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An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Ignition Sparks

Description: "The effectiveness of ignition sparks was determined by measuring the volume (or mass) of hydrogen and of oxygen which combines at low pressures. The sparks were generated by a magneto and an ignition spark coil. It was found that with constant energy the amount of reaction increases as the capacitance component of the spark increases" (p. 575).
Date: April 1930
Creator: Peters, Melville F.; Summerville, Wayne L. & Davis, Merlin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of hydrocarbon ignition

Description: From Summary: "Accurate spotaneous ignition temperatures have been determined for some 50 pure organic compounds. The effects of a wide variety of additives and of eight selected metals on the spontaneous-ignition-temperature values of representatives of this group also have been observed. Results are correlated with chemical structure and with antiknock characteristics where known; more fundamental aspects of the possible chain-breaking and chain-branching reactions involved are also considered."
Date: January 1952
Creator: Frank, Charles E. & Blackham, Angus U.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of spontaneous ignition temperatures of organic compounds with particular emphasis on lubricants

Description: Report presenting the study of spontaneous ignition characteristics of organic compounds with emphasis on the various types of lubricating oils. Results regarding the spontaneous ignition temperatures of the lubricants, pure compounds, effects of additives on spontaneous ignition temperatures, spontaneous ignition temperatures of mixtures and effects of additives, and effect of metal surfaces on spontaneous ignition temperatures are provided.
Date: December 1952
Creator: Frank, Charles E.; Blackham, Angus U. & Swarts, Donald E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of spark gaps subjected to altitude and air velocity conditions

Description: Report presenting a study of the effects of air velocity on the energy and power of the spark in a constant ignition source and the duration of the spark discharge in the spark gap for various conditions of electrode spacing, electrode diameter, air temperature, and pressure. Energy and average power increased with pressure, velocity, and electrode spacing and electrode diameter and air temperature had negligible effect.
Date: November 24, 1948
Creator: Swett, Clyde C., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of spark repetition rate on the ignition limits of a single tubular combustor

Description: The effect of spark repitition rate on the altitude ignition limits of a single tubular (turbojet engine) combustor was investigated. An increase in sparking rate from 3 to 140 sparks per second reduced the ignition limiting combustor-inlet pressure about 2 to 4 inches of mercury for air-flow rates of 1.87 and 2.80 pounds per second per square foot.520::At 3.75 pounds pe At 3.75 pounds per second per square foot, the corresponding reduction was 4 to 12 inches of mercury. The trend was similar for both low-and high-volatility fuels and for two spark-energy levels.
Date: December 6, 1951
Creator: Foster, Hampton H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spark ignition of flowing gases

Description: Research conducted at the NACA Lewis Laboratory on ignition of flowing gases by means of long-duration discharges is summarized and analyzed. Data showing the effect of a flowing combustible mixture on the physical and electrical characteristics of spark discharges and data showing the effects of variables on the spark energy required for ignition that has been developed to predict the effect of many of the gas-stream and spark variables is described and applied to a limited amount of experimental data.
Date: June 20, 1956
Creator: Swett, Clyde C., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrical characteristics of spark generators for automotive ignition

Description: From Summary: "This paper reports the results of an extensive program of measurements on 11 ignition systems differing widely in type. The results serve primarily to give representative data on the electric and magnetic constants of such systems, and on the secondary voltage produced by them under various conditions of speed, timing, shunting resistance, etc. They also serve to confirm certain of the theoretical formulas which have been proposed to connect the performance of such systems with their electrical constants, and to indicate the extent to which certain simplified model circuits duplicate the performance of the actual apparatus."
Date: 1927
Creator: Brode, R. B.; Randolph, D. W. & Silsbee, F. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simplified theory of the magneto

Description: From Summary: "This paper contains part of the results of ignition investigations being made for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the Bureau of Standards, and describes a type of circuit which has been found useful for representing the action of high-tension magneto. While this equivalent circuit is relatively simple, and consequently can be used as a basis for deriving definite mathematical formulas for induced voltages and similar quantities, it has been found experimentally to correspond quite closely in its performance with the highly complicated electrical circuits of an actual magneto. In the paper formulas are given for the voltage induced in the secondary under various conditions of operation, and a number of numerical examples are worked out showing the application of the equations to a variety of practical problems."
Date: 1923
Creator: Silsbee, F. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Causes of cracking of ignition cable

Description: From Summary: "The experiments described here show that the cracking at sharp bends, observed in the insulation of internal combustion engine high tension ignition wires after service, is due to a chemical attack upon the rubber by the ozone produced by the electric discharge that takes place at the surface of the cable. This cracking does not occur if the insulating material is not under tension, or if the cable is surrounded by some medium other than air. But it does occur even if the insulation is not subjected to electric stress, provided that the atmosphere near the cable contains ozone. The extent of this cracking varies greatly with the insulating material used. The cracking can be materially reduced by using braided cable and by avoiding sharp bends."
Date: February 1921
Creator: Dempsey, J. B. & Silsbee, F. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ignition delays of some nonaromatic fuels with low-freezing red fuming nitric acid in temperature range -40 to -105 degrees F

Description: From Summary: "With low-freezing red fuming nitric acid in a modified open-cup apparatus, ignition delays were determined in the temperature range -40 degrees to -105 degrees Fahrenheit for allylamine, disallylamine, mixed alkyl thiophosphites, ethylenimine, blends of each of these fuels with triethylamine, and blends of ehtylenimine with n-heptane. The data indicate that allylamine, mixed alkyl thiophosphites, and ehtylenimine can be blended with as much as 70 percent triethylamine and still ignite with average delays less than 30 milliseconds at -40 degrees Fahrenheit, and approximately 40 milliseconds at -76 degrees Fahrenheit (-60 degrees Celsius)."
Date: January 19, 1953
Creator: Miller, Riley O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relation Between Inflammables and Ignition Sources in Aircraft Environments

Description: From Summary: "A literature survey was conducted to determine the relation between aircraft ignition sources and inflammables. Available literature applicable to the problem of aircraft fire hazards is analyzed and discussed herein. Data pertaining to the effect of many variables on ignition temperatures, minimum ignition pressures, and minimum spark-ignition energies of inflammables, quenching distances of electrode configurations, and size of openings incapable of flame propagation are presented and discussed."
Date: December 1950
Creator: Scull, Wilfred E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spark ignition of flowing gases 5: application of fuel-air-ratio and initial-temperature data to ignition theory

Description: Report presenting a study to show the effect of fuel-air ratio and initial temperature on spark-ignition energy and to apply the results to a previously developed theory of ignition. Results regarding initial-temperature effect and fuel-air-ratio effect are provided.
Date: November 1, 1955
Creator: Swett, Clyde C., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude-ignition limit of a turbojet engine using a condenser-discharge ignition system

Description: The altitude-ignition limits of a condenser-discharge ignition system installed on a turbojet engine were determined at a flight Mach number of 0.6 using 1.1-pound Reid vapor pressure fuel. Ignition was possible up to an altitude of 55,000 feet with 4.8 joules per spark and 6 sparks per second.
Date: October 23, 1951
Creator: Armstrong, John C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary results of turbojet-engine altitude-starting investigation

Description: A spark energy of 2.13 joules per spark at 1 spark per second produced ignition to an altitude of 50,000 feet at a flight Mach number of 0.6. The minimum power requirements for ignition were obtained from a combination of low spark repetition rates and high spark energy. The altitude-ignition limit was also increased by increasing spark-gap immersion, fuel temperature, inlet-air temperature, and fuel volatility, and by decreasing flight Mach number. The maximum altitude at which flame propagation was accomplished from combusters with spark plugs to combusters without spark plugs to combustors without spark plugs was increased about 5000 feet by increasing fuel volatility.
Date: November 5, 1951
Creator: Wilsted, H. D. & Armstrong, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact Waves and Detonation: Part 1

Description: "Among the numerous thermodynamic and kinetic problems that have arisen in the application of the gaseous explosive reaction as a source of power in the internal combustion engine, the problem of the mode or way by which the transformation proceeds and the rate at which the heat energy is delivered to the working fluid became very early in the engine's development a problem of prime importance. The work of Becker here given is a notable extension of earlier investigations, because it covers the entire range of the explosive reaction in gases - normal detonation and burning" (p. i).
Date: March 1929
Creator: Becker, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Oxygen on the Ignition of Liquid Fuels

Description: The ignition temperature, ignition lag, and ignition strength of simple and homogeneous fuels in combustion air of small oxygen content differ from what they are in air of greater oxygen content. In the case of small oxygen content, these fuels behave as if mixed unevenly. In the case of air with a definite oxygen content, the simple fuels have two ignition points, between which ignition takes place within a certain temperature range. The phenomena are explained by pyrogenous decomposition, comparison of the individual heat quantities, and the effect of the walls.
Date: January 1929
Creator: Pahl, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flame Quenching by a Variable-Width Rectangular-Slot Burner as a Function of Pressure for Various Propane-Oxygen-Nitrogen Mixtures

Description: "Flame quenching by a variable-width rectangular-slot burner as a function of pressure for various propane-oxygen-nitrogen mixtures was investigated. It was found that for cold gas temperatures of 27 degrees C, pressures of 0.1 or 1.0 atmosphere, and volumetric oxygen reactions of the oxidant of 0.17, 0.21, 0.30, 0.50, and 0.70, the relation between pressure p and quenching distance d is approximately given by d (unity) p (superscript -r) with r = 1, for equivalence ratios approximately equal to one. The quenching equation of Simon and Belles was tested" (p. 1).
Date: January 28, 1954
Creator: Berlad, Abraham L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of NACA Research on Ignition Lag of Self-Igniting Fuel - Nitric Acid Propellants

Description: Memorandum presenting a summary of ignition-lag data obtained from 1949 to 1956 in terms of dependence on temperature, pressure, reactor geometry, mixing method, and propellant composition. Analysis of the results and comparisons with data from other sources indicate agreement with a chemical kinetics model provided that mixing is reasonably energetic.
Date: October 3, 1957
Creator: Morrell, Gerald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of Several Factors on Ignition Lag in a Compression-Ignition Engine

Description: "This investigation was made to determine the influence of fuel quality, injection advance angle, injection valve-opening pressure, inlet-air pressure, compression ratio, and engine speed on the time lag of auto-ignition of a Diesel fuel oil in a single-cylinder compression-ignition engine as obtained from an analysis of indicator diagrams. Three cam-operated fuel-injection pumps, two pumps cams, and an automatic injection valve with two different nozzles were used. Ignition lag was considered to be the interval between the start of injection of the fuel as determined with a Stroborama and the start of effective combustion as determined from the indicator diagram, the latter being the point where 4.0 x 10(exp-6) pound of fuel had been effectively burned" (p. 1).
Date: November 1932
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C. & Voss, Fred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Automotive Ignition Coil

Description: This report gives the results of a series of measurements on the secondary voltage induced in an ignition coil of typical construction under a variety of operating conditions. These results show that the theoretical predictions hitherto made as to the behavior of this type of apparatus are in satisfactory agreement with the observed facts. The large mass of data obtained is here published both for the use of other investigators who may wish to compare them with other theoretical predictions and for the use of automotive engineers who will here find definite experimental results showing the effect of secondary capacity and resistance on the crest voltage produced by ignition apparatus.
Date: 1932?~
Creator: Darnell, T. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vapor-Phase Oxidation and Spontaneous Ignition-Correlation and Effect of Variables

Description: Note presenting the spontaneous ignition temperatures of eight structurally different hydrocarbons, which were correlated with the behavior of the same hydrocarbons toward vapor-phase oxidation. The results indicated that reducing the stoichiometry of a hydrocarbon-oxygen gas mixture to less than unity decreases the extent of oxidation, other conditions remaining unchanged.
Date: April 1956
Creator: Swarts, Donald E. & Orchin, Milton
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's activities to achieve ignition by x-ray drive on the National Ignition Facility

Description: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a MJ-class glass laser-based facility funded by the Department of Energy which has achieving thermonuclear ignition and moderate gain as one of its main objectives. In the summer of 1998, the project is about 40% complete, and design and construction is on schedule and on cost. The NIF will start firing onto targets in 2001, and will achieve full energy in 2004. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), together with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have the main responsibility for achieving x-ray driven ignition on the NIF. In the 1990�s, a comprehensive series of experiments on Nova at LLNL, followed by recent experiments on the Omega laser at the University of Rochester, demonstrated confidence in understanding the physics of x-ray drive implosions. The same physics at equivalent scales is used in calculations to predict target performance on the NIF, giving credence to calculations of ignition on the NIF. An integrated program of work in preparing the NIF for x-ray driven ignition in about 2007, and the key issues being addressed on the current ICF facilities [(Nova, Omega, Z at Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and NIKE at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL)] are described.
Date: July 20, 1998
Creator: Bernat, T. P.; Hammel, B. A.; Kauffman, R. L.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Landen, O. L.; Lindl, J. D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On Point Designs for High Gain Fast Ignition

Description: Fast ignition research has reached the stage where point designs are becoming crucial to the identification of key issues and the development of projects to demonstrate high gain fast ignition. The status of point designs for cone coupled electron fast ignition and some of the issues they highlight are discussed.
Date: September 27, 2007
Creator: Key, M; Akli, K; Beg, F; Betti, R; Clark, D S; Chen, S N et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A rapid compression machine suitable for studying short ignition delays

Description: Report presenting an examination of a machine developed to study the ignition delay of fuels by means of a rapid adiabatic compression. The essential features of the machine are that the compression is completed in about 0.006 second, provision is made for obtaining simultaneous records of piston motion and cylinder pressure, and the combustion cylinder is unlubricated. An extensive explanation of the components of the machine and its applicability to different scenarios are provided.
Date: February 1948
Creator: Leary, W. A.; Taylor, E. S.; Taylor, C. F. & Jovellanos, J. U.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department