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Modeling Windows in Energy Plus with Simple Performance Indices

Description: The building energy simulation program, Energy Plus (E+), cannot use standard window performance indices (U, SHGC, VT) to model window energy impacts. Rather, E+ uses more accurate methods which require a physical description of the window. E+ needs to be able to accept U and SHGC indices as window descriptors because, often, these are all that is known about a window and because building codes, standards, and voluntary programs are developed using these terms. This paper outlines a procedure, developed for E+, which will allow it to use standard window performance indices to model window energy impacts. In this 'Block' model, a given U, SHGC, VT are mapped to the properties of a fictitious 'layer' in E+. For thermal conductance calculations, the 'Block' functions as a single solid layer. For solar optical calculations, the model begins by defining a solar transmittance (Ts) at normal incidence based on the SHGC. For properties at non-normal incidence angles, the 'Block' takes on the angular properties of multiple glazing layers; the number and type of layers defined by the U and SHGC. While this procedure is specific to E+, parts of it may have applicability to other window/building simulation programs.
Date: October 12, 2009
Creator: Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian & Griffith, Brent
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-induced Ground-surface Pressures Around a Single-Family House

Description: Wind induces a ground-surface pressure field around a building that can substantially affect the flow of soil gas and thereby the entry of radon and other soil-gas contaminants into the building. To quantify the effect of the wind-induced groundsurface pressure field on contaminant entry rates, the mean ground-surface pressure field was experimentally measured in a wind tunnel for several incidence angles of the wind, two atmospheric boundary layers, and two house geometries. The experimentally measured ground-surface pressure fields are compared with those predicted by a k-e turbulence model. Despite the fundamental limitations in applying a k-e model to a system with flow separation, predictions from the numerical simulations were good for the two wind incidence angles tested.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Riley, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J. & Nazaroff, W.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exact seismic velocities for VTI and HTI media and extendedThomsen Formulas for stronger anisotropies

Description: I explore a different type of approximation to the exactanisotropic wave velocities as a function of incidence angle invertically transversely isotropic (VTI) media. This method extends theThomsen weak anisotropy approach to stronger anisotropy withoutsignificantly affecting the simplicity of the formulas. One importantimprovement is that the peak of the quasi-SV-wave speed vsv(theta) islocated at the correct incidence angle theta= theta max, rather thanalways being at the position theta = 45o, which universally holds forThomsen's approximation although max theta = 45o is actually nevercorrect for any VTI anisotropic medium. The magnitudes of all the wavespeeds are also more closely approximated for all values of the incidenceangle. Furthermore, the value of theta max (which is needed in the newformulas) can be deduced from the same data that are typically used inthe weak anisotropy data analysis. The two examples presented are basedon systems having vertical fractures. The first set of model fractureshas their axes of symmetry randomly oriented in the horizontal plane.Such a system is then isotropic in the horizontal plane and, therefore,exhibits vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) symmetry. The second set offractures also has axes of symmetry in the horizontal plane, but it isassumed these axes are aligned so that the system exhibits horizontaltransverse isotropic (HTI) symmetry. Both types of systems are easilytreated with the new wave speed formulation.
Date: May 14, 2007
Creator: Berryman, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model-Based Estimation of Forest Canopy Height in Red and Austrian Pine Stands Using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and Ancillary Data: a Proof-of-Concept Study

Description: In this paper, accurate tree stand height retrieval is demonstrated using C-band Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) height and ancillary data. The tree height retrieval algorithm is based on modeling uniform tree stands with a single layer of randomly oriented vegetation particles. For such scattering media, the scattering phase center height, as measured by SRTM, is a function of tree height, incidence angle, and the extinction coefficient of the medium. The extinction coefficient for uniform tree stands is calculated as a function of tree height and density using allometric equations and a fractal tree model. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using SRTM and TOPSAR data for 15 red pine and Austrian pine stands (TOPSAR is an airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar). The algorithm yields root-mean-square (rms) errors of 2.5-3.6 m, which is a substantial improvement over the 6.8-8.3-m rms errors from the raw SRTM minus National Elevation Dataset Heights.
Date: April 6, 2007
Creator: Brown Jr., C G; Sarabandi, K & Pierce, L E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Searching for optimal mitigation geometries for laser resistant multilayer high reflector coatings

Description: Growing laser damage sites on multilayer high reflector coatings can limit mirror performance. One of the strategies to improve laser damage resistance is to replace the growing damage sites with pre-designed benign mitigation structures. By mitigating the weakest site on the optic, the large aperture mirror will have a laser resistance comparable to the intrinsic value of the multilayer coating. To determine the optimal mitigation geometry, the finite difference time domain method (FDTD) was used to quantify the electric-field intensification within the multilayer, at the presence of different conical pits. We find that the field intensification induced by the mitigation pit is strongly dependent on the polarization and the angle of incidence (AOI) of the incoming wave. Therefore the optimal mitigation conical pit geometry is application specific. Furthermore, our simulation also illustrates an alternative means to achieve an optimal mitigation structure by matching the cone angle of the structure with the AOI of the incoming wave, except for the p-polarization wave at a range of incident angles between 30{sup o} and 45{sup o}.
Date: February 11, 2011
Creator: Qiu, S R; Wolfe, J E; Monterrosa, A M; Feit, M D; Pistor, T V & STolz, C J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field experience with a new performance characterization procedure for photovoltaic arrays

Description: As photovoltaic systems become larger and more numerous, improved methods are needed for testing and modeling their performance. Test methods that successfully separate the interacting, time-of-day dependent influences of solar irradiance, operating temperature, solar spectrum, and solar angle-of-incidence have now been developed. These test methods have resulted in a new array performance model that is reasonably simple, yet accurately predicts performance for all operating conditions. This paper describes the new model, outdoor tests required to implement it, results of field tests for five arrays of different technologies, and the evolution of the model into a numerical tool for designing and sizing photovoltaic arrays based on annual energy production.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A. & Boyson, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grazing incidence neutron diffraction from large scale 2D structures

Description: The distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) is applied to evaluate the diffraction pattern of neutrons (or X-rays) from a 2D array of dots deposited onto a dissimilar substrate. With the radiation impinging on the surface at a grazing incidence angle {alpha}, the intensities diffracted both in and out the plane of specular reflection are calculated as a function of the periodicity of the array, height and diameter of the dots. The results are presented in the form of diffracted intensity contours in a plane with coordinates {alpha} and {alpha}{prime}, the latter being the glancing angle of scattering. The optimization of the experimental conditions for polarized neutron experiments on submicron dots is discussed. The feasibility of such measurements is confirmed by a test experiment.
Date: January 13, 2000
Creator: Toperverg, B. P.; Felcher, G. P.; Metlushko, V. V.; Leiner, V.; Siebrecht, R. & Nikonov, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S809 airfoil

Description: An S809 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3{times}5 subsonic wind tunnel (3{times}5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, and also with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was developed to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}20, to +40 {degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.4 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used; {plus_minus} 5.5{degrees} and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means the model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord. In general, the unsteady maximum lift coefficient was from 4% to 86% higher than the steady state maximum lift coefficient, and variation in the quarter chord pitching moment coefficient magnitude was from {minus}83% to 195% relative to steady state values at high angles of attack. These findings indicate the importance of considering the unsteady flow behavior occurring in wind turbine operation to obtain accurate load estimates.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Ramsay, R.F.; Hoffman, M.J. & Gregorek, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the LS(1)-0417MOD airfoil

Description: Horizontal axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics due to wind shear when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the calculations of rotor performance and loads. The rotors also experience performance degradation caused by surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can be used to validate analytical computer codes. An LS(l)-0417MOD airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3{times}5 subsonic wind tunnel (3{times}5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, as well as with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used, {plus_minus} 5.5%{degrees} and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions foil model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Janiszewska, J.M.; Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffman, M.J. & Gregorek, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Excimer Laser Treatment on the Surface Roughness and Fracture Strength of Alumina Substrates

Description: The microelectronics industry requires alumina substrates with exceptionally smooth surfaces and few surface defects to allow successful deposition of metallic films for reliable electronic performance. Irradiation by a 248-nm wavelength excimer laser beam (KrF) at a fluence of 125 mJ/mm{sup 2} and at various angles of incidence is shown to significantly reduce the surface roughness of alumina substrates. However, irradiation also creates a fine particulate deposit of alumina that only partially adheres to the substrate and impedes deposition of metal films. Annealing in air between 1350 C and 1450 C was found to remove the particles by sintering. As-received material showed surface roughness average (R{sub a}) mean values of 457 nm, which was reduced to 60 nm (mean) following irradiation and 71 nm (mean) following irradiation and annealing at 1350 C. Irradiation also produced a decrease in the number and severity of surface defects. The flexural strength and Weibull modulus were both increased by laser irradiation and thermal treatment. Flexural strength went from an as-received value of 450 MPa to 560 MPa following irradiation/sintering, measured at 10% probability of failure. The Weibull modulus was increased from the as-received value of about 9, to about 13 following irradiation/sintering. It was concluded that irradiation at an angle of incidence of 60{degree} from perpendicular was most effective in producing a low surface roughness.
Date: May 13, 1998
Creator: Smoot, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multilayer coatings of 10x projection for extreme-ultraviolet lithography

Description: Two new sets of projections optics for the prototype 10X reduction EUV lithography system were coated with Mo/Si multilayers. The coating thickness was graded across the optics by using shadow masks to ensure maximum throughput at all incidence angles in the camera. The overall deviation of the (normalized) wavelength response across the clear aperture of each mirror is below 0.01% RMS. However, the wavelength mismatch between two optics coated in different runs is up to 0.07 nm. Nevertheless, this is still within the allowed tolerances, and the predicted optical throughput loss in the camera due to such wavelength mismatch is about 4%. EUV reflectances of 63-65% were measured around 13.40 nm for the secondary optics, which is in good agreement with the expected reflectance based on the substrate finish as measured with AFM.
Date: March 9, 1999
Creator: Folta, J. A.; Montcalm, C/; Spiller, E. & Wedowski, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and modeling of 40 keV X-ray optics for Titan experiment

Description: In 2004 we designed and fabricated a 40 keV W/SiC multilayer coated mirrors with 2.0 nm period thickness that were tested at RAL (UK) in winter 2004/2005. The mirrors reflected from 35 to 70 keV (different grazing incidence angles) and showed high reflectivity. However, there was not enough beamtime at RAL to obtain quantitative results. Similar experiment will now be performed in Titan facility (LLNL). In this report we design and model multilayers with even shorter period than the ones used in 2004/2005 experiments. Our goal is to fabricate 1 nm period W/SiC multilayers with high reflectivity. This will enable operation at higher angle of grazing incidence and simplified the mounting fixture.
Date: June 22, 2006
Creator: Bajt, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Realizing thin electromagnetic absorbers for wide incidence angles from commercially available planar circuit materials

Description: In this study, recent work on engineering R-card surface resistivity with printed metallic patterns is extended to the design of thin electromagnetic absorbers. Thin electromagnetic absorbers for wide incidence angles and both polarizations have recently been computationally verified by Luukkonen et al.. These absorbers are analytically modeled high-impedance surfaces with capacitive arrays of square patches implemented with relatively high dielectric constant and high loss substrate. However, the advantages provided by the accurate analytical model are largely negated by the need to obtain high dielectric constant material with accurately engineered loss. Fig. I(c) illustrates full-wave computational results for an absorber without vias engineered as proposed by Luukkonen et al.. Unique values for the dielectric loss are required for different center frequencies. Parameters for the capacitive grid are D=5.0 mm and w=O.l mm for a center frequency of 3.36 GHz. The relative permittivity and thickness is 9.20(1-j0.234) and 1=3.048 mm. Consider a center frequency of5.81 GHz and again 1=3.048 mm, the required parameters for the capacitive grid are D=2.0 mm and w=0.2 mm where the required relative permittivity is now 9.20(1-j0.371) Admittedly, engineered dielectrics are themselves a historically interesting and fruitful research area which benefits today from advances in monolithic fabrication using direct-write of dielectrics with nanometer scale inclusions. However, our objective in the present study is to realize the advantages of the absorber proposed by Luukkonen et al. without resort to engineered lossy dielectrics. Specifically we are restricted to commercially available planer circuit materials without use of in-house direct-write technology or materials engineering capability. The materials considered here are TMM 10 laminate with (35 {mu}lm copper cladding with a complex permittivity 9.20-j0.0022) and Ohmegaply resistor conductor material (maximum 250 {Omega}/sq.). A thin electromagnetic absorber for incidence angles greater than 30deg. but less than 60deg. and both polarizations is computationally demonstrated. This ...
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Glover, Brian B; Whites, Kieth W & Radway, Matthew J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Light-scattering properties of a woven shade-screen material used for daylighting and solar heat-gain control

Description: Shade-screens are widely used in commercial buildings as a way to limit the amount of direct sunlight that can disturb people in the building. The shade screens also reduce the solar heat-gain through glazing the system. Modern energy and daylighting analysis software such as EnergyPlus and Radiance require complete scattering properties of the scattering materials in the system. In this paper a shade screen used in the LBNL daylighting testbed is characterized using a photogoniometer and a normal angle of incidence integrating sphere. The data is used to create a complete bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) that can be used in simulation programs. The resulting BSDF is compared to a model BADFs, both directly and by calculating the solar heat-gain coefficient for a dual pane system using Window 6.
Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Jonsson, Jacob; Jonsson, Jacob C.; Lee, Eleanor S. & Rubin, Mike
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic module and array performance characterization methods for all system operating conditions

Description: This paper provides new test methods and analytical procedures for characterizing the electrical performance of photovoltaic modules and arrays. The methods use outdoor measurements to provide performance parameters both at standard reporting conditions and for all operating conditions encountered by typical photovoltaic systems. Improvements over previously used test methods are identified, and examples of the successful application of the methodology are provided for crystalline- and amorphous-silicon modules and arrays. This work provides an improved understanding of module and array performance characteristics, and perhaps most importantly, a straight- forward yet rigorous model for predicting array performance at all operating conditions. For the first time, the influences of solar irradiance, operating temperature, solar spectrum, solar angle-of- incidence, and temperature coefficients are all addressed in a practical way that will benefit both designers and users of photovoltaics.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: King, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measuring solar spectral and angle-of-incidence effects on photovoltaic modules and solar irradiance sensors

Description: Historically, two time-of-day dependent factors have complicated the characterization of photovoltaic module and array performance; namely, changes in the solar spectrum over the day and optical effects in the module that vary with the solar angle-of-incidence. This paper describes straightforward methods for directly measuring the effects of these two factors. Measured results for commercial modules, as well as for typical solar irradiance sensors (pyranometers) are provided. The empirical relationships obtained from the measurements can be used to improve the methods used for system design, verification of performance after installation, and diagnostic monitoring of performance during operation.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A. & Boyson, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Terahertz emission from YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} thin films

Description: We report the first observation of terahertz emission from unbiased YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} thin films at room temperature excited by 1.5 eV femotosecond laser pulses. The strength of the radiated terahertz field depends on the incident angle ({theta}) and depends linearly on incident power. The terahertz emission also depends strongly on the rotation of the film about its surface normal (azimuthal angle, {phi}). The strong anisotropy, with 4{phi} symmetry is demonstrated for different polarizations (incident and detected) and found to be consistent with optical rectification. Because YBCO is centrosymmetric, the second order nonlinear susceptibility vanishes. The next order term in the nonlinear polarizations is the electric quadrupole source term which describes the observed data quite well. The terahertz radiation was found to decrease with decreasing oxygen content, indicating that the carriers in the doped sample enhance the nonlinearity responsible for the terahertz emission.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Siders, J.L.W.; Gosnell, T.R.; Trugman, S.A. & Taylor, A.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative Study of Surface-lattice-site Resolved Neutralization of Slow Multicharged Ions during Large-angle Quasi-binary Collisions with Au(110): Simulation and Experiment

Description: In this article we extend our earlier studies of the azimuthal dependences of low energy projectiles scattered in large angle quasi-binary collisions from Au(110). Measurements are presented for 20 keV Ar{sup 9+} at normal incidence, which are compared with our earlier measurements for this ion at 5 keV and 10{sup 0} incidence angle. A deconvolution procedure based on MARLOWE simulation results carried out at both energies provides information about the energy dependence of projectile neutralization during interactions just with the atoms along the top ridge of the reconstructed Au(110) surface corrugation, in comparison to, e.g., interactions with atoms lying on the sidewalls. To test the sensitivity of the agreement between the MARLOWE results and the experimental measurements, we show simulation results obtained for a non-reconstructed Au(110) surface with 20 keV Ar projectiles, and for different scattering potentials that are intended to simulate the effects on scattering trajectory of a projectile inner shell vacancy surviving the binary collision, In addition, simulation results are shown for a number of different total scattering angles, to illustrate their utility in finding optimum values for this parameter prior to the actual measurements.
Date: August 24, 2001
Creator: Meyer, F.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transformation of filter transmission data for f-number and chief ray angle

Description: This paper describes a method for transforming measured optical and infrared filter data for use with optical systems of arbitrary f-number and angle of incidence. Although it is generally desirable to have normal incidence at the filter (i.e., collimated light where an optical filter is used), other system design considerations may take precedence. In the case of a multispectral sensor under development at Sandia National Laboratories, system constraints require optical filter placement very near the focal plane. The light rays incident on the filters are therefore converging as determined by the system f-number while the chief ray of each ray bundle varies with focal plane position. To analyze the system`s spectral response at different points on the focal plane, a method was devised to transform the filter vendor`s measured data to account for the optical system design. The key to the transformation is the determination of weighting factors and shift factors for each angle of incidence making up a ray bundle. A computer worksheet was developed using a popular mathematical software package which performs this transformation for 75 key points on the focal plane.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Rienstra, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ion Beam Sputter Fabrication of Micro-Grooving and Micro-Threading Tools

Description: This paper presents techniques for fabricating microscopic, nonplanar features in a variety of materials. Micro-grooving and micro-threading tools having cutting dimensions of 10-30{micro}m are made by focused ion beam sputtering and used in ultra-precision machining. Tool fabrication involves directing a 20 keV gallium beam at polished cylindrical punches made of cobalt M42 high-speed steel or C2 tungsten carbide. This creates cutting edges having radii of curvature less than 0.4 {micro}m, and rake features similar to conventional lathe tools. Clearance for minimizing frictional drag of a tool results from the sputter yield dependence on ion herd target incidence angle. Numerically controlled, ultra-precision machining with micro-grooving tools results in a close matching between tool width and feature size. Microtools controllably machine 13 {micro}m wide, 4 {micro}m deep, helical grooves in polymethyl methacrylate and 6061-T6 Al cylindrical substrates. Micro-grooving tools also fabricate sinusoidal waveform features in polished metal substrates.
Date: November 5, 1999
Creator: ADAMS,DAVID P.; VASILE,M.J. & KRISHNAN,A.S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Time-dependence ion charge state distributions of vacuum arcs: An interpretation involving atoms and charge exchange collisions

Description: Experimentally observed charge state distributions are known to be higher at the beginning of each arc discharge. Up to know, this has been attributed to cathode surface effects in terms of changes of temperature, chemical composition and spot mode. Here it is shown that the initial decay of charge states of cathodic arc plasmas may at least in part due to charge exchange collisions of ions with neutrals that gradually fill the discharge volume. Sources of neutrals may include evaporated atoms from macroparticles and still-hot craters of previously active arc spots. More importantly, atoms are also produced by energetic condensation of the cathodic arc plasma. Self-sputtering is significant when ions impact with near-normal angle of incidence, and ions have low sticking probability when impacting at oblique angle of incidence. Estimates show that the characteristic time for filling the near-cathode discharge volume agrees well with the charge state decay time, and the likelihood of charge exchange is reasonably large to be taken into account.
Date: August 27, 2004
Creator: Anders, Andre
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Affect of Angle of Incidence on Plasmas Generated During Laser Welding

Description: This study has shown that laser supported combustion waves (lscw's) are generated and that they can reach critical density. More critical density plasmas are formed as the angle of incidence approaches the normal. As the angle of incidence is increased the penetration increases. The vapor plume is seen to precess about the surface normal which indicates motion of the molten pool. The penetration increases correlate with fewer critical density plasmas implying that better photon conversion is obtained when the plasma is absorbing and not at the critical density. The radiation monitoring techniques provide data which correlates with penetration and thus are potential monitoring and control methods.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Dixon, R. D. & Lewis, G. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Silicon-Based, Sequential Coat-and-Etch Process to Fabricate Nearly Perfect Substrate Surfaces

Description: For many thin-film applications substrate imperfections such as particles, pits, scratches, and general roughness, can nucleate film defects which can severely detract from the coating's performance. Previously we developed a coat-and-etch process, termed the ion beam thin film planarization process, to planarize substrate particles up to {approx} 70 nm in diameter. The process relied on normal incidence etching; however, such a process induces defects nucleated by substrate pits to grow much larger. We have since developed a coat-and-etch process to planarize {approx}70 nm deep by 70 nm wide substrate pits; it relies on etching at an off-normal incidence angle, i.e., an angle of {approx} 70{sup o} from the substrate normal. However, a disadvantage of this pit smoothing process is that it induces defects nucleated by substrate particles to grow larger. Combining elements from both processes we have been able to develop a silicon-based, coat-and-etch process to successfully planarize {approx}70 nm substrate particles and pits simultaneously to at or below 1 nm in height; this value is important for applications such as extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) masks. The coat-and-etch process has an added ability to significantly reduce high-spatial frequency roughness, rendering a nearly perfect substrate surface.
Date: July 5, 2005
Creator: Mirkarimi, P. B.; Spiller, E.; Baker, S. L.; Stearns, D. G.; Robinson, J. C.; Olynick, D. L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department