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A Guide to Describing the Income Distribution

Description: This report provides descriptive analysis of the U.S. income distribution to illustrate various concepts. First, it examines the complexities of income measurement and important definitional and data considerations to bear in mind when using and interpreting income statistics. Next, it describes two popular data sources used to study the U.S. income distribution, followed by sections on statistics commonly used to provide point-in-time analysis and to compare U.S. income across groups, time, and location. The report concludes with an explanation of the Gini index.
Date: February 5, 2015
Creator: Donovan, Sarah A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Examination of the Accounting Debate over the Determination of Business Income: 1945-1952

Description: George O. May's (1952) prescient statement that "if accounting had not already become, it was well on its way to becoming a political phenomenon" provides the motivation for this study. Changing socioeconomic relationships in the post-World War II period make it an ideal period to examine the politicalization of accounting. Keynesian economic policies justified active government intervention in the economy to manage demand and ensure full employment. No longer could it be assumed that competitive market forces would ensure that corporations produced goods and services at a socially optimal level or that income would be distributed equitably. Claims that accounting profit provides a measure of managerial efficiency are based on these premises. This dissertation examines the political dynamics of one particular accounting measurement debate--the debate over the determination of business income. Policies, such as wage/price controls, the excess profits tax, and the undistributed profits tax, brought the accounting income determination debate to center stage. The perseverance of the historic cost allocation model in the face of significant economic changes presents a fascinating glimpse of the important role accounting played in justifying continued reliance on the private property rights paradigm. I use retrodiction (reasoning from present to past) to examine why the historic cost allocation model has been so enduring. In my examination, I use personal correspondence, transcripts of Congressional hearings, published financial statements, and relevant journal articles. My analysis indicates that, while accountants empathized with managers who claimed that inflation distorted reported earnings and recognized that a serious measurement scale issue existed, they also recognized that abandonment of historic cost would not be politically feasible. If accountants had adopted a strongly partisan position that favored management with respect to bargaining with labor, this could have undermined the profession's claim to neutrality and opened the standard-setting process to closer political scrutiny. ...
Date: December 1996
Creator: Pence, Diana Kay
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Analysis of the “Buffett Rule”

Description: This report examines the Buffett rule, but uses a measure of income that captures the ability to pay taxes and incorporates the effect of the corporate income tax in addition to the individual income tax and the payroll tax. The Buffet rule states that "no household making over $1 million annually should pay a smaller share of its income in taxes than middle-class families pay" and is named after Warren Buffett, the chairman of Berkshire Hathaway. The report includes figures, tables, and appendices to illustrate calculations and issues involved with the topic.
Date: October 7, 2011
Creator: Hungerford, Thomas L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Challenge of Individual Income Tax Reform: An Economic Analysis of Tax Base Broadening

Description: Congressional interest in a major reform of the individual income tax that would broaden the base and use the additional tax revenues to lower rates and/or reduce the deficit has increased. This report discusses ways in which the tax base can be broadened, tax expenditures, and impediments to broadening the base/eliminating or reducing expenditures.
Date: March 22, 2012
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Hungerford, Thomas L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Foreign Tax Credit's Interest Allocation Rules

Description: This report discusses the foreign tax credit's interest allocation rules, which alleviate the double-taxation that would result if U.S. investors' overseas income were to be taxed by both the United States and a foreign country.
Date: August 20, 2008
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Marples, Donald J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Market for Retirement Annuities

Description: A retirement annuity allows an individual to purchase a regular payment stream from an insurance company to last his lifetime. Despite the ability of the product to eliminate the risk that a retiree will outlive his assets, few retirement annuities have been sold in the individual market. In addition, the number of individuals who annuitize their defined contribution retirement plan balances remains small. New products are emerging that would offer alternate annuity designs and make annuity prices more attractive. This report discusses legislation has been proposed in the 109th Congress that would enhance the tax treatment of annuities and encourage the growth of stand-alone annuity and combined annuity and long-term care products.
Date: May 18, 2006
Creator: Ranade, Neela K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Social Security Primer

Description: This report provides an overview of Social Security financing and benefits under current law. The report covers a brief history of the program; Social Security financing and the status of the trust funds; how Social Security benefits are computed; the types of Social Security benefits available to workers and their family members; the basic eligibility requirements for each type of benefit; the scheduled increase in the Social Security retirement age; and the federal income taxation of Social Security benefits.
Date: November 30, 2017
Creator: Nuschler, Dawn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Comparison of Permanent and Measured Income Inequality

Description: The degree of inequality present in the distribution of income may be measured with a gini coefficient. If the distribution is found to empirically fit a particular distribution function, then the gini coefficient may be derived from the mean value of income and the variation from the mean. For the purpose of this study, the Beta II distribution was used as the function which most closely approximates the actual distribution of income. The Beta II function provides the skewness which is normally found in an income distribution as well as fulfilling other required characteristics. The degree of inequality was approximated for the distribution of income from all sources and from ten separate components of income sources in constant (1973) dollars. Next, permanent income from all sources and from the ten component sources was estimated based upon actual income using the double exponential smoothing forecasting technique. The estimations of permanent income, which can be thought of as expected income, were used to derive measures of permanent income inequality. The degree of actual income inequality and the degree of permanent income inequality, both being represented by the hypothetical gini coefficient , were compared and tested for statistical differences. For the entire period under investigation, 1952 to 1979, the net effect was no statistically significant difference between permanent and actual income inequality, as was expected. However, significant differences were found in comparing year by year. Relating permanent income inequality to the underlying, structural inequality present in a given distribution, conclusions were drawn regarding the role of mobility in its ability to alter the actual distribution of income. The impact of business fluctuations on the distribution of permanent income relative to the distribution of actual income was studied in an effort to reach general conclusions. In general, cyclical upswings tend to reduce permanent inequality ...
Date: August 1986
Creator: McHargue, Susan L. (Susan Layne)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Past, Present, and Future of Income Bonds

Description: Why has the once fallen star of income bonds started to rise after spending over seventy years below the financial horizon? Is it because income bonds provide many of the advantages of debt financing with the non-fixed payments feature of equity financing? Could it be caused by the high yields they carry considering the risk involved? Is it the result of the large tax savings created in many cases? All of these questions are important. Eighteen years ago income bonds were one of the least respected and most disliked types of securities that a company could issue. Today they have a limited but growing use and an ever increasing acceptance. This study is an attempt to determine and give reasons for the development and use of income bonds in the past, present, and future. It traces the development of income bonds, explains the advantages and disadvantages associated with them, and prognosticates about their future.
Date: June 1966
Creator: Vesecky, Stephen Fenwick
Partner: UNT Libraries

Data on Multiemployer Defined Benefit (DB) Pension Plans

Description: This report provides data on multiemployer defined benefit (DB) plans categorized in several ways. First, the report categorizes the data based on plans' zone status in 2015. Next, it provides a year-by-year breakdown of the number of plans that are expected to become insolvent and the number of participants in those plans. Finally, the report provides information on the 25 largest multiemployer DB plans in 2015 (each plan has at least 75,000 participants).
Date: May 1, 2018
Creator: Topoleski, John J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Individual Income Tax Rates and Other Key Elements of the Federal Individual Income Tax: 1988 to 2017

Description: This report summarizes the tax brackets and other key elements of the individual income tax that help determine taxpayers' marginal and average effective tax rates going back to 1988. It is updated to reflect indexation adjustments and changes in tax law.
Date: February 12, 2018
Creator: Guenther, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Income and Poverty Among Older Americans in 2008

Description: This report describes the sources and amounts of income received by the 37.8 million Americans aged 65 and older who lived in non-institutional settings in 2008. The report also describes how the proportion of total income received from each source differs between high-income individuals and households and low-income individuals and households.
Date: October 2, 2009
Creator: Purcell, Patrick
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department