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The Formation of Ice Upon Exposed Parts of an Airplane in Flight

Description: In order to experimentally study the conditions leading to ice formation on aircraft surfaces, an aircraft was equipped with small auxiliary surfaces and aerodynamic shapes similar to struts, wires, Pitot heads, etc. This airplane was flown at an altitude where a temperature of 32 F was encountered, at such times as cloud formations could be found at the coincident altitude. Here it was discovered that ice formed rapidly in regard to quantity, character, shape, and rapidity of formation.
Date: July 1928
Creator: Carroll, Thomas & McAvoy, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A preliminary investigation of the icing characteristics of a large rectangular-throat pressure-type carburetor

Description: Report discussing the icing characteristics of a rectangular-throat pressure-type carburetor. Serious ice was not found to form under the conditions of this particular test, although visible ice and frost formed in certain areas.
Date: July 1946
Creator: Chapman, Gilbert E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Formation of Ice Upon Airplanes in Flight

Description: This report describes the atmospheric conditions under which ice is formed upon the exposed parts of airplanes in flight. It identifies the formation found under different conditions, and describes some studies of preventative means.
Date: August 1929
Creator: Carroll, Thomas & McAvoy, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Several Methods of Cyclic De-Icing of a Gas-Heated Airfoil

Description: "Several methods of cyclic de-icing of a gas-heated airfoil were investigated to determine ice-removal characteristics and heating requirements. The cyclic de-icing system with a spanwise ice-free parting strip in the stagnation region and a constant-temperature gas-supply duct gave the quickest and most reliable ice removal. Heating requirements for the several methods of cyclic de-icing are compared, and the savings over continuous ice prevention are shown. Data are presented to show the relation of surface temperature, rate of surface heating, and heating time to the removal of ice" (p. 1).
Date: June 22, 1953
Creator: Gray, Vernon H. & Bowden, Dean T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory investigation of icing in the carburetor and supercharger inlet elbow of an aircraft engine 3: heated air as a means of de-icing the carburetor and supercharger inlet elbow

Description: Report discussing the use of a twin-barrel injection carburetor and a supercharger inlet elbow to establish the relation between wet- and dry-bulb temperatures of the de-icing air and time required to recover from air-flow loss due to icing. The tests were performed at several power conditions, icing conditions, temperatures, and dry and humidified air. De-icing time was found to be a function of the nature of the ice formation and of the wet-bulb temperature of the de-icing air.
Date: December 1945
Creator: Lyons, Richard E. & Coles, Willard D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory investigation of icing in the carburetor and supercharger inlet elbow of an aircraft engine 6: effect of modifications to fuel-spray nozzle on icing characteristics

Description: Report discussing modifications to the spray nozzle to prevent the formation of refrigeration icing in the induction system of an aircraft engine. Two fuel-injection systems, a spinner type and a drilled-inducer type, that prevent the formation of refrigerator icing satisfactorily were created.
Date: January 1946
Creator: Mulholland, Donald R. & Chapman, Gilbert E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory investigation of icing in the carburetor and supercharger inlet elbow of an aircraft engine 4: effect of throttle design and method of throttle operation on induction-system icing characteristics

Description: From Summary: "In order to eliminate the formation of ice on the carburetor throttle plates of an aircraft-engine induction system, two modifications of the throttle design and a variation in the method of throttle operation of the twin-barrel injection carburetor were tested." The modifications were investigated under severe icing conditions at normal power, maximum cruising power, and 60-percent normal power. The only modification that appeared to provide deicing assistance were the electrically heated throttle plates.
Date: January 1946
Creator: Chapman, G. E. & Zlotowski, E. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory investigation of icing in the carburetor and supercharger inlet elbow of an aircraft engine 5: effect of injection of water-fuel mixtures and water-ethanol-fuel mixtures on the icing characteristics

Description: Report discussing the effects of internal coolants injected with fuel on the icing characteristics of a twin-barrel injection carburetor mounted on an engine-stage supercharger assembly. The tests were made at conditions that simulated war emergency power and at a variety of water-fuel ratios, carburetor-air temperatures, and carburetor-air relative humidities.
Date: December 1945
Creator: Renner, Clark E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An investigation of a thermal ice-prevention system for a cargo airplane IX: the temperature of the wing leading-edge structure as established in flight

Description: Report presenting flight measurements of structure temperatures occurring in the wing outer panel of the airplane in order to improve the design of thermal ice-prevention systems. Results indicate that structure temperatures increased almost in direct proportion with an increase in heated-air temperature.
Date: June 1948
Creator: Schlaff, Bernard A. & Selna, James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary report on flight tests of an airplane having exhaust-heated wings

Description: Report presenting testing of an airplane in icing conditions to determine the effect of exhaust heat applied to the wings as a means of preventing ice formations. Other ice-prevention equipment, including an exhaust gas-heated pitot-static head, hot-air-heated windshield, and an inflatable de-icer were also tested.
Date: April 1941
Creator: Rodert, Lewis A.; McAvoy, William H. & Clousing, Lawrence A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impingement of Water Droplets on an Ellipsoid with Fineness Ration 10 in Axisymmetric Flow

Description: From Summary: "The presence of radomes and instruments that are sensitive to water films or ice formations in the nose section of all-weather aircraft and missiles necessitates a knowledge of the droplet impingement characteristics of bodies of revolution. Because it is possible to approximate many of these bodies with an ellipsoid of revolution, droplet trajectories about an ellipsoid of revolution with a fineness ratio of 10 were computed for incompressible axisymmetric air flow. From the computed droplet trajectories, the following impingement characteristics of the ellipsoid surface were obtained and are presented in terms of dimensionless parameters: (1) total rate of water impingement, (2) extent of droplet impingement zone, and (3) local rate of water impingement."
Date: May 1954
Creator: Brun, Rinaldo J. & Dorsch, Robert G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simple graphical solution of heat transfer and evaporation from surface heated to prevent icing

Description: "Equations expressing the heat transfer and evaporation from wetted surfaces during ice prevention have been simplified and regrouped to permit solutions by simple graphical means. Working charts for quick and accurate anti-icing calculations are also included" (p. 1).
Date: October 1952
Creator: Gray, Vernon H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Approximate Method of Calculation of Relative Humidity Required to Prevent Frosting on Inside of Aircraft Pressure Cabin Windows, Special Report

Description: This report has been prepare in response to a request for information from an aircraft company. A typical example was selected for the presentation of an approximate method of calculation of the relative humidity required to prevent frosting on the inside of a plastic window in a pressure type cabin on a high speed airplane. The results of the study are reviewed.
Date: December 5, 1940
Creator: Jones, Alun R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impingement of water droplets on wedges and double-wedge airfoils at supersonic speeds

Description: "An analytical solution has been obtained for the equations of motion of water droplets impinging on a wedge in a two-dimensional supersonic flow field with a shock wave attached to the wedge. The closed-form solution yields analytical expressions for the equation of the droplet trajectory, the local rate of impingement and the impingement velocity at any point on the wedge surface, and the total rate of impingement. The analytical expressions are utilized to determine the impingement on the forward surfaces of diamond airfoils in supersonic flow fields with attached shock waves" (p. 85).
Date: April 21, 1953
Creator: Serafini, John S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Investigation of Cyclic De-Icing of an Airfoil Using an External Electric Heater

Description: "An investigation was conducted in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel to determine the characteristics and requirements of cyclic deicing of a 65,2-216 airfoil by use of an external electric heater. The present investigation was limited to an airspeed of 175 miles per hour. Data are presented to show the effects of variations in heat-on and heat-off periods, ambient air temperature, liquid-water content, angle of attack, and. heating distribution on the requirements for cyclic deicing" (p. 1).
Date: February 4, 1952
Creator: Lewis, James P. & Bowden, Dean T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ice Prevention on Aircraft by Means of Engine Exhaust Heat and a Technical Study of Heat Transmission From a Clark Y Airfoil

Description: "This investigation was conducted to study the practicability of employing heat as a means of preventing the formation of ice on airplane wings. The report relates essentially to technical problems regarding the extraction of heat from the exhaust gases and its proper distribution over the exposed surfaces. In this connection a separate study has been made to determine the variation of the coefficient of heat transmission along the chord of a Clark Y airfoil. Experiments on ice prevention both in the laboratory and in flight show conclusively that it is necessary to heat only the front portion of the wing surface to effect complete prevention" (p. 3).
Date: June 12, 1931
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore & Clay, William C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Refrigerated wind tunnel tests on surface coatings for preventing ice formation

Description: "This investigation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of various surface coatings as a means for preventing ice formations on aircraft in flight. The substances used as coatings for these tests are divided into two groups: compounds soluble in water, and those which are insoluble in water. It was found that certain soluble compounds were apparently effective in preventing the formation of ice on an airfoil model, while all insoluble compounds which were tested were found to be ineffective" (p. 1).
Date: May 1930
Creator: Knight, Montgomery & Clay, William C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight tests of several exhaust-gas-to-air heat exchangers

Description: Report presenting an investigation of thirteen exhaust-gas-to-air heat exchangers to determine the practicability of the use of such heat exchangers in the thermal ice-prevention systems on aircraft. The results show that the exchangers constitute an excellent source of heated air for aircraft ice prevention and can be constructed to resist thermal and vibrational stresses.
Date: March 1944
Creator: Jackson, Richard & Hillendahl, Wesley H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Analytical Investigation of the Heat Losses from a U.S. Navy K-Type Airship

Description: From Summary: "The heat losses from the envelope surface of a U.S. Navy K-type airship are evaluated to determine if the use of heat is a feasible means of preventing ice and snow accumulations on lighter-than-air craft during flight and when moored uncovered. Consideration is given to heat losses in clear air (no liquid water present in the atmosphere) and in probable conditions of icing and snow. The results of the analysis indicate that the amount of heat required in flight to raise the surface temperature of the entire envelope to the extent considered adequate for ice protection, based on experience with tests of heavier-than-air craft, is very large."
Date: February 17, 1947
Creator: Hillendahl, Wesley H. & George, Ralph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department