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Radiation-induced segregation in alloy X-750

Description: Microstructural and microchemical evolution of an Alloy X-750 heat under neutron irradiation was studied in order to understand the origin of irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking. Both clustering of point defects and radiation-induced segregation at interfaces were observed. Although no significant changes in the precipitate structure were observed, boundaries exhibited additional depletion of Cr and Fe and enrichment of Ni.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Kenik, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microstructural dependence of cavitation damage in polycrystalline materials. Final report, 1 November 1992--31 October 1994

Description: Microstructure of a sample of Inconel X-750 damaged by ISCC (intergranular stress corrosion cracking) was examined after fatigue precracking in a high-temperature environment of deaerated water. Orientation imaging microscopy was used to reveal the microstructure adjacent to the crack path. General high-angle boundaries were found to be most susceptible to cracking. An ordering of the susceptibilities to ISCC damage was proposed; all boundaries have been classified into one of 12 categories. A model is proposed to predict the crack path for ISCC based on ex situ record of damage probabilities. The cracking is modeled as a Markov chain on a regular hexagonal array of grain boundaries representing the connectivity of the network.
Date: February 5, 1996
Creator: Adams, B.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen embrittlement, grain boundary segregation, and stress corrosion cracking of alloy X-750 in low- and high-temperature water

Description: The nature of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of alloy X-750 was characterized in low- and high-temperature water by testing as-notched and precracked fracture mechanics specimens. Materials given the AH, BH, and HTH heat treatments were studied. While all heat treatments were susceptible to rapid low-temperature crack propagation (LTCP) below 150 C, conditions AH and BH were particularly susceptible. Low-temperature tests under various loading conditions (e.g., constant displacement, constant load, and increasing load) revealed that the maximum stress intensity factors (K{sub P{sub max}}) from conventional rising load tests provide conservative estimates of the critical loading conditions in highly susceptible heats, regardless of the load path history. For resistant heats, K{sub P{sub max}} provides a reasonable, but not necessarily conservative, estimate of the critical stress intensity factor for LTCP. Testing of as-notched specimens showed that LTCP will not initiate at a smooth surface or notch, but will readily occur if a cracklike defect is present. Comparison of the cracking response in water with that for hydrogen-precharged specimens tested in air demonstrated that LTCP is associated with hydrogen embrittlement of grain boundaries. The stress corrosion crack initiation and growth does occur in high-temperature water (>250 C), but crack growth rates are orders of magnitude lower than LTCP rates. The SCC resistance of HTH heats is far superior to that of AH heats as crack initiation times are two to three orders of magnitude greater and growth rates are one to two orders of magnitude lower.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Mills, W. J.; Lebo, M. R. & Kearns, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of HTH Alloy X-750 and Alloy 625

Description: In-reactor testing of bolt-loaded compact tension specimens was performed in 360 C water. New data confirms previous results that high irradiation levels reduce SCC resistance in Alloy X-750. Low boron heats show improved IASCC (irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking). Alloy 625 is resistant to IASCC. Microstructural, microchemical, and deformation studies were carried out. Irradiation of X-750 caused significant strengthening and ductility loss associated with formation of cavities and dislocation loops. High irradiation did not cause segregation in X-750. Irradiation of 625 resulted in formation of small dislocation loops and a fine body-centered-orthorhombic phase. The strengthening due to loops and precipitates was apparently offset in 625 by partial dissolution of {gamma} precipitates. Transmutation of boron to helium at grain boundaries, coupled with matrix strengthening, is believed to be responsible for IASCC in X-750, and the absence of these two effects results in superior IASCC resistance in 625.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Bajaj, R.; Mills, W.J.; Lebo, M.R.; Hyatt, B.Z. & Burke, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fatigue acceptance test limit criterion for larger diameter rolled thread fasteners

Description: This document describes a fatigue lifetime acceptance test criterion by which studs having rolled threads, larger than 1.0 inches in diameter, can be assured to meet minimum quality attributes associated with a controlled rolling process. This criterion is derived from a stress dependent, room temperature air fatigue database for test studs having a 0.625 inch diameter threads of Alloys X-750 HTH and direct aged 625. Anticipated fatigue lives of larger threads are based on thread root elastic stress concentration factors which increase with increasing thread diameters. Over the thread size range of interest, a 30% increase in notch stress is equivalent to a factor of five (5X) reduction in fatigue life. The resulting diameter dependent fatigue acceptance criterion is normalized to the aerospace rolled thread acceptance standards for a 1.0 inch diameter, 0.125 inch pitch, Unified National thread with a controlled Root radius (UNR). Testing was conducted at a stress of 50% of the minimum specified material ultimate strength, 80 Ksi, and at a stress ratio (R) of 0.10. Limited test data for fastener diameters of 1.00 to 2.25 inches are compared to the acceptance criterion. Sensitivity of fatigue life of threads to test nut geometry variables was also shown to be dependent on notch stress conditions. Bearing surface concavity of the compression nuts and thread flank contact mismatch conditions can significantly affect the fastener fatigue life. Without improved controls these conditions could potentially provide misleading acceptance data. Alternate test nut geometry features are described and implemented in the rolled thread stud specification, MIL-DTL-24789(SH), to mitigate the potential effects on fatigue acceptance data.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Kephart, A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of counterface on the tribological performance of a high temperature solid lubricant composite from 25 to 650{degree}C

Description: The effect of counterface selection on the tribological performance of a Ag/BaF{sub 2}-CaF{sub 2} containing composite coating is studied. Ceramic (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and metal (Inconel X-750) pins are slid against PS300 (a metal bonded chrome oxide coating with Ag and BaF{sub 2}/CaF{sub 2} lubricant additives) in a pin-on-disk tribometer at 25, 500 and 650 C. Compared to the ceramic counterface, the metal counterface generally exhibited lower friction and wear at 25 C but higher friction and wear at 650 C. Friction coefficients, for example, for the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PS300 combination at 25 C were 0.64 compared to 0.23 for the Inconel/PS300 sliding couple. At 650 C the ranking was reversed. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PS300 combination gave a friction coefficient of 0.19 while the friction for the metal counterface increased slightly to about 0.3. Based upon these tribological results and other information found in the literature, it appears that the performance of each counterface/PS300 combination is affected by the ability of the solid lubricant additives to form an adequate transfer film. The effects of surface wettability and tribological compatibility are discussed in relation to the observed tribological results.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: DellaCorte, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of soluble zinc additions on the SCC performance of nickel alloys in deaerated hydrogenated water

Description: Stress corrosion crack growth rates (SCCGR) of alloy 600, EN82H and X-750 were measured in deaerated hydrogenated water to determine if soluble zinc mitigates SCCGR. Constant load compact tension specimen tests were conducted. Two test strategies were used to discern a possible zinc effect. The first strategy employed separate SCCGR tests in zinc and non-zinc environments and compared the resulting crack growth rates. The second strategy varied zinc levels at the midterm of single specimen SCCGR tests and characterized the resulting crack growth rate effect through an electrical potential drop in-situ crack monitor. Results from the direct comparison and midterm changing chemistry tests did not discern a zinc influence; any apparent zinc influence is within test to test variability ({approximately}1.5{times} change in crack growth rate). AEM, AUGER and ESCA crack tip fracture surface studies identified that zinc was not incorporated within crack tip oxides. These studies identified nickel rich crack tip oxides and spinel, with incorporated zinc, ({approximately}5 atom percent) bulk surface oxides.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Morton, D.S.; Thompson, C.D.; Gladding, D. & Schurman, M.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermally activated dislocation creep model for primary water stress corrosion cracking of NiCrFe alloys

Description: There is a growing awareness that awareness that environmentally assisted creep plays an important role in integranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of NiCrFe alloys in the primary coolant water environment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The expected creep mechanism is the thermally activated glide of dislocations. This mode of deformation is favored by the relatively low temperature of PWR operation combined with the large residual stresses that are most often identified as responsible for the SCC failure of plant components. Stress corrosion crack growth rate (CGR) equations that properly reflect the influence of this mechanism of crack tip deformation are required for accurate component life predictions. A phenomenological IGSCC-CGR model, which is based on an apriori assumption that the IGSCC-CGR is controlled by a low temperature dislocation creep mechanism, is developed in this report. Obstacles to dislocation creep include solute atoms such as carbon, which increase the lattice friction force, and forest dislocations, which can be introduced by cold prestrain. Dislocation creep also may be environmentally assisted due to hydrogen absorption at the crack tip. The IGSCC-CGR model developed here is based on an assumption that crack growth occurs by repeated fracture events occurring within an advancing crack-tip creep-fracture zone. Thermal activation parameters for stress corrosion cracking are obtained by fitting the CGR model to IGSCC-CGR data obtained on NiCrFe alloys, Alloy X-750 and Alloy 600. These IGSCC-CGR activation parameters are compared to activation parameters obtained from creep and stress relaxation tests. Recently reported CGR data, which exhibit an activation energy that depends on yield stress and the applied stress intensity factor, are used to benchmark the model. Finally, the effects of matrix carbon concentration, grain boundary carbides and absorbed hydrogen concentration are discussed within context of the model.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Hall, M.M., Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Doublet III limiter performance and implications for mechanical design and material selection for future limiters

Description: The plasma limiter system for Doublet III is described. Initially, high-Z materials, Ta-10W for the primary limiter and Mo for the backup limiters, were selected as the most attractive metallic candidates from the standpoint of thermal and structural properties. For the purpose of evaluating the effect of material Z on plasma performance, the nonmagnetic, Ni-base alloy Inconel X-750 was selected for a medium-Z limiter material. Graphite, a low-Z material, will likely be the next limiter material for evaluation. Design and material selection criteria for the different Z ranges are presented. The performance of the high-Z limiters in Doublet III is reviewed for an operation period that included approximately 5000 plasma shots. Changes in surface appearance and metallurgical changes are characterized. Discussion is presented on how and to what extent the high-Z elements affected the performance of the plasma based on theory and measurements in Doublet III. The fabrication processes for the Inconel X-750 limiters are summarized, and, last, observations on early performance of the Inconel limiters are described. (MOW)
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Sabado, M.M.; Marcus, F.B.; Trester, P.W. & Wesley, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The EBR-II materials-surveillance program. 4: Results of SURV-4 and SURV-6

Description: In March of 1965, a set of surveillance (SURV) samples was placed in the EBR-II reactor to determine the effect of irradiation, thermal aging, and sodium corrosion on reactor materials. Eight subassemblies were placed into row 12 positions of EBR-II to determine the effect of irradiation at 370 C. Two subassemblies were placed into the primary sodium basket to determine the effect of thermal aging at 370 C. For both the irradiated and thermally aged samples, one half of all samples were exposed to primary system sodium while one half were sealed in capsules with a helium atmosphere. Fifteen different structural materials were tested in the SURV program. In addition to the fifteen types of metal samples, graphite blocks were irradiated in the SURV subassemblies to determine the effect of irradiation on the graphite neutron shield. In this report, the properties of these materials irradiated at 370 C to a total fluence of 2.2 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (over 2,994 days) are compared with those of similar specimens thermally aged at 370 C for 2,994 days in the storage basket of the reactor. The properties analyzed were weight, density, microstructure, hardness, tensile and yield strength, impact strength, and creep.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Ruther, W.E.; Hayner, G.O.; Carlson, B.G.; Ebersole, E.R. & Allen, T.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method for fabricating a seal between a ceramic and a metal alloy

Description: A method of fabricating a seal between a ceramic and an alloy comprising the steps of prefiring the alloy in an atmosphere with a very low partial pressure of oxygen, firing the assembled alloy and ceramic in air, and gradually cooling the fired assembly to avoid the formation of thermal stress in the ceramic. The method forms a bond between the alloy and the ceramic capable of withstanding the environment of a pressurized water reactor and suitable for use in an electrical conductivity sensitive liquid level transducer.
Date: July 24, 1981
Creator: Kelsey, P.V. Jr. & Siegel, W.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal stress analysis and the effect of temperature dependence of material properties on Doublet III limiter design

Description: Temperature and thermal stress parametric design curves are presented for two materials selected for Doublet III primary limiter applications. INC X-750 is a candidate for the medium Z limiter design and ATJ graphite for the low Z design. The dependence of significant material properties on temperature is shown and the impact of this behavior on the decision to actively or passively cool the limiter is discussed. (MOW)
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: McKelvey, T.E.; Koniges, A.E.; Marcus, F.; Sabado, M. & Smith, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Changes in near-surface microstructure of metallic limiters following one year of service in Doublet III

Description: The structural alloys Ta-10W, Mo, and Inconel X-750 were used for plasma limiters during the 3-MW ohmic heating experiments of the Doublet III tokamak. Post-service examinations of these limiters are reviewed. Near-surface melting, cracking, and microstructural changes are shown and discussed. During III service, elements from other metallic components were transported by the plasma and deposited on the limiter surface; significantly, high concentrations of Ni, Fe, Mo, and C were detected in the regions found to be microcracked in the Ta-10W. Observations and analyses are made that are relevant to the design of limiter and armor components for larger tokamaks.
Date: August 1, 1981
Creator: Trester, P.W.; Sevier, D.L. & Sabado, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen isotope exchange and conditioning in graphite limiters used in TFTR

Description: Isotopic exchange experiments performed in TFTR are used to examine the outgassing and diffusive properties of graphite used as the plasma limiter. Changeover from hydrogen to deuterium for different periods ranges from approx.600 to 60 plasma discharges, which appears to be correlated to the limiter temperature. We present a simple analytical model that predicts a fast transient (approx.10 plasma discharges) changeover where the deuterium fueling dilutes the adsorbed and near-surface hydrogen, and a slowly changing term where bulk hydrogen diffuses to the surface. Using this model we can extract an activation energy for diffusion of 0.15 +- 0.02 eV. We hypothesize that interpore diffusion for this porous (approx.15%) material is consistent with our observations. 19 refs.
Date: February 1, 1986
Creator: LaMarche, P. H.; Dylla, H. F.; McCarthy, P. J. & Ulrickson, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of valve springs from hydrogen compressor at Solvent Refined Coal Plant, Wilsonville, Alabama

Description: Failure of hydrogen compressor valve springs at the Wilsonville, Alabama, Solvent Refined Coal Plant caused a total plant shutdown. Type 304 stainless steel springs had been substituted for two of three alloy X750 springs. Mainly because of their geometry, the type 304 stainless steel springs operated at a higher stress than the proper springs, and it is not surprising that they failed. The only as-fractured surface was on the alloy X750 spring. Edge damage caused by rubbing of the springs against neighboring parts may have played an important role in reducing the life of the springs.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: King, R.T.; Crouse, R.S.; Leslie, B.C.; Rose, E.T. & Houck, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of physical property data for several alloys. [Nitronic 33; copper C10400; copper C17510]

Description: This report summarizes an examination of physical property data available in the literature for six alloys of potential interest to the Toroidal Fusion Core Experiment in the Fusion Energy Program. The properties of thermal expansion, density, specific heat, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity were compiled for six alloys: Nitronic 33, a low-nickel, high manganese stainless steel; nickel-base Inconnel Alloys 625, 718, and X-750; and copper alloys C10400 and C17510. The temperatures of interest were 4-500 K for the Nitronic 33 and the Inconels, and 250-400 K for the copper alloys. Where data were lacking, estimates were made based on theory or comparisons with similar materials.
Date: August 1, 1985
Creator: Pawel, R.E. & Williams, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Barium silicate glass/Inconel X-750 interaction. [PWR]

Description: Water reactor safety programs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory have required the development of specialized instrumentation. An example is the electrical conductivity-sensitive liquid level transducer developed for use in pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) in which the operation of the sensing probe relies upon the passage of current through the water between the center pin of the electrode and its shell such that when water is present the resulting voltage is low, and conversely, when water is absent the voltage is high. The transducer's ceramic seal is a hot-pressed glass ceramic; its metal housing is Inconel X-750. The ceramic material provides an essential dielectric barrier between the center pin and the outer housing. The operation of the probe as well as the integrity of the PWR environment requires a hermetically-bonded seal between the ceramic and the metal. However, during testing, an increasing number of probe assemblies failed owing to poor glass-to-metal seals as well as void formation within the ceramic. Therefore, a program was initiated to characterize the metallic surface with respect to pre-oxidation treatment and determine optimum conditions for wetting and bonding of the metal by the glass to obtain baseline data relevant to production of acceptable transducer seals.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Kelsey, P.V. Jr.; Siegel, W.T. & Miley, D.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department