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Investigation of hydrocarbon ignition

Description: From Summary: "Accurate spotaneous ignition temperatures have been determined for some 50 pure organic compounds. The effects of a wide variety of additives and of eight selected metals on the spontaneous-ignition-temperature values of representatives of this group also have been observed. Results are correlated with chemical structure and with antiknock characteristics where known; more fundamental aspects of the possible chain-breaking and chain-branching reactions involved are also considered."
Date: January 1952
Creator: Frank, Charles E. & Blackham, Angus U.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of spontaneous ignition temperatures of organic compounds with particular emphasis on lubricants

Description: Report presenting the study of spontaneous ignition characteristics of organic compounds with emphasis on the various types of lubricating oils. Results regarding the spontaneous ignition temperatures of the lubricants, pure compounds, effects of additives on spontaneous ignition temperatures, spontaneous ignition temperatures of mixtures and effects of additives, and effect of metal surfaces on spontaneous ignition temperatures are provided.
Date: December 1952
Creator: Frank, Charles E.; Blackham, Angus U. & Swarts, Donald E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of spark gaps subjected to altitude and air velocity conditions

Description: Report presenting a study of the effects of air velocity on the energy and power of the spark in a constant ignition source and the duration of the spark discharge in the spark gap for various conditions of electrode spacing, electrode diameter, air temperature, and pressure. Energy and average power increased with pressure, velocity, and electrode spacing and electrode diameter and air temperature had negligible effect.
Date: November 24, 1948
Creator: Swett, Clyde C., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of spark repetition rate on the ignition limits of a single tubular combustor

Description: The effect of spark repitition rate on the altitude ignition limits of a single tubular (turbojet engine) combustor was investigated. An increase in sparking rate from 3 to 140 sparks per second reduced the ignition limiting combustor-inlet pressure about 2 to 4 inches of mercury for air-flow rates of 1.87 and 2.80 pounds per second per square foot.520::At 3.75 pounds pe At 3.75 pounds per second per square foot, the corresponding reduction was 4 to 12 inches of mercury. The trend was similar for both low-and high-volatility fuels and for two spark-energy levels.
Date: December 6, 1951
Creator: Foster, Hampton H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spark ignition of flowing gases

Description: Research conducted at the NACA Lewis Laboratory on ignition of flowing gases by means of long-duration discharges is summarized and analyzed. Data showing the effect of a flowing combustible mixture on the physical and electrical characteristics of spark discharges and data showing the effects of variables on the spark energy required for ignition that has been developed to predict the effect of many of the gas-stream and spark variables is described and applied to a limited amount of experimental data.
Date: June 20, 1956
Creator: Swett, Clyde C., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrical characteristics of spark generators for automotive ignition

Description: From Summary: "This paper reports the results of an extensive program of measurements on 11 ignition systems differing widely in type. The results serve primarily to give representative data on the electric and magnetic constants of such systems, and on the secondary voltage produced by them under various conditions of speed, timing, shunting resistance, etc. They also serve to confirm certain of the theoretical formulas which have been proposed to connect the performance of such systems with their electrical constants, and to indicate the extent to which certain simplified model circuits duplicate the performance of the actual apparatus."
Date: 1927
Creator: Brode, R. B.; Randolph, D. W. & Silsbee, F. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simplified theory of the magneto

Description: From Summary: "This paper contains part of the results of ignition investigations being made for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the Bureau of Standards, and describes a type of circuit which has been found useful for representing the action of high-tension magneto. While this equivalent circuit is relatively simple, and consequently can be used as a basis for deriving definite mathematical formulas for induced voltages and similar quantities, it has been found experimentally to correspond quite closely in its performance with the highly complicated electrical circuits of an actual magneto. In the paper formulas are given for the voltage induced in the secondary under various conditions of operation, and a number of numerical examples are worked out showing the application of the equations to a variety of practical problems."
Date: 1923
Creator: Silsbee, F. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Causes of cracking of ignition cable

Description: From Summary: "The experiments described here show that the cracking at sharp bends, observed in the insulation of internal combustion engine high tension ignition wires after service, is due to a chemical attack upon the rubber by the ozone produced by the electric discharge that takes place at the surface of the cable. This cracking does not occur if the insulating material is not under tension, or if the cable is surrounded by some medium other than air. But it does occur even if the insulation is not subjected to electric stress, provided that the atmosphere near the cable contains ozone. The extent of this cracking varies greatly with the insulating material used. The cracking can be materially reduced by using braided cable and by avoiding sharp bends."
Date: February 1921
Creator: Dempsey, J. B. & Silsbee, F. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ignition delays of some nonaromatic fuels with low-freezing red fuming nitric acid in temperature range -40 to -105 degrees F

Description: From Summary: "With low-freezing red fuming nitric acid in a modified open-cup apparatus, ignition delays were determined in the temperature range -40 degrees to -105 degrees Fahrenheit for allylamine, disallylamine, mixed alkyl thiophosphites, ethylenimine, blends of each of these fuels with triethylamine, and blends of ehtylenimine with n-heptane. The data indicate that allylamine, mixed alkyl thiophosphites, and ehtylenimine can be blended with as much as 70 percent triethylamine and still ignite with average delays less than 30 milliseconds at -40 degrees Fahrenheit, and approximately 40 milliseconds at -76 degrees Fahrenheit (-60 degrees Celsius)."
Date: January 19, 1953
Creator: Miller, Riley O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relation Between Inflammables and Ignition Sources in Aircraft Environments

Description: From Summary: "A literature survey was conducted to determine the relation between aircraft ignition sources and inflammables. Available literature applicable to the problem of aircraft fire hazards is analyzed and discussed herein. Data pertaining to the effect of many variables on ignition temperatures, minimum ignition pressures, and minimum spark-ignition energies of inflammables, quenching distances of electrode configurations, and size of openings incapable of flame propagation are presented and discussed."
Date: December 1950
Creator: Scull, Wilfred E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spark ignition of flowing gases 5: application of fuel-air-ratio and initial-temperature data to ignition theory

Description: Report presenting a study to show the effect of fuel-air ratio and initial temperature on spark-ignition energy and to apply the results to a previously developed theory of ignition. Results regarding initial-temperature effect and fuel-air-ratio effect are provided.
Date: November 1, 1955
Creator: Swett, Clyde C., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude-ignition limit of a turbojet engine using a condenser-discharge ignition system

Description: The altitude-ignition limits of a condenser-discharge ignition system installed on a turbojet engine were determined at a flight Mach number of 0.6 using 1.1-pound Reid vapor pressure fuel. Ignition was possible up to an altitude of 55,000 feet with 4.8 joules per spark and 6 sparks per second.
Date: October 23, 1951
Creator: Armstrong, John C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary results of turbojet-engine altitude-starting investigation

Description: A spark energy of 2.13 joules per spark at 1 spark per second produced ignition to an altitude of 50,000 feet at a flight Mach number of 0.6. The minimum power requirements for ignition were obtained from a combination of low spark repetition rates and high spark energy. The altitude-ignition limit was also increased by increasing spark-gap immersion, fuel temperature, inlet-air temperature, and fuel volatility, and by decreasing flight Mach number. The maximum altitude at which flame propagation was accomplished from combusters with spark plugs to combusters without spark plugs to combustors without spark plugs was increased about 5000 feet by increasing fuel volatility.
Date: November 5, 1951
Creator: Wilsted, H. D. & Armstrong, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's activities to achieve ignition by x-ray drive on the National Ignition Facility

Description: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a MJ-class glass laser-based facility funded by the Department of Energy which has achieving thermonuclear ignition and moderate gain as one of its main objectives. In the summer of 1998, the project is about 40% complete, and design and construction is on schedule and on cost. The NIF will start firing onto targets in 2001, and will achieve full energy in 2004. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), together with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have the main responsibility for achieving x-ray driven ignition on the NIF. In the 1990�s, a comprehensive series of experiments on Nova at LLNL, followed by recent experiments on the Omega laser at the University of Rochester, demonstrated confidence in understanding the physics of x-ray drive implosions. The same physics at equivalent scales is used in calculations to predict target performance on the NIF, giving credence to calculations of ignition on the NIF. An integrated program of work in preparing the NIF for x-ray driven ignition in about 2007, and the key issues being addressed on the current ICF facilities [(Nova, Omega, Z at Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and NIKE at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL)] are described.
Date: July 20, 1998
Creator: Bernat, T. P.; Hammel, B. A.; Kauffman, R. L.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Landen, O. L.; Lindl, J. D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On Point Designs for High Gain Fast Ignition

Description: Fast ignition research has reached the stage where point designs are becoming crucial to the identification of key issues and the development of projects to demonstrate high gain fast ignition. The status of point designs for cone coupled electron fast ignition and some of the issues they highlight are discussed.
Date: September 27, 2007
Creator: Key, M; Akli, K; Beg, F; Betti, R; Clark, D S; Chen, S N et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat energy of various ignition sparks

Description: From Resume: "This report describes a method developed at the Bureau of Standards for measuring the total energy liberated as heat in a spark gap by an ignition system. Since this heat energy is obtained from the electromagnetic energy stored in the windings of the magneto or coil, it is a measure of the effectiveness of the device as an electric generator." Part 2 gives the results of measurements in absolute units of the total heat supplied to a spark gap by ignition systems of different types operating at various speeds, under conditions substantially equivalent to those in the cylinder of a high-compression aviation engine.
Date: 1920
Creator: Silsbee, F. B.; Loeb, L. B. & Fonseca, E. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of high-tension magnetos

Description: This report gives the results of an investigation made into the fundamental physical characteristics of high-tension ignition magnetos, and also describes the methods used for measuring the quantities involved.
Date: 1920
Creator: Silsbee, F. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A rapid compression machine suitable for studying short ignition delays

Description: Report presenting an examination of a machine developed to study the ignition delay of fuels by means of a rapid adiabatic compression. The essential features of the machine are that the compression is completed in about 0.006 second, provision is made for obtaining simultaneous records of piston motion and cylinder pressure, and the combustion cylinder is unlubricated. An extensive explanation of the components of the machine and its applicability to different scenarios are provided.
Date: February 1948
Creator: Leary, W. A.; Taylor, E. S.; Taylor, C. F. & Jovellanos, J. U.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The significance of the time concept in engine detonation

Description: Report presenting an experimental technique developed by means of which the variables affecting the time element in the detonation process in a spark-ignition engine can be controlled and approximately measured. Results indicated that higher maximum permissible pressures can be used if the rate of compression of the end gas is increased. Suggestions for future study are provided.
Date: January 1943
Creator: Leary, W. A. & Taylor, E. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of pressure on the spontaneous ignition temperature of liquid fuels

Description: Report presenting an investigation of spontaneous ignition temperatures from 1 to 9 atmospheres in the air for n-heptane, isooctane, benzene, JP-4, and JP-5 fuels. Time lags before ignition were measured at each pressure for all fuels. Results regarding the effect of pressure, general comparisons of all fuels, and ignition-lag experiments are provided.
Date: October 1956
Creator: O'Neal, Cleveland, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ignition-energy requirements in a single tubular combustor

Description: Report presenting an investigation conducted to determine the minimum spark energy required for ignition in a single tubular combustor. Inlet-air pressure and flow rates limiting ignition are compared with those limiting steady-state burning in the combustor. Results regarding ignition at sea-level conditions, altitude steady-state burning limits, altitude ignition, and reproducibility are provided.
Date: March 27, 1951
Creator: Foster, Hampton H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen as an auxiliary fuel in compression-ignition engines

Description: From Summary: "An investigation was made to determine whether a sufficient amount of hydrogen could be efficiently burned in a compression-ignition engine to compensate for the increase of lift of an airship due to the consumption of the fuel oil. The performance of a single-cylinder four-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine operating on fuel oil alone was compared with its performance when various quantities of hydrogen were inducted with the inlet air. Engine-performance data, indicator cards, and exhaust-gas samples were obtained for each change in engine-operating conditions."
Date: April 15, 1935
Creator: Gerrish, Harold C. & Foster, Hampton H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The quiescent-chamber type compression-ignition engine

Description: Report presents the results of performance tests of a single-cylinder 4-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine having a vertical disk form of combustion chamber without air flow. The number, size, and direction of the orifices of the fuel-injection nozzles used were independently varied. A table and graphs are presented showing the performance of the engine with different nozzles; results of tests at different compression ratios, boost pressures, and coolant temperatures are also included.
Date: April 30, 1936
Creator: Foster, H. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of air-entry angle on performance of a 2-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine

Description: An investigation was made to determine the effect of variations in the horizontal and vertical air-entry angles on the performance characteristics of a single-cylinder 2-stroke-cycle compression-ignition test engine. Performance data were obtained over a wide range of engine speed, scavenging pressure, fuel quantity, and injection advance angle with the optimum guide vanes. Friction and blower-power curves are included for calculating the indicated and net performances. The optimum horizontal air-entry angle was found to be 60 degrees from the radial and the optimum vertical angle to be zero, under which conditions a maximum power output of 77 gross brake horsepower for a specific fuel consumption of 0.52 pound per brake horsepower-hour was obtained at 1,800 r.p.m. and 16-1/2 inches of Hg scavenging pressure. The corresponding specific output was 0.65 gross brake horsepower per cubic inch of piston displacement. Tests revealed that the optimum scavenging pressure increased linearly with engine speed. The brake mean effective pressure increased uniformly with air quantity per cycle for any given vane angle and was independent of engine speed and scavenging pressure.
Date: August 1937
Creator: Earle, Sherod L. & Dutee, Francis J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department