

Description: Etch rates for binary nitrides in ECR Cl{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar are reported as a function of temperature, rf-bias, microwave power, pressure and relative gas proportions. GaN etch rates remain relatively constant from 30 to 125{degrees}C and then increase to a maximum of 2340 {angstrom}-min{sup {minus}1} at 170{degrees}C. The AlN etch rate decreases throughout the temperature range studied with a maximum of 960 {angstrom}-min{sup {minus}1} at 30{degrees}C. When CH{sub 4} is removed from the plasma chemistry, the GaN and InN etch rates are slightly lower, with less dramatic changes with temperature. The surface composition of the III-V nitrides remains unchanged over the temperatures studied. The GaN and InN rates increase significantly with rf power, and the fastest rates for all three binaries are obtained at 2 mTorr. Surface morphology is smooth for GaN over a wide range of conditions, whereas InN surfaces are more sensitive to plasma parameters.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Vartuli, C.B.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Shul, R.J.; Kilcoyne, S.P.; Crawford, M.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical spectroscopy of InGaN epilayers in the low indium composition regime

Description: Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was carried out on a series of Si-doped bulk InGaN films in the low indium (In) composition regime. Room temperature PL showed a factor of 25 increase in integrated intensity as the In composition was increased from 0 to 0.07. Temperature dependent PL data was fit to an Arrhenius equation to reveal an increasing activation energy for thermal quenching of the PL intensity as the In composition is increased. Time resolved PL measurements revealed that only the sample with highest In (x = 0.07) showed a strong spectral variation in decay time across the T=4K PL resonance, indicative of recombination from localized states at low temperatures. The decay times at room temperature were non-radiatively dominated for all films, and the room temperature (non-radiative) decay times increased with increasing In, from 50--230 psec for x = 0--0.07. The data demonstrate that non-radiative recombination is less effective with increasing In composition.
Date: January 10, 2000
Creator: Crawford, M.H.; Han, J.; Banas, M.A.; Myers, S.M. Jr.; Petersen, G.A. & Figiel, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and performance of nitride-based ultraviolet (UV) LEDs

Description: The authors overview several of the challenges in achieving high efficiency nitride-based UV (< 400 nm) LEDs. The issue of optical efficiency is presented through temperature-dependent photoluminescence studies of various UV active regions. These studies demonstrate enhanced optical efficiencies for active regions with In-containing alloys (InGaN, AlInGaN). The authors compare the performance of two distinct UV LED structures. GaN/AlGaN quantum well LEDs with {lambda} < 360 nm emission have demonstrated output powers > 0.1 mW, but present designs suffer from internal absorption effects. InGaN/AlInGaN quantum well LEDs with 370 nm < {lambda} < 390 nm emission and > 1 mW output power are also presented.
Date: April 24, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laser Gain and Threshold Properties in Compressive-Strained and Lattice-Matched GaInNAs/GaAs Quantum Wells

Description: The optical gain spectra for compressive-strained and lattice-matched GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells are computed using a microscopic laser theory. From these spectra, the peak gain and carrier radiative decay rate as functions of carrier density are determined. These dependences allow the study of lasing threshold current density for different GAInNAs/GaAs laser structures.
Date: August 4, 1999
Creator: Chow, W.W.; Jones, E.D.; Modine, N.A.; Allerman, A.A. & Kurtz, S.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dopants and Defects in InN and InGaN Alloys

Description: We have performed systematic studies of the effects of high-energy particle irradiation on the properties of InGaN alloys. In agreement with the amphoteric defect model, irradiation of InN produces donor-like defects. The electron concentration increases with increasing radiation dose and saturates at 4 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} at very high doses. We find that the increase of the electron concentration causes a large blue-shift of the absorption edge, which is well-explained by the Burstein-Moss effect. The maximum electron concentration decreases with increasing Ga fraction in irradiated In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N alloys as the conduction band edge approaches the Fermi level stabilization energy (E{sub FS}). For x > 0.66 the conduction band edge moves above E{sub FS} and the irradiation of n-type films produces acceptor-like defects, resulting in a reduced free electron concentration. An analysis of the concentration dependence of the electron mobility in InN indicates that the dominant defects in irradiated InN are triply-charged donors. Finally, we show that InN films doped with Mg acceptors behave like undoped films above a threshold radiation dose.
Date: April 1, 2005
Creator: Walukiewicz, W.; Jones, R.E.; Li, S.X.; Yu, K.M.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deep Level Defect Studies in MOCVD-Grown In(x)Ga(1-x)As(1-y)N(y) Films Lattice-Matched to GaAs

Description: Deep level defects in MOCVD-grown, unintentionally doped p-type InGaAsN films lattice matched to GaAs were investigated using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements. As-grown p-InGaAsN showed broad DLTS spectra suggesting that there exists a broad distribution of defect states within the band-gap. Moreover, the trap densities exceeded 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3}. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements showed no evidence for threading dislocations within the TEM resolution limit of 10{sup 7} cm{sup {minus}2}. A set of samples was annealed after growth for 1800 seconds at 650 C to investigate the thermal stability of the traps. The DLTS spectra of the annealed samples simplified considerably, revealing three distinct hole trap levels with energy levels of 0.10 eV, 0.23 eV, and 0.48 eV above the valence band edge with trap concentrations of 3.5 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}3}, 3.8 x 10{sup 14} cm {sup {minus}3}, and 8.2 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}3}, respectively. Comparison of as-grown and annealed DLTS spectra showed that post-growth annealing effectively reduced the total trap concentration by an order of magnitude across the bandgap. However, the concentration of a trap with an energy level of 0.48 eV was not affected by annealing indicating a higher thermal stability for this trap as compared with the overall distribution of shallow and deep traps.
Date: March 4, 1999
Creator: Allerman, A.A.; Boeckl, J.J.; Jones, E.D.; Kaplar, R.J.; Kurtz, S.R.; Kwon, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deep Levels in p-Type InGaAsN Lattice Matched to GaAs

Description: Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were utilized to investigate deep level defects in metal-organic chemical deposition (MOCVD)-grown unintentionally doped p-type InGaAsN films lattice matched to GaAs. The as-grown material displayed a high concentration of deep levels distributed within the bandgap, with a dominant hole trap at E{sub v} + 0.10 eV. Post-growth annealing simplified the deep level spectra, enabling the identification of three distinct hole traps at 0.10 eV, 0.23 eV, and 0.48 eV above the valence band edge, with concentrations of 3.5 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}3}, 3.8 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}3}, and 8.2 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}3}, respectively. A direct comparison between the as-grown and annealed spectra revealed the presence of an additional midgap hole trap, with a concentration of 4 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}3} in the as-grown material. The concentration of this trap is sharply reduced by annealing, which correlates with improved material quality and minority carrier properties after annealing. Of the four hole traps detected, only the 0.48 eV level is not influenced by annealing, suggesting this level may be important for processed InGaAsN devices in the future.
Date: March 2, 1999
Creator: Allerman, A.A.; Jones, E.D.; Kaplar, R.J.; Kurtz, S.R.; Kwon, D. & Ringel, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical investigation of extended defects in group-III nitrides

Description: The authors have investigated two types of extended defects commonly found in AlN, GaN and InN films using density-functional techniques. First, basal-plane stacking faults have been studied for all three compounds. Stacking-fault energies were found to be largest in AlN and smallest in GaN consistent with density-functional results for their wurtzite/zinc-blende energy differences. In addition, the 4H and 6H structures were found to have lower energies than zinc blende for all three compounds. Secondly, the authors have investigated the electronic structure and formation energy for an edge dislocation in AlN. The full-core dislocation structure was found to have a filled electronic level approximately 0.55 eV above the valence-band edge and an empty level 1.4 eV below the conduction-band edge. An open-core structure was found to have filled and empty electronic levels closer to the middle of the energy gap. Formation energies for these two geometries suggest that the full-core structure would be expected to form in p-type material whereas both are expected in n-type material.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Wright, A. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department