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Environmental assessment for the Hoe Creek underground, Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation, Campbell County, Wyoming

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess environmental and human health Issues and to determine potential impacts associated with the proposed Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation that would be performed at the Hoe Creek site in Campbell County, Wyoming. The Hoe Creek site is located south-southwest of the town of Gillette, Wyoming, and encompasses 71 acres of public land under the stewardship of the Bureau of Land Management. The proposed action identified in the EA is for the DOE to perform air sparging with bioremediation at the Hoe Creek site to remove contaminants resulting from underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments performed there by the DOE in the late 1970s. The proposed action would involve drilling additional wells at two of the UCG test sites to apply oxygen or hydrogen peroxide to the subsurface to volatilize benzene dissolved in the groundwater and enhance bioremediation of non-aqueous phase liquids present in the subsurface. Other alternatives considered are site excavation to remove contaminants, continuation of the annual pump and treat actions that have been used at the site over the last ten years to limit contaminant migration, and the no action alternative. Issues examined in detail in the EA are air quality, geology, human health and safety, noise, soils, solid and hazardous waste, threatened and endangered species, vegetation, water resources, and wildlife. Details of mitigative measures that could be used to limit any detrimental effects resulting from the proposed action or any of the alternatives are discussed, and information on anticipated effects identified by other government agencies is provided.
Date: October 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EVALUATION OF BIOMSS AND COAL SLURRIES AS FUEL-LEAN REBURN FUELS

Description: Breen Energy Solutions (BES) and Western Research Institute (WRI) tested biomass and coal slurries and other carbonaceous substances such as fuel oil/water emulsions as NO{sub x} reburn fuel in the combustion test facility (CTF). The overall goal of the project was to determine the NO{sub x} reduction potential of various biomass and coal reburn fuels, and to identify the optimum conditions for NO{sub x} control. Specific objectives were to inject biomass, biosolids, coal, biomass/coal, and biosolids/coal slurries into the upper furnace of CTF and determine the resulting NO{sub x} reductions and CO emissions, to identify optimum injection rates and injection locations for these reburn fuels, and to install a reaction zone stabilizer device in CTF and determine its effectiveness in reducing CO and further reducing NO{sub x}. Combustion tests achieved 40% to 60% NO{sub x} reductions with 10% to 20% reburn fuel heat input. The project has demonstrated the technical feasibility of in-situ gasification of slurries including pulverized coal and 75% pulverized coal/25% biosolids by weight, and the ability to utilize the gasification products as NO{sub x} reburn fuel. This work also demonstrated that pulverized coal/water slurries can be successfully gasified and used as reburn fuels, and there is no need for use of micronized coal. Very good burnout of the pulverized coal slurry was demonstrated in this work. Similarly, the project has demonstrated the technical feasibility of in-situ gasification of oil/water emulsion and the ability to utilize the associated gasification products as NO{sub x} reburn fuel.
Date: November 6, 2006
Creator: Sethi, Vijay K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of Phase 2 postburn drilling, coring, and logging: Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test, Hanna, Wyoming

Description: The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) site consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in Western Research Institute`s Annual Project Plan for 1989 (Western Research Institute 1989). The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the coring was completed during the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. A detailed description of Phase 1 results was presented in a separate report (Lindblom et al. 1990). Phase 2, completed during the summer of 1990, was designed to complete the seven objectives; more specifically, to further define the areal extent and location of the cavities, to evaluate the outflow channels for both modules, and to further characterize the structural geology in the ELW module area.
Date: February 1, 1991
Creator: Oliver, R. L.; Lindblom, S. R. & Covell, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Instrumentation for Pricetown I in-situ coal gasification program

Description: The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is developing the technology required to recover the deep thin seam Eastern bituminous coal resource by gasification in-situ. The approach is to prove concepts through field tests and to support field testing-with theoretical modeling. METC is currently fielding Pricetown I, the first of two tests scheduled for the Pricetown, West Virginia, underground coal gasification field test. Pricetown I is a small-scale test designed to provide information concerning the in-situ characteristics of the Pittsburgh coal seam; to gain additional experience in the in-situ combustion and gasification of bituminous coal; and to evaluate the functional applicability of the linked vertical concept to recover the Eastern resources. Mound Facility is participating with METC in the design and the implementation of the instrumentation necessary to monitor the surface and subsurface process and product gas stream; and acquire real-time gas analysis and subsurface thermal data. The principal objective of this effort is to provide an integrated instrumentation system that will permit rapid automatic monitoring of subsurface and surface variables and to ensure data storage, retrieval and reduction for process monitoring and results interpretation. Mound also will support METC with the manpower and technical assistance necessary to operate the field instrumentation during the in-situ testing.
Date: September 8, 1978
Creator: Zielinski, R.E.; Seabaugh, P.W.; Austin, O.R. & Corley, R.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Underground gasification for steeply dipping coal beds. Phase I report: Appendix C. Parametric cost estimate, September 30, 1977--February 28, 1978

Description: Gulf Research and Development Company has developed a proprietary computer program to calculate economics for a conceptual commercial UCG plant as applied to horizontal coal seams. The present program cannot provide steeply dipping bed (SDB) economics. However, various factors related to the coal seam, to operating conditions, and to process results may be independent of whether the coal bed is horizontal or tilted. A number of factors have been varied over a considerable range to show their effect on economics for a horizontal bed application. These results should be helpful in designing experimental field studies in steeply dipping beds. The computer calculations show that the most effective way to reduce the cost of gas from UCG is to increase its heating value. This decreases the plant size, number of wells, coal consumed, and fuel requirements. The next most effective ways are to increase product gas recovery and air utilization, i.e., to minimize leakage. To express these effects in another way, each 2 percent increase in either air or gas leakage increases the sales gas price by 1 percent. Also, decreased leakage results in smaller plants, fewer wells, less coal consumption, and lower fuel requirements all of which reduce final costs. An increase of 50 percent in either the methane or the hydrogen content of the product gas has about the same effect on sales gas price. The decrease in price is due to the increase in heating value of the gas. The essential element appears to be increased heating value and the manner in which this is accomplished does not greatly matter from a cost per unit of heat standpoint. Increased production wellhead pressure has a beneficial effect on gas price because the conceptual plant design requires that the production gas be compressed to 1135 kPa (150 psig) for pipelining ...
Date: May 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Instrumentation and process control development for in situ coal gasification. Quarterly report, December 1979-March 1980

Description: The analysis of data for the Hanna IV and Hoe Creek in situ coal gasification tests raised questions concerning the fundamental controlling mechanisms of the process. The two main areas of concern are: (1) the air flow patterns; and (2) the initial cavity growth. Sandia National Laboratories is addressing these concerns by developing models of these processes. Results to date are in qualitative agreement with known phenomena. There have also been developments in data handling capability. These include improved data presentation ability and development of routine storage, access and back up methods.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Glass, R.E. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Repowering flexibility of coal-based advanced power systems

Description: The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) helps enhance the economic competitiveness, environmental quality, and national well-being of the U.S. by developing advanced power-generation systems. The potential market for advanced power-generation systems is large. In the U.S., electric demand is estimated to grow at about 1 percent per year through the year 2010. The total power generation market also includes new-capacity as well as replacement of existing power plants as they age. Thus, the market for power systems over the next 15 years is estimated to be about 279,000 megawatts (MW), but could range from as much as 484,000 MW to as little as 153,000 MW. These predictions are summarized. Over the next 15 years, the replacement market is potentially much larger than the expansion market because of the large base of aging power plants in the U.S.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Bajura, R.A.; Bechtel, T.F.; Schmidt, D.K. & Wimer, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gasification and hot gas cleanup at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center

Description: The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is a Government-owned and Government-operated research center located in Morgantown, West Virginia. Since its opening in 1955, METC has been a Fossil Energy research laboratory focused on the development of advanced Fossil Energy technologies. METC is currently an organizational unit of Fossil Energy which is, in turn, a part of the U.S. Department of Energy. METC pursues the development of fossil energy technologies through contracts with industrial/commercial partners, through Cooperative Research and Development Agreements, and through a relatively small in-house hands-on research program which is coordinated with customer/program needs associated with the major technologies. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) concept for power generation and to review the METC in-house activities related to this concept.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Strickland, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GeoEnergy technology

Description: The goal of the GeoEnergy Technology Program is to improve the understanding and efficiency of energy extraction and conversion from geologic resources, hence maintaining domestic production capability of fossil energy resources and expanding the usage of geothermal energy. The GeoEnergy Technology Program conducts projects for the Department of Energy in four resource areas--coal, oil and gas, synthetic fuels and geothermal energy. These projects, which are conducted collaboratively with private industry and DOE`s Energy Technology Centers, draw heavily on expertise derived from the nuclear weapons engineering capabilities of Sandia. The primary technologies utilized in the program are instrumentation development and application, geotechnical engineering, drilling and well completions, and chemical and physical process research. Studies in all four resource areas are described.
Date: December 31, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Instrumentation and process control development for in situ coal gasification. Fourth quarterly report, September--November 1975

Description: The instrumentation effort for Phases 2 and 3 of the Second Hanna In Situ Coal Gasification Experiment was fielded and background data obtained prior to the initiation of Phase 2 on November 25, 1975. A total of over 600 channels of instrumentation in 15 instrumentation wells and two surface arrays was fielded for the instrumentation techniques under evaluation. The feasibility of the passive acoustic technique to locate the source of process-related noises has been demonstrated; its utility is presently hampered by the inexact definition of signal arrivals and the lack of automated signal monitoring and analysis systems. A revised mathematical model for the electrical techniques has been developed which demonstrates the potential for remote monitoring. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Northrop, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of preburn three-dimensional flow patterns in underground coal conversion

Description: A three-dimensional numerical study was performed to better elucidate the rather complex flow patterns that can occur during the bed preparation stage of underground coal gasification when the linked vertical well method is applied. This study shows the important effects of the 3-D geometry, gravity, anisotropy, pressure dependent permeability, and dynamic two phase air/water flow. For the first time the dynamic, 3-D growth of the air bubble (i.e., the dewatered region) is studied under simulated field conditions for western subbituminous coal. Interpretation of the 3-D flow and tracer patterns is an important element in an effective site characterization program. The numerical code used in these studies, WAFE3D, was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to compute multiphase, multicomponent mass and heat transport in porous/fractured geological media. The code solves the time dependent 3-D conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy using an integrated finite difference implicit numerical scheme.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Travis, B.J. & Nuttall, H.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 4. Hanna II, Phases II and III field test research report

Description: This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna II, Phases II and III, were conducted during the winter of 1975 and the summer of 1976. The two phases refer to linking and gasification operations conducted between two adjacent well pairs as shown in Figure 1 with Phase II denoting operations between Wells 5 and 6 and Phase III operations between Wells 7 and 8. All of the other wells shown were instrumentation wells. Wells 7 and 8 were linked in November and December 1975. This report covers: (1) specific site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 16 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1985
Creator: Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M. & Humphrey, A.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 3. The Hanna II, Phase I field test

Description: This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project, and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna II, Phase I was conducted during the spring and summer of 1975, at a site about 700 feet up dip (to the southwest) of the Hanna I test. The test was conducted in two stages - Phase IA and IB. Phase IA consisted of linking and gasification operations between Wells 1 and 3 and Phase IB of linking from the 1-3 gasification zone to Well 2, followed by a short period of gasification from Well 2 to Well 3 over a broad range of air injection rates, in order to determine system turndown capabilities and response times. This report covers: (1) site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operational testing; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 7 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1985
Creator: Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M. & Humphrey, A.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Underground gasification for steeply dipping coal beds. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1978

Description: Activities focused on Phase I Final Report preparation, further site characterization activities, parametric cost analysis, and an evaluation of the technical and economic risks associated with drilling slant hole process wells. The final Report summarizes Phase I activities. Further site characterization activities involved preparation of a detailed exploratory drilling plan and bid package as well as applying for the appropriate permits. A parametric cost analysis using a proprietary model revealed that the parameters of greatest sensitivity were product gas quality, gas leakage, and yield of product gas per unit volume of injection air. The approach to be used in evaluating slant hole process wells has been established and is presently being implemented.
Date: June 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Underground gasification for steeply dipping coal beds. Quarterly progress report, July 1--September 30, 1978

Description: On-site (North Knobs, Wyoming) activities centered around geologic and hydrologic drilling and baseline environmental data acquisition. Design of an all-weather access road was completed and construction is pending. An accelerated burn schedule was planned and budget costs were revised to reflect this change. The Permit to Mine application has been finished and will be filed with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality early in October. Research on additional back-up sites continued. The Project Data Book (referred to in earlier documents as the Blue Book and the Test Design Criteria Handbook) format was refined and updated copies were issued. Offsite engineering activities included completion of the instrumentation system requirements and development of a preliminary layout of the site.
Date: October 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 6. Hanna IVA and IVB field test research report

Description: This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. The reports in this series include: The Hanna IV test was designed as the first underground coal gasification test using commercial well spacings of 100 and 150 feet between well pairs in a linear 3-well pattern. The test was initiated in late 1977 and completed in late 1979. This long duration was due to unfavorable geologic conditions (faulting) which could not be successfully overcome resulting in the test being split into Hanna IVA and Hanna IVB with about one year between the conduct of each. This report covers: (1) specific site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facility description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 5 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1985
Creator: Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M. & Humphrey, A.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of a subsurface oxygenation technique using colloidal gas aphron injections into packed column reactors

Description: Bioremediation may be a remedial technology capable of decontaminating subsurface environments. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of colloidal gas aphron (CGA) injection, which is the injection of micrometer-size air bubbles in an aqueous surfactant solution, as a subsurface oxygenation technique to create optimal growth conditions for aerobic bacteria. Along with this, the capability of CGAs to act as a soil-washing agent and free organic components from a coal tar-contaminated matrix was examined. Injection of CGAs may be useful for remediation of underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. Because of this, bacteria and solid material from a UCG site located in northeastern Wyoming were used in this research. Colloidal gas aphrons were generated and pumped through packed column reactors (PCRS) containing post-burn core materials. For comparison, PCRs containing sand were also studied. Bacteria from this site were tested for their capability to degrade phenol, a major contaminant at the UCG site, and were also used to bioaugment the PCR systems. In this study we examined: (1) the effect of CGA injection on dissolved oxygen concentrations in the PCR effluents, (2) the effect of CGA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and phenol injections on bacterial populations, (3) the stability and transport of CGAs over distance, and (4) CGA injection versus H{sub 2}O{sub 2} injection as an oxygenation technique.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Wills, R. A. & Coles, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hoe Creek 1990 quarterly sampling cumulative report

Description: Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for benzene and for total phenols three times during 1990. This report summarizes the results of these sampling events and compares the results with those obtained in previous years. Possible further options for remediation of the Hoe Creek site was addressed. Three underground coal gasification (UCG) burns were performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy in 1976, 1977, and 1979 at the Hoe Creek site, which is about 20 miles south of Gillette, Wyoming. As a result of these burns, there has been considerable contamination of groundwater by various organic compounds. There have been three efforts at remediating this situation. In 1986 and again in 1987, contaminated water was pumped out, treated, and reinjected. In 1989, the water was pumped, treated, and sprayed into the atmosphere. Benzene and total phenols have been monitored at various monitoring wells as the site during 1990. The highest detected benzene concentration in 1990 was 220 {mu}g/L, and the highest total phenols concentration was 430 {mu}g/L. It is apparent that contamination is still above baseline levels, although the concentration of total phenols is far less than immediately after the burns. The burned coal seams are still releasing organic compounds into the groundwater that passes through them.
Date: March 1, 1991
Creator: Crader, S. E. & Huntington, G. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of Phase 2 postburn drilling, coring, and logging: Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test, Hanna, Wyoming

Description: The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) site consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in Western Research Institute's Annual Project Plan for 1989 (Western Research Institute 1989). The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the coring was completed during the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. A detailed description of Phase 1 results was presented in a separate report (Lindblom et al. 1990). Phase 2, completed during the summer of 1990, was designed to complete the seven objectives; more specifically, to further define the areal extent and location of the cavities, to evaluate the outflow channels for both modules, and to further characterize the structural geology in the ELW module area.
Date: February 1, 1991
Creator: Oliver, R.L.; Lindblom, S.R. & Covell, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Underground gasification for steeply dipping coal beds: Phase III. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1981. [Rawlins Test 2]

Description: Preparations are being made for the August start-up of Rawlins Test 2. Site construction activities began May 4 with the mobilization of the construction subcontractor. The drilling program was completed this quarter with the installation of instrumentation wells. The Experimental Basis Document, PGA Operating Manual, and DAS Operating Manual have also been completed.
Date: December 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the ninth annual underground coal gasification symposium

Description: The Ninth Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was held August 7 to 10, 1983 at the Indian Lakes Resort and Conference Center in Bloomingdale, Illinois. Over one-hundred attendees from industry, academia, National Laboratories, State Government, and the US Government participated in the exchange of ideas, results and future research plans. Representatives from six countries including France, Belgium, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, West Germany, and Brazil also participated by presenting papers. Fifty papers were presented and discussed in four formal sessions and two informal poster sessions. The presentations described current and future field testing plans, interpretation of field test data, environmental research, laboratory studies, modeling, and economics. All papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Wieber, P.R.; Martin, J.W. & Byrer, C.W. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department