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Synthesis of some 1-Substituted-2-Methylnaphthimidazole-4,9-Diones

Description: Imidazole derivatives of 1,4-naphthoquinones are found to have biological activity which interferes with the utilization of vitamin K or of the purines since they have groups common to these two classes of compounds. This thesis shows the preparation of some 1-substituted-naphthimidazole-4,9-diones for possible biological activity.
Date: August 1957
Creator: Peterson, Harold W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Coupling experimental data and a prototype model to probe the physical and chemical processes of 2,4-dinitroimidazole solid-phase thermal decomposition

Description: The time-dependent, solid-phase thermal decomposition behavior of 2,4-dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI) has been measured utilizing simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) methods. The decomposition products consist of gaseous and non-volatile polymeric products. The temporal behavior of the gas formation rates of the identified products indicate that the overall thermal decomposition process is complex. In isothermal experiments with 2,4-DNI in the solid phase, four distinguishing features are observed: (1) elevated rates of gas formation are observed during the early stages of the decomposition, which appear to be correlated to the presence of exogenous water in the sample; (2) this is followed by a period of relatively constant rates of gas formation; (3) next, the rates of gas formation accelerate, characteristic of an autocatalytic reaction; (4) finally, the 2,4-DNI is depleted and gaseous decomposition products continue to evolve at a decreasing rate. A physicochemical and mathematical model of the decomposition of 2,4-DNI has been developed and applied to the experimental results. The first generation of this model is described in this paper. Differences between the first generation of the model and the experimental data collected under different conditions suggest refinements for the next generation of the model.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Behrens, R.; Minier, L. & Bulusu, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress toward chemcial accuracy in the computer simulation of condensed phase reactions

Description: A procedure is described for the generation of chemically accurate computer-simulation models to study chemical reactions in the condensed phase. The process involves (1) the use of a coupled semiempirical quantum and classical molecular mechanics method to represent solutes and solvent, respectively; (2) the optimization of semiempirical quantum mechanics (QM) parameters to produce a computationally efficient and chemically accurate QM model; (3) the calibration of a quantum/classical microsolvation model using ab initio quantum theory; and (4) the use of statistical mechanical principles and methods to simulate, on massively parallel computers, the thermodynamic properties of chemical reactions in aqueous solution. The utility of this process is demonstrated by the calculation of the enthalpy of reaction in vacuum and free energy change in aqueous solution for a proton transfer involving methanol, methoxide, imidazole, and imidazolium, which are functional groups involved with proton transfers in many biochemical systems. An optimized semiempirical QM model is produced, which results in the calculation of heats of formation of the above chemical species to within 1.0 kcal/mol of experimental values. The use of the calibrated QM and microsolvation QM/MM models for the simulation of a proton transfer in aqueous solution gives a calculated free energy that is within 1.0 kcal/mol (12.2 calculated vs. 12.8 experimental) of a value estimated from experimental pKa`s of the reacting species.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Bash, P.A.; Levine, D.; Hallstrom, P.; Ho, L.L. & Mackerell, A.D. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new insensitive explosive that has moderate performance and is low cost: 2,4-Dinitroimidazole

Description: Shock loading experiments were performed on 2,4-Dinitroimidazole. Results indicate that it is a very shock insensitive material. The performance of the material is expected to be 60% greater than TNT. Costs appear to be low but are unresolved at this time. 2,4-DNI may be a realistic alternative to TNT for mass-use bombs.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Simpson, R.; Coon, C. & Foltz, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non-technical write-up of summer research for the Department of Homeland Security

Description: My project at LLNL this past summer was to improve upon the available methodology for synthesis of C-terminal polypeptide {alpha}-thioesters (all of which methods suffer from certain disadvantages requiring too much detail to discuss herein). Our initial approach to synthesis of {alpha}-thioesters is outlined in Figure 2. The approach utilizes a resin containing an aryl hydrazine linker to which the growing polypeptide chain is attached. The aryl hydrazine linker can be oxidized under mild conditions to the corresponding diazene. Our objective was to use the weak N-nucleophile benzotriazole to cleave the peptide from the resin. The acyl benzotriazole formed by the cleavage may be thiolyzed using ethanethiol and triethylamine to form the corresponding C-terminal polypeptide {alpha}-thioester, which can then be employed in NCL. My initial experiments failed to result in formation of any {alpha}-thioester. Instead, the exclusive product of acyl diazene cleavage was the peptide hydrolysis product. A number of experiments were performed to identify the stage at which hydrolysis was occurring. It was found that hydrolysis occurred during the benzotriazole-mediated cleavage of the acyl diazene. After extensive experimentation, I discovered that C-terminal polypeptide {alpha}-thioesters could, in fact, be formed by performing the acyl diazene cleavage in the absence of diisopropylethylamine (DIEA). I performed other experiments to study the variables that could improve the ratio of the hydrolysis product to the thiolysis product and was able to obtain replicable results in which the product mixture was 30% {alpha}-thioester and 70% hydrolysis. While the yield must still be improved for this to represent a viable method of peptide {alpha}-thioester synthesis, it does represent significant progress towards development of such a method. I was able to effect a three- to five-fold improvement in the yield of {alpha}-thioester relative to the {alpha}-thioester yield when ethanethiol was used to cleave the acyl diazene, a ...
Date: July 29, 2005
Creator: Shoulders, M D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proton and hydride transfers in solution: hybrid QMmm/MM free energy perturbation study

Description: A hybrid quantum and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) free energy perturbation (FEP) method is implemented in the context of molecular dynamics (MD). The semiempirical quantum mechanical (QM) Hamiltonian (Austin Model 1) represents solute molecules, and the molecular mechanical (MM) CHARMM force field describes the water solvent. The QM/MM FEP method is used to calculate the free energy changes in aqueous solution for (1) a proton transfer from methanol to imidazole and (2) a hydride transfer from methoxide to nicotinamide. The QM/MM interaction energies between the solute and solvent arc calibrated to emulate the solute-solvent interaction energies determined at the Hartee-Fock 6-31G(d) level of ab initio theory. The free energy changes for the proton and hydride transfers are calculated to be 15.1 and {minus}6.3 kcal/mol, respectively, which compare favorably with the corresponding experimental values of 12.9 and {minus}7.4 kcal/mol. An estimate of the reliability of the calculations is obtained through the computation of the forward (15.1 and {minus}6.3 kcal/mol) and backward ({minus}14.1 and 9.1 kcal/mol)free energy changes. The reasonable correspondence between these two independent calculations suggests that adequate phase space sampling is obtained along the reaction pathways chosen to transform the proton and hydride systems between their respective reactant and product states.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Ho, L. Lawrence; Bash, P.A. & Kerell, A.D., Jr
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Functionalized block copolymers as adhesion promoters

Description: The goal of this work is to develop novel functionalized block copolymers to promote adhesion at inorganic substrate/polymer interfaces. We envision several potential advantages of functionalized block copolymers over small molecule coupling agents. Greater control over the structure of the interphase region should result through careful design of the backbone of the copolymer. The number of chains per area, the degree of entanglement between the copolymer and the polymer matrix, the number of sites per chain able to attach to the substrate, and the hydrophobicity of the interphase region can all be strongly affected by the choice of block lengths and the monomer sequence. In addition, entanglement between the copolymer and the polymer matrix, if achieved, should contribute significantly to adhesive strength. Our program involves four key elements: the synthesis of suitable functionalized block copolymers, characterization of the conformation of the copolymers at the interface by neutron reflectivity and atomic force microscopy, characterization of the degree of bonding by spectroscopy, and measurement of the mechanical properties of the interface. In this paper we discuss block copolymers designed as adhesion promoters for the copper/epoxy interface. We have synthesized a diblock with one block containing imidazole groups to bond to copper and a second block containing secondary amines to react with the epoxy matrix. We have also prepared a triblock copolymer containing a hydrophobic middle block. Below we describe the synthesis of the block copolymers by living, ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and the first characterization data obtained by neutron reflectivity.
Date: March 1995
Creator: Kent, M. S. & Saunders, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solid-phase thermal decomposition of 2,4-dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI)

Description: The solid-phase thermal decomposition of the insensitive energetic nitroaromatic heterocycle 2,4-dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI: mp 265--274C) is studied utilizing simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) between 200 and 247C. The pyrolysis products have been identified using perdeuterated and {sup 15}N-labeled isotopomers. The products consist of low molecular-weight gases and a thermally stable solid residue. The major gaseous products are NO, CO{sub 2}, CO, N{sub 2}, HNCO and H{sub 2}O. Minor gaseous products are HCN, C{sub 2}N{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, C{sub 3}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}, C{sub 3}H{sub 3}N{sub 3}O and NH{sub 3}. The elemental formula of the residue is C{sub 2}HN{sub 2}O and FTIR analysis suggests that it is polyurea- and polycarbamate-like in nature. Rates of formation of the gaseous products and their respective quantities have been determined for a typical isothermal decomposition experiment at 235C. The temporal behaviors of the gas formation rates indicate that the overall decomposition is characterized by a sequence of four events; (1) an early decomposition period induced by impurities and water, (2) an induction period where C0{sub 2} and NO are the primary products formed at relatively constant rates, (3) an autoacceleratory period that peaks when the sample is depleted and (4) a final period in which the residue decomposes. Arrhenius parameters for the induction period are E{sub a} = 46.9 {plus_minus} 0.7 kcal/mol and Log(A) = 16.3 {plus_minus} 0.3. Decomposition pathways that are consistent with the data are presented.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Minier, L.; Behrens, R. Jr. & Bulusu, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutron diffraction study of aluminum chloride imidazolium chloride molten salts

Description: The structure of molten mixtures of (AlCl{sub 3}){sub x}(1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride){sub 1-x} was investigated by neutron diffraction techniques for x=0.46, 0.50, 0.60 and 0.67. Results derived from earlier ab initio molecular orbital (6-31G* basis set) computations for AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, Al{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}{sup {minus}}, and EMI{sup +} were used to calculate the diffraction patterns; the calculated contributions of each species are thus obtained and overall results are in good agreement with measurements.
Date: February 1, 1994
Creator: Takahashi, S.; Saboungi, M. L.; Suzuya, K. & Koura, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Separation of Metals by Supported Liquid Membranes

Description: A supported liquid membrane system for the separation of a preselected chemical species within a feedstream, preferably an aqueous feedstream, includes a feed compartment containing a feed solution having at least one preselected chemical species therein, a stripping compartment containing a stripping solution therein, and a microporous polybenzimidazole membrane situated between the compartments, the microporous polybenzimidazole membrane containing an extractant mixture selective for the preselected chemical species within the membrane pores is disclosed along with a method of separating preselected chemical species from a feedstream with such a system, and a supported liquid membrane for use in such a system.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Takigawa, Doreen Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supported liquid membrane system

Description: A cell apparatus for a supported liquid membrane including opposing faceplates, each having a spirally configured groove, an inlet groove at a first end of the spirally configured groove, and an outlet groove at the other end of the spirally configured groove, within the opposing faces of the faceplates, a microporous membrane situated between the grooved faces of the faceplates, said microporous membrane containing an extractant mixture selective for a predetermined chemical species within the pores of said membrane, means for aligning the grooves of the faceplates in an directly opposing configuration with the porous membrane being situated therebetween, such that the aligned grooves form a pair of directly opposing channels, separate feed solution and stripping solution compartments connected to respective channels between the faceplates and the membrane, separate pumping means for passing feed solution and stripping solution through the channels is provided.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Takigawa, D. Y. & Bush, H. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Science and Technology review: The search for mutagens from cooked foods

Description: This past year and a half has been one of the most unsettled periods in the history of the Livermore Laboratory. Our laboratory, like all federal laboratories, has felt the winds of change from Washington. Various committees are questioning the way in which the federal government supports scientific research and the appropriateness of certain to programs. Science and Technology Review is one of the principal mechanisms by which we inform and educate a broad readership about our research programs and accomplishments. Much of the Laboratory`s research is at the cutting edge of science and technology, making it particularly challenging to describe state-of-the-art accomplishments and their significance in widely understood terms. Our goal is that the articles presented here represent the full range of projects at Livermore and convey the challenge and excitement of working at the frontiers of science and technology.
Date: July 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of porous support composition and operating parameters on the performance of supported liquid membranes

Description: Factors, such as porous support composition and operating parameters, that influence the performance of supported liquid membranes (SLMs) were investigated. SLMs of varying porous support compositions and structures were studied for the transport of metal ions. A microporous polybenzimidazole support was synthesized and prepared in the form of an SLM. This SLM containing the selective extractant di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid was evaluated for the transport of copper and neodymium. Dramatically improved performance over that of commercially available membranes was found in tests for removing the metal ions from solution. Metal ion transport reaches near completion in less than 3 hours, whereas Celgard-polypropylene and Nuclepore-polycarbonate reaches only 50% completion even after 15 hours. The transport driving force for acidic extractants is a pH gradient between the feed and strip solutions. Polybenzimidazole, an acid- and radiation-resistant polymer, has two protonatable tertiary nitrogens per repeat unit that may help sustain the pH driving force. Another factor may be the ability of the polybenzimidazole to hydrogen bond with the extractant. Transport through the flat-sheet SLMs were tested using a unique cell design. Countercurrent flow of the feed and strip solutions was established through machined channels in half-cell faceplates that are in a spiral, mirror-image pattern with respect to each other, with the flat-sheet SLM interposed between the two channeled solutions. 7 refs., 14 figs.
Date: February 1, 1991
Creator: Takigawa, D.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of electrolysis-cell separator for 125/sup 0/C operation. Advanced alkaline electrolysis cell development. Final report

Description: This report contains the findings of a seven-month contracted effort. The major technical task involved a 125/sup 0/C operating temperature test of the 20 v/o polybenzimidazole (PBI) - 80 v/o potassium titanate (K/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/) separator in combination with the nickel-molybdenum cathode electrocatalyst system dubbed the C-AN cathode using the ARIES test system which was developed previously. The test of the PBI-K/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/ separator was only partially successful. The anticipated 1.85 (75/sup 0/C) and 1.75 volt per cell (100/sup 0/C) input requirement at 550 ma/cm/sup 2/ were surpassed slightly. The test module operated stably for about 550 hr. Although there were some mechanical difficulties with the ARIES test unit, testing at 125/sup 0/C proceeded from 745 hr on test until the test was terminated at 2318 operating hours to allow diagnostic disassembly. The input voltage degraded to a value of 1.82 volt per cell at 125/sup 0/C which is unacceptable. Diagnostic disassembly showed the PBI portion of the separator was no longer present. PBI had been shown to be stable in 123/sup 0/C, 45 w/o KOH solutions in a 1000-hr test. The attack is suggested to be attributable to a peroxide or perchlorate type oxidizer which would be unique to the electrolysis mode and probably not present in alkaline fuel cell applications. Recommendations for further testing include an evaluation of the chemical compatibility of PBI with alkaline/oxidizer solutions and endurance testing the C-AN cathode with new improved anode structures at 125/sup 0/C using asbestos separators in combination with a silicate saturated KOH electrolyte. Demonstration of the stability of this 1.65 volt per cell (90% voltage efficiency) technology at 500 ma/cm/sup 2/ will document an inexpensive and intelligent hydrogen production process which will satisfy the needs of the United States in the 1990s.
Date: March 1, 1983
Creator: Murray, J N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NMR measurements in solutions of dialkylimidazolium haloaluminates

Description: {sup 27}Al and {sup 35}Cl NMR spectra of AlCl{sub 3}-1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) melts were measured for initial compositions ranging from 50 to 67 mol % AlCl{sub 3} at various temperatures. It was shown by changing the preaquisition delay time (DE value) that the dominant aluminum species are AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} in the melt formed by mixing 50 mol % with EMIC and Al{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}{sup {minus}} in the 67 mol % AlCl{sub 3} melt. In the equimolar mixture, the chemical shift of {sup 27}Al NMR spectrum is 103.28 ppm and the line width is 22.83Hz. In the 67 mol % AlCl{sub 3} mixture, the chemical shift is 103.41 ppm and the line width is 2624Hz. A third species observed at 97 ppm in the {sup 27}Al spectra for the 55 and 60 mol % AlCl{sub 3} mixtures is identified to be a product of the reaction with residual water. The relaxation rates for each species in the melts were determined.
Date: June 1, 1992
Creator: Takahashi, S.; Saboungi, M. L.; Klingler, R. J.; Chen, M. J. & Rathke, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dialkylimidazolium chloroaluminates: Ab initio calculations, Raman and neutron scattering measurements

Description: The Raman and neutron scattering spectra of 46 mol% AlCl{sub 3} -54 mol% 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) and 67 mol% AlCl{sub 3} - 33 mol% EMIC melts are presented. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations have been carried out on structures of chloroaluminate anion and EMI cation and the interaction between anion and cation.
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Takahasi, S.; Curtiss, L. A.; Gosztola, D.; Koura, N.; Loong, C. K. & Saboungi, M. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DNA sequencing by a single molecule detection of labeled nucleotides sequentially cleaved from a single strand of DNA

Description: We are developing a laser-based technique for the rapid sequencing of large DNA fragments (several kb in size) at a rate of 100 to 1000 bases per second. Our approach relies on fluorescent labeling of the bases in a single fragment of DNA, attachment of this labeled DNA fragment to a support, movement of the supported DNA into a flowing sample stream, sequential cleavage of the end nucleotide from the DNA fragment with an exonuclease, and detection of the individual fluorescently labeled bases by laser-induced fluorescence.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Goodwin, P.M.; Schecker, J.A.; Wilkerson, C.W.; Hammond, M.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Jett, J.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dialkylimidazolium chloroaluminates: Ab initio calculations, Raman and neutron scattering measurements

Description: The Raman and neutron scattering spectra of 46 mol% AlCl[sub 3] -54 mol% 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) and 67 mol% AlCl[sub 3] - 33 mol% EMIC melts are presented. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations have been carried out on structures of chloroaluminate anion and EMI cation and the interaction between anion and cation.
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Takahasi, S.; Curtiss, L. A.; Gosztola, D.; Koura, N.; Loong, C. K. & Saboungi, M. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanism of histamine release from human basophils

Description: The theory of histamine release of Dembo, Goldstein, Sobotka, and Lichtenstein is able to explain a variety of kinetic experiments in a self consistent and quantitative way. The principal elements of the theory are: the histamine content of basophils is divided into a large number of discrete and independent quanta; release of the contents of a quanta is a stochastic event; a certain fraction of the quanta in a population of basophils is nonreleasable; the probability per unit time, P/sub R/, of the release event is a sigmoid function of the number of crosslinked IgE molecules on the cell surface. In addition, P/sub R/ goes to zero when the extracellular calcium concentration goes to zero; and specific desensitization is due to the action of a degradative enzyme on cell surface IgE molecules which are crosslinked to other cell surface IgE molecules. Furthermore, this enzyme is unaffected by the calcium concentration.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Dembo, M. & Goldstein, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A structural basis for electron transfer in bacterial photosynthesis

Description: Triplet data for the primary donor in single crystals of bacterial reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas viridis are interpreted in terms of the corresponding x-ray structures. The analysis of electron paramagnetic resonance data from single crystals (triplet zero field splitting and cation and triplet linewidth of the primary special pair donor of bacterial reaction centers) is extended to systems of a non-crystalline nature. A unified interpretation based on frontier molecular orbitals concludes that the special pair behaves like a supermolecule in all wild-type bacteria investigated here. However, in heterodimers of Rb. capsulatus (His/sup M200/ changed to Leu or Phe with the result that the M-half of the special pair is converted to bacteriopheophytin) the special pair possesses the EPR properties more appropriately described in terms of a monomer. In all cases the triplet state and cation EPR properties appear to be dominated by the highest occupied molecular orbitals. These conclusions derived from EPR experiments are supplemented by data from Stark spectroscopy of reaction centers from Rb. capsulatus. 41 refs., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Norris, J.R.; DiMagno, T.J.; Angerhofer, A.; Chang, C.H.; El-Kabbani, O. & Schiffer, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultrafast and not-so fast dynamics of cytochrome oxidase: The ligand shuttle and its possible functional significance

Description: Time-resolved electronic absorption, infrared, resonance Raman, and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopies are applied to characterization of the intermediate which is formed within 20 ps after photodissociation of CO from cytochrome a{sub 3} of reduced cytochrome oxidase. This intermediate decays with the same halflife (ca. 1 {mu}s) as the post-photodissociation Cu{sub B}{sup +}-CO species previously observed by time-resolved infrared (1). The transient uv-Vis spectra, kinetics, infrared, and Raman evidence suggest that an endogenous ligand is transferred from Cu{sub B} to Fe{sub a3} when CO binds to Cu{sub B}, forming a cytochrome a{sub 3} species with axial ligation which differs from the reduced unliganded enzyme. The time-resolved magnetic circular dichroism results suggest that this transient is high spin and therefore five coordinate. Thus we infer that the ligand from Cu{sub B} binds on the distal side of cytochrome a{sub 3} and displaces the proximal histidine imidazole. This remarkable mechanistic feature is an additional aspect of the previously proposed (1) ligand shuttle'' activity of the Cu{sub B}/Fe{sub a3} pair. We suggest that the ligand shuttle may play a functional role in redox-linked proton translocation by the enzyme. 8 refs., 4 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Woodruff, W.H; Dyer, R.B.; Peterson, K.A.; Stoutland, P.O.; Bagley, K.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Einarsdottir, O. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Genes and gene expression: Localization, damage and control -- A multi-level and interdisciplinary study

Description: This progress report describes gains made in three projects entitled (1) 3-Dimensional nuclear topography of genes and chromosomes in interphase nuclei, (2) Sequence specific identification and perturbation of the genomic DNA in living cells by nonionic oligonucleotide analogs (Matagen), and Resolution and isolation of specific DNA restriction fragments.(DT)
Date: August 1, 1992
Creator: Ts'o, P.O.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Harvard-MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals

Description: This report presents research on radiopharmaceuticals. The following topics are discussed: antibody labeling with positron-emitting radionuclides; antibody modification for radioimmune imaging; labeling antibodies; evaluation of technetium acetlyacetonates as potential cerebral blood flow agents; and studies in technetium chemistry. (CBS)
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Adelstein, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department