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Characterizing Composition Modulations in InAs/AIAs Short-Period Superlattices

Description: The formation of quantum wires has much interest due to their novel electronic properties which may lead to enhanced optoelectronic device performance and greater photovoltaic efficiencies. One method of forming these structures is through spontaneous lateral modulation found during the epitaxial growth of III/V alloys. In this paper, we report and summarize our investigations on the formation of lateral moduation in the MBE grown InAlAs/InP(001) system. This system was grown as a short-period superlattice where n-monolayers of InAs are deposited followed by m-Monolayers of AlAs (with n and m~2) and this sequence is repeated to grown a low strain InAlAs ternary alloy on InP(001) that exhibits lateral modulation. Films were grown under a variety of condition (growth temperature, effective alloy composition, superlattice period, and growth rate). These films have been extensively analyzed using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and microcharacterization, in addition to photon-based spectroscopes. Here we present results of several microstructural characterizations using a wide range of TEM-based techniques, and compare them to results from the other methods to obtain a unified understanding of composition modulation. Two strong points consistently emerge: 1) The lateral modulation wavelength is insensitive to growth temperature and effective alloy composition, but the strength of the lateral modulation is greatest near an effective alloy composition of In(0.46)Al(0.54)As, which corresponds to a slightly tensile global strain with respect to InP. 2) The composition variation for the strongly modulated films is as much as 0.38 InAs mole fraction. In addition, for these strongly modulated films, the modulation wave is asymmetric showing strongly peaked, narrower InAs-rich regions separated by flat AlAs-rich regions. We discuss these results and their possible implications in addition to detailing the techniques used to obtain them.
Date: April 26, 1999
Creator: Ahrenkiel, S.P.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Jones, E.D.; Lee, S.R.; Mascarenhas, A.; Millunchick, J. Mirecki et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vibrational and electronic transition in InAs quantum dots formed by sequential implantation of In and As in a-SiO[sub 2]

Description: Optical, structural, and thermodynamic properties of materials can be changed by reducing their dimensions. We sequentially implanted In and As into fused silica windows in order to investigate formation and properties of InAs nano-particles. UV/VIS/NIR, FTIR in mid-IR, and far-IR spectroscopy were used to study change in electronic transitions and in vibrational modes (phonons) of the nano-particles InAs. The phonons can be confined to the surface of nano-particles and have frequencies falling between the transverse and longitudinal optical modes of the bulk material. Thermal annealing developed the formation of InAs quantum dots from as-implanted In-As system. At certain annealing temperature a change in UV/VIS transmission spectra and IR reflectance spectra indicated formation of InAs quantum dots. This is particularly evident from the absorption in IR and surface phonon bands are observed, confirming presence of quantum confined InAs.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Ueda, A.; Henderson, D.O.; Mu, R.; Tung, Y.S.; Hall, C.; Zhu, J.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microstructure of compositionally modulated InAlAs

Description: The authors have observed spontaneous, lateral composition modulation in tensile InAlAs alloy films grown as short-period superlattices on InP (001). They have analyzed these films using transmission electron microscopy, x-ray reciprocal space mapping, and polarized photoluminescence spectroscopy. They find the growth front is nonplanar, exhibiting {approximately} 2 nm deep cusps aligned with the In-rich regions of the compositionally modulated films. In addition to the measured 15 nm wavelength modulation in the [110] direction, a modulation of 30 nm wavelength is seen in the orthogonal [1{bar 1}0] direction. The photoluminescence from the modulated layer is strongly polarized and red shifted by 0.22 eV.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Twesten, R.D.; Millunchick, J.M.; Lee, S.R.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Jones, E.D.; Ahrenkiel, S.P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spontaneous lateral composition modulation in InAlAs and InGaAs short-period superlattices

Description: The microstructure of spontaneous lateral composition modulation along the [110] direction has been studied in (InAs){sub n}/(AlAs){sub m} short-period superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (001) InP. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy show that global strain ({var_epsilon}) in the superlattice reduces the degree of composition modulation, which disappears for the absolute value of {var_epsilon} > 0.7%. For tensile strains of {var_epsilon} {approx} +0.4%, they find that In-rich columns become regularly spaced and correlated with cusps in the growth surface. A similar correlation is seen in (InAs){sub n}/(GaAs){sub m} short-period superlattices between the enriched columns and the peaks and valleys of {l_brace}114{r_brace}{sub A} facets on the surface. The enriched columns in the (InAs){sub n}/(GaAs){sub m} layer (and the facets) extend for much longer distances ({approximately}0.2--0.4 {micro}m) in the [1{bar 1}0] direction than do the columns in the (InAs){sub n}/(AlAs){sub m} layer ({approximately} 56 nm).
Date: July 11, 1997
Creator: Follstaedt, D.M.; Twesten, R.D.; Millunchick, J.M.; Lee, S.R.; Jones, E.D.; Ahrenkiel, S.P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The growth of mid-infrared emitting InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattices using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

Description: We describe the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition os InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattice (SLS) active regions for use in mid-infrared emitters. These SLSs were grown at 500 {degrees}C, and 200 torr in a horizontal quartz reactor using trimethylindium, triethylantimony, AsH{sub 3}, and PH{sub 3}. By changing the layer thickness and composition we have prepared structures with low temperature ({le}20K) photoluminescence wavelengths ranging from 3.2 to 5.0 {mu}m. Excellent performance was observed for an SLS light emitting diode (LED) and both optically pumped and electrically injected SLS layers. An InAsSb/InAsP SLS injection laser emitted at 3.3 {mu}m at 80 K with peak power of 100 mW.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Biefeld, R.M.; Allerman, A.A.; Kurtz, S.R. & Burkhart, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detection of lateral composition modulation by magnetoexciton spectroscopy

Description: An experimental signature for detecting spontaneous lateral composition modulation in a (InAs){sub n}/(GaAs){sub m} short period superlattice on an InP substrate based on magnetoexciton spectroscopy described. The authors find by aligning the magnetic field in three crystallographic directions, one parallel to and the other two perpendicular to the composition modulation direction, that the magnetoexciton shifts are anisotropic and are a good indicator for the presence of composition modulation.
Date: July 10, 1997
Creator: Jones, E.D.; Millunchick, J.M.; Follstaedt, D.; Lee, S.; Reno, J.; Twesten, R.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical Properties of InGaAsN: A New 1eV Bandgap Material System

Description: InGaAsN is a new semiconductor alloy system with the remarkable property that the inclusion of only 2% nitrogen reduces the bandgap by more than 30%. In order to help understand the physical origin of this extreme deviation from the typically observed nearly linear dependence of alloy properties on concentration, we have investigated the pressure dependence of the excited state energies using both experimental and theoretical methods. We report measurements of the low temperature photohnninescence energy of the material for pressures between ambient and 110 kbar. We describe a simple, density-functional-theory-based approach to calculating the pressure dependence of low lying excitation energies for low concentration alloys. The theoretically predicted pressure dependence of the bandgap is in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Based on the results of our calculations, we suggest an explanation for the strongly non-linear pressure dependence of the bandgap that, surprisingly, does not involve a nitrogen impurity band. Addhionally, conduction-band mass measurements, measured by three different techniques, will be described and finally, the magnetoluminescence determined pressure coefficient for the conduction-band mass is measured.
Date: January 25, 1999
Creator: Allerman, A.A.; Fritz, I.J.; Jones, E.D.; Kurtz, S.R.; Modine, N.A.; Tozer, S.T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of cyclotron resonance and magneto-photoluminescence of n-type modulation doped InGaAs quantum well layers and their characterizations

Description: Two-dimensional natures of energy-band and the effective mass of conduction subband in narrow InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well layers have been clarified via magneto-photoluminescence, cyclotron resonance, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and quantum Hall effect, interband optical transmittance, and photoluminescence. Heavy effective masses of 0.07m{sub 0} were determined in 5- and 10-nm-wide quantum wells, which were 70% larger than the bulk bandedge mass, 0.041m{sub 0}. Sheet carrier concentration in the quantum wells was as high as 1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}2}.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Kotera, N.; Tanaka, K. & Jones, E.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-performance, lattice-mismatched InGaAs/InP monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs)

Description: High performance, lattice-mismatched p/n InGaAs/lnP monolithic interconnected module (MIM) structures were developed for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications. A MIM device consists of several individual InGaAs photovoltaic (PV) cells series-connected on a single semi-insulating (S.I.) InP substrate. Both interdigitated and conventional (i.e., non-interdigitated) MIMs were fabricated. The energy bandgap (Eg) for these devices was 0.60 eV. A compositionally step-graded InPAs buffer was used to accommodate a lattice mismatch of 1.1% between the active InGaAs cell structure and the InP substrate. 1x1-cm, 15-cell, 0.60-eV MIMs demonstrated an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 5.2 V (347 mV per cell) and a fill factor of 68.6% at a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 2.0 A/cm{sup 2}, under flashlamp testing. The reverse saturation current density (Jo) was 1.6x10{sup {minus}6} A/cm{sup 2}. Jo values as low as 4.1x10{sup {minus}7} A/cm{sup 2} were also observed with a conventional planar cell geometry.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Fatemi, Navid S.; Wilt, David M.; Hoffman, Richard W., Jr.; Stan, Mark S.; Weizer, Victor G.; Jenkins, Phillip P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Generation of THz Radiation by Excitation of InAs with a Free Electron Laser

Description: Terahertz (THz) radiation is generated by exciting an un-doped InAs wafer with a femtosecond free-electron laser (FEL) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. A microwatt level of THz radiation is detected from the unbiased InAs emitter when it is excited with the femtosecond FEL pulses operated at a wavelength of 1.06 {mu}-m and 10 W average power.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Tani, Mashiko; Kono, Shunsuke; Gu, Ping; Sakai, Kiyomi; Usami, Mamoru; Shinn, Michelle D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Antimonide-Based Long-Wavelength Lasers on GaAs Substrates

Description: We have investigated the use of GaAsSb in edge-emitting laser active regions, in order to obtain lasing near 1.3 {micro}m. Single quantum well GaAsSb devices display electroluminescence at wavelengths as long as 1.34 {micro}m, but substantial blueshifts occur under high injection conditions. GaAsSb single quantum well edge emitters have been obtained which lase at 1.275 {micro}m with a room-temperature threshold current density as low as 535 A/cm{sup 2}. Modification of the basic GaAsSb/GaAs structure with the addition of InGaAs layers results in a strongly type-II band alignment which can be used to further extend the emission wavelength of these devices. Using GaAsSb/InGaAs active regions, lasers emitting at 1.17 {micro}m have been obtained with room-temperature threshold current densities of 120 A/cm{sup 2}, and devices operating at 1.29 {micro}m have displayed thresholds as low as 375 A/cm{sup 2}. Characteristic temperatures for devices employing various GaAsSb-based active regions have been measured to be 60-73 K.
Date: August 17, 2000
Creator: KLEM,JOHN F. & Blum, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Device characteristics of the PnP AlGaAs/InGaAsN/GaAs double heterojunction bipolar transistor

Description: The authors have demonstrated a functional PnP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) using AlGaAs, InGaAsN, and GaAs. The band alignment between InGaAsN and GaAs has a large {triangle}E{sub C} and a negligible {triangle}E{sub V}, and this unique characteristic is very suitable for PnP DHBT applications. The metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD) grown Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01}/GaAs PnP DHBT is lattice matched to GaAs and has a peak current gain of 25. Because of the smaller bandgap (Eg = 1.20 eV) of In{sub 0.03}Ga{sub 0.97}As{sub 0.99}N{sub 0.01} used for the base layer, this device has a low V{sub ON} of 0.79 V, which is 0.25 V lower than in a comparable Pnp AlGaAs/GaAs HBT. And because GaAs is used for the collector, its BV{sub CEO} is 12 V, consistent with BV{sub CEO} of AlGaAs/GaAs HBTs of comparable collector thickness and doping level.
Date: February 9, 2000
Creator: Chang, Ping-Chih; Li, N. Y.; Laroche, J. R.; Baca, Albert G.; Hou, H. Q. & Ren, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reciprocal-space and real-space analyses of compositional modulation in InAs/AlAs short-period superlattices

Description: The microstructure of lateral composition modulation in InAs/AlAs superlattices grown by MBE on InP is examined. The use of x-ray diffraction, TEM, AFM, and STEM to characterize the modulations is discussed. Combining the information from these techniques gives increased insight into the phenomenon and how to manipulate it. Diffraction measures the intensity of modulation and its wavelength, and is used to identify growth conditions giving strong modulation. The TEM and STEM analyses indicate that local compositions are modulated by as much as 0.38 InAs mole fraction. Plan-view images show that modulated structures consists of short ({approx_lt}0.2 {micro}m) In-rich wires with a 2D organization in a (001) growth plane. However, growth on miscut substrates can produce a single modulation along the miscut direction with much longer wires ({approx_gt}0.4 {micro}m), as desired for potential applications. Photoluminescence studies demonstrate that the modulation has large effects on the bandgap energy of the superlattice.
Date: January 25, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The nature and origin of lateral composition modulations in short-period strained-layer superlattices

Description: The nature and origin of lateral composition modulations in (AlAs){sub m}(InAs){sub n} SPSs grown by MBE on InP substrates have been investigated by XRD, AFM, and TEM. Strong modulations were observed for growth temperatures between {approx} 540 and 560 C. The maximum strength of modulations was found for SPS samples with InAs mole fraction x (=n/(n+m)) close to {approx} 0.50 and when n {approx} m {approx} 2. The modulations were suppressed at both high and low values of x. For x >0.52 (global compression) the modulations were along the <100> directions in the (001) growth plane. For x < 0.52 (global tension) the modulations were along the two <310> directions rotated {approx} {+-} 27{degree} from [110] in the growth plane. The remarkably constant wavelength of the modulations, between {approx} 20--30 nm, and the different modulation directions observed, suggest that the origin of the modulations is due to surface roughening associated with the high misfit between the individual SPS layers and the InP substrate. Highly uniform unidirectional modulations have been grown, by control of the InAs mole fraction and growth on suitably offcut substrates, which show great promise for application in device structures.
Date: January 27, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical properties of spontaneous lateral composition modulations in AlAs/InAs short-period superlattices

Description: The effect of lateral composition modulation, spontaneously generated during the epitaxial growth of a AlAs/InAs short-period superlattice, on the electronic band structure is investigated using photo-transmission and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Compared with uniform layers of similar average composition, the presence of the composition modulation considerably reduces the band gap energy and produces strongly polarized emission and absorption spectra. The authors demonstrate that the dominant polarization can selectively be aligned along the [{bar 1}10] or [010] crystallographic directions. In compressively strained samples, the use of (001) InP substrates slightly miscut toward [111]A or [101] resulted in modulation directions along [110] or [100], respectively, and dominant polarizations along a direction orthogonal to the respective composition modulation. Band gap reduction as high as 350 meV and 310 meV are obtained for samples with composition modulation along [110] and [100], respectively. Polarization ratios up to 26 are observed in transmission spectra.
Date: May 11, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spectral utilization in thermophotovoltaic devices

Description: Multilayer assemblies of epitaxially-grown, III-V semiconductor materials are being investigated for use in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion applications. It has been observed that thick, highly-doped semiconductor layers within cell architectures dominate the parasitic free-carrier absorption (FCA) of devices at wavelengths above the bandgap of the semiconductor material. In this work, the wavelength-dependent, free-carrier absorption of p- and n-type InGaAs layers grown epitaxially onto semi-insulating (SI) InP substrates has been measured and related to the total absorption of long-wavelength photons in thermophotovoltaic devices. The optical responses of the TPV cells are then used in the calculation of spectral utilization factors and device efficiencies.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Clevenger, M.B. & Murray, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photoluminescence Studies of Lateral Composition Modulated Short-Period AlAs/InAs Superlattices

Description: We present low temperature photoluminescence data for a series of spontaneous lateral composition modulation in (AlAs){sub m}/(InAs){sub n} short period superlattices on InP with differing average lattice constants, i.e., varying global strain. The low temperature photoluminescence peak energies were found to be much lower than the corresponding energy expected for the equivalent In{sub x}Al{sub 1{minus}x}As alloy. The bandgap energy reductions are found to approach 500 meV and this reduction is found to correlated with the strength of the composition modulation wave amplitude.
Date: January 4, 1999
Creator: Ahrenkiel, S.P.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Jones, E.D.; Lee, S.R.; Mascarenhas, A.; Mirecki Millunchick, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atomic scale interface structure of In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As/GaAs strained layers studied by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy

Description: A molecular beam epitaxy-grown In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As/GaAs strained layer structure has been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy in cross-section on the (110) cleavage plane perpendicular to [001] the growth direction. Individual indium atoms were differentially imaged in the group III sublattice, allowing, a direct observation of the interface roughness due to the indium compositional fluctuation. In the In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As layers, Indium atoms are found in clusters preferentially along the growth direction with each cluster containing 2--3 indium atoms. Indium segregation induced asymmetrical interface broadening is studied on an atomic scale. The interface of In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As grown on GaAs is sharp within 2--4 atomic layers. The interface of GaAs grown on In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As is found to be broadened to about 5--10 atomic layers. The atomic scale fluctuation due to indium distribution is about 20 {angstrom} alone the interface in this case. The authors conclude that clustering and segregation are the main reason for the In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As/GaAs interface roughness.
Date: November 1, 1993
Creator: Zheng, J.F.; Weber, E.R. & Salmeron, M.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defect studies in thin film III-V thin film semiconductors. Progress report, September 1986--May 1987

Description: Progress is reported on the following: defect formation at the InGaAs/GaAs interface as a function of the misfit parameter, layer thickness, and starting substrate dislocation density; and epitaxial growth on very small islands to verify theoretical predictions of critical layer thickness as a function of area.
Date: May 1, 1987
Creator: Ast, D.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department