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Heavy ion fusion program. Semi-annual progress report, October 1, 1979-March 30, 1980

Description: HIF activity at ANL during FY 1980 has been primarily concentrated on conceptual design work, and on initial tests of the independently-phased rf acceleration cavities. Calculations for near-term foil-heating experiments were carried out, and a specific cost-effective synchrotron (Beam Development Facility) plan was developed. Program logics were further refined, and some conceptual reactor issues were addressed.
Date: January 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Light ion fusion experiment (L. I. F. E. ) concept validation studies. Final report, July 1979-May 1980

Description: This report reflects the considerable advances made for the objectives of the contractual program, validating by detailed anaytical studies the concept of a new Light Ion Fusion Experiment for Inertial Confinement Fusion. The studies have produced an analytical design of a novel electrostatic accelerator based on separate function and strong channel focusing principles, to launch 3 to 10 MeV, 23 kA, He/sup +/ neutralized beams in 400 ns pulses, delivering on a 5 mm radius target located 10 m downstream, 50 kJ of implosion energy in approx. 20 ns impact times The control, stability and focusing of beams is made by electrostatic quadrupoles, producing overall beam normalized emittance of approx. 3 x 10/sup -5/ m-rad.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Christensen, T E; Orthel, J L & Thomson, J J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual report of the Brookhaven National Laboratory Heavy Ion Fusion Project, 1 October 1977--1 October 1978

Description: This report is divided into three parts. The first deals with the results of an analysis of the fusion problem in general, and heavy ion inertial fusion in particular. The second portion deals with the progress being made in the design and development of high current, high brightness pre-injectors and linear accelerators. The third deals with some experiments with space charge neutralization, bunching, etc.
Date: February 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particle beam pellet fusion. Final report, November 1, 1976--January 31, 1979

Description: A model was developed for the propagation of a focussed ion beam through the gas that may exist in the target chamber of a reactor. The model contains the effects of beam ion stripping, background plasma generation by the beam ions, and electron avalanching in the electric fields produced by the ion pulse. Charge and partial current neutralization, together with stability conditions and the effects of preionization have been investigated, with most recent emphasis being on the role of filamentation instabilities.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Tidman, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Systems assessment of heavy ion beam fusion drivers. Final report, January 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

Description: A systems analysis for a fusion reactor utilizing a heavy ion beam-pellet fusion is carried out to evaluate the performance of several potential drivers. These include the two proposed by the Argonne National Laboratory, namely Hearthfire Reference Concepts 2 and 3; the RF linear accelerator proposed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory; and the Induction Linac System advanced by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. It is shown that accelerator systems utilizing rapid cycling synchrotrons are the least attractive drivers unless the efficiency of this component is sufficiently improved. Using a power cost-formula that accounts for the accelerator operating cost it appears on the basis of available data that only one driver might fall within the economically acceptable range of producing electric power at 4 cents a kilowatt hour but only if certain optimistic conditions are met.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Kammash, T.; Drum, C.R. & Theisen, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particle beam fusion program. Publications and related reports: a bibliography, January 1971-July 1979

Description: This bibliography documents the evolution of this program and consolidates its 207 entries into a handy source book. The entries represent documents published by Sandia between January 1, 1971 and July 31, 1979. In order to assist the reader, the reports have been categorized into the general topics of Reviews, Beams and Plasmas, Deposition Physics and Targets, Pulsed Power Technology, and Reactors and Repetitive Pulsed Technology, and arranged in chronological order, with the most recent report in each area presented first. The reports are also cross-indexed by author and by publication number (SLA, SAND, etc.).
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Yonas, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some proposed disk-heating and beam-transport experiments for heavy-ion inertial-fusion test facilities

Description: Calculations suggest that experiments relating to beam deposition, focusing and transport can be performed within the context of current design proposals for accelerator test-facilities. Since the test-facilities have lower ion kinetic energy and beam pulse power as compared to reactor drivers, we achieve high-beam intensities at the focal spot by using short focal distance and properly designed beam optics. In this regard, the low beam emittance of suggested multi-beam designs are very useful. Preliminary results suggest that intensities close to 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/ are achievable. Given these intensities, deposition experiments with heating of disks to greater than a million degrees Kelvin (100 eV) are expected. We could also expect as much as 1 to 3 kA of incident ion current on these disks with beam intensities almost comparable to that of reactor targets.
Date: June 8, 1981
Creator: Mark, J.W.K.; Bangerter, R.O.; Fawley, W.M.; Yu, S. & Wang, T.S.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of the Argonne National Laboratory heavy ion fusion program

Description: We have recently been successful with accelerating 50 mA of Xe/sup +1/ to 1.1 MeV in our modified Dynamitron in a pulse 100 ..mu..sec long. We anticipate conditioning the column to 1.5 MeV and bunching and accelerating the beam to 2 MeV in the first stages of the low velocity linac within the next few months. On the basis of the recommendations by a national committee reviewing inertial confinement fusion drivers, support for the heavy ion fusion program will be significantly increased in the next fiscal year with a view toward a choice between the two competing systems, rf linac with accumulator rings and induction linacs, in 1982 or 1983. Argonne has proposed a development program which will demonstrate by this time (at a relatively low current level) all the accelerator technology involved in the ignition source for a fusion power plant. The plan includes an interesting new concept of telescoping beams of different charge states with the same magnetic rigidity into the same beam line to reduce the number of beam lines otherwise required. The status and plans of the Argonne program will be reported.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Martin, R.L. & Burke, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the heavy ion fusion workshop

Description: These proceedings contain reviews of current laboratory programs dealing with inertial fusion driven by beams of heavy ions, as well as several individually abstracted invited talks, workshop reports and contributed papers.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Arnold, R C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy ion beam degradation from stripping in near vacuum reactor chambers

Description: With the use of a particle simulation code we have investigated the ballistic transport of heavy ion beams through a gas-filled reactor for inertial confinement fusion. The background gas pressure has been taken to be 10/sup -4/ torr - 10/sup -3/ torr of Lithium vapor as is appropriate to the HYLIFE reactor concept. During transport to the pellet, Coulomb collisions of beam particles with the background gas will convert a fraction of the beam to charges states higher than the initial value. Collisons will also produce an associated swarm of knock-on electrons. As the beam approaches the pellet, anharmonic components of the space charges forces will lead to a distortion of the phase space of the beam and a consequent degradation of the focal properties of the beam. This degradation can be described in terms of an increase in the rms emittance of the beam. The degree of emittance growth depends sensitivity upon the initial spatial distribution of particles in the beam. For this study we have modified a single-disk particle simulation code, DESTIN (2), to follow two species of particles, the number of which varies in a prescribed fashion dependent upon reactor temperature as the beam converges toward the pellet.
Date: July 21, 1981
Creator: Barletta, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design/cost of an induction linac for heavy ions for pellet-fusion

Description: The physics of the pellet implosion sets stringent conditions on the accelerator driver. The beam energy should be > 1 MJ, the beam power > 100 TW (implying a pulse length approx. = 10 ns), and the specific energy deposition in the pellet > 20 MJ/g. Thus, considerable current amplification is required, e.g. from some 10 amps at the source to perhaps 10 kiloamps at the pellet. Most of this amplification can be accomplished continuously along the accelerator and the remainder achieved at the end by bunching in the final transport lines to the target chamber. A conceptual schematic of an Induction Linac Fusion Driver is shown, which includes an injector, an accelerator-buncher, and a final transport system. Here only the accelerator portion of the driver is discussed.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Faltens, A.; Hoyer, E.; Keefe, D. & Laslett, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of heavy-ion accelerators as drivers for inertially confined fusion

Description: The commercialization of inertial confinement fusion is discussed in terms of power costs. A chapter on heavy ion accelerators covers the prinicpal components, beam loss mechanisms, and theoretical considerations. Other tyopics discussed include the following: (1) heavy ion fusion implementation plan, (2) driver with accumulator rings fed by an rf LINAC, (3) single pass driver with an induction LINAC, and (4) implementation scenarios.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory year-end-report on heavy-ion fusion program

Description: An intensive theoretical program was launched to try to understand the conditions for safe propagation of intense beam currents in focussing systems, such as continuous and interrupted solenoid lens systems, and quadrupole strong-focussing systems. Analytic methods have led to significant advances in understanding of the new problems; with computational techniques a large amount of new information has been generated on space-charge-dominated transport phenomena; also, at this time a new LBL particle numerical simulation code is almost ready to give new results. Because the Bevalac is an operating heavy ion linac and synchrotron facility with an ongoing R and D effort and in expectation of imminent upgrading to bring it up to a uranium-ion capability, it was a natural choice to make an addition to these activities to examine low-..beta.. rf accelerating structures and ion sources suitable for HIF. An experimental program on intense beam propagation was briefly discussed. (MOW)
Date: September 30, 1977
Creator: Keefe, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANL low beta development (Phase O)

Description: The rf linac ADF is getting underway with a high brightness beam of 50 mA of Xe/sup +1/ at 1.3 MeV already available. The short independently-phased linac cavities are nearing completion and construction of the first Wideroee tank has begun. Because of the stringent current and emittance requirements, realistic computer simulations are needed for initial designs of the ADF as well as for understanding the performance of each section. The experimental measurements will require a new generation of diagnostics which will accurately characterize the beam without altering it or being destroyed by it. The low beta section of the ADF is a challenge, but now appears solvable with the proper mix of simulation and experimental measurements.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Watson, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Convective and nonconvective ion beam filamentation instabilities

Description: The electromagnetic filamentation instability is expected to occur in heavy ion beam fusion target chambers. For a converging beam, the instability is expected to be convective with group velocity V/sub g/ approaching the beam velocity V/sub b/ until the beam is approx. 10-50 cm from the target. The number of e-foldings N/sub ..gamma../ is estimated by integrating the local growth rate along the beam trajectory. For a cold beam, the result agrees with the initial value problem solution of Lee, et al. Detailed numerical solutions to the full dispersion region predict somewhat lower values for N/sub ..gamma../. Close to the target, v/sub g/ ..-->.. 0, and the instability is effectively nonconvective, with N/sub ..gamma../ proportional to the pulse length. If a realistic conductivity model is used (sigma approx. (Z/sub b//R)/sup 2/), the number of e-foldings in the nonconvective region is generally smaller than N/sub ..gamma../ in the convective region. Thus, any appreciable deterioration in beam quality is more likely to occur while the beam is in the convective region.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Hubbard, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear interactions of heavy ions

Description: A possible source of preheat for heavy ion driven inertial fusion targets is the production of fast precursors by nuclear interactions between the incident heavy ions and the outer parts of the target. A model has been developed which roughly describes these interactions for all beam-target combinations for all incident energies. This interaction model has been applied to a specific capsule design. The resultant preheat is an order of magnitude below the level which could impair target performance.
Date: February 24, 1982
Creator: Tabak, M. & Bangerter, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transport of intense particle beams with application to heavy ion fusion

Description: An attractive feature of the high energy (> GeV) heavy ion beam approach to inertial fusion, as compared with other particle beam systems, is the relative simplicity involved in the transport and focusing of energy on the target inside a reactor chamber. While this focusing could be done in vacuum by conventional methods with multiple beams, there are significant advantages in reactor design if one can operate at gas pressures around one torr. In this paper we summarize the results of our studies of heavy ion beam transport in gases. With good enough charge and current neutralization, one could get a ballistically-converging beam envelope down to a few millimeters over a 10 meter path inside the chamber. Problems of beam filamentation place important restrictions on this approach. We also discuss transport in a self-focused mode, where a relatively stable pressure window is predicted similar to the observed window for electron beam transport.
Date: June 22, 1979
Creator: Buchanan, H.L.; Chambers, F.W.; Lee, E.P.; Yu, S.S.; Briggs, R.J. & Rosenbluth, M.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy ion beams for inertial fusion

Description: The United States' program in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is described in this paper, with emphasis on the studies of the use of intense high energy beams of heavy ions to provide the power and energy needed to initiate thermonuclear burn. Preliminary calculations of the transport of intense ion beams in an electrostatic quadrupole focussing structure are discussed.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Godlove, T.F. & Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy-ion inertial fusion: comments on achievable temperatures for disk-heating experiments using proposed accelerator

Description: Calculations suggest that experiments relating to beam deposition, focusing and transport can be performed within the context of current test-bed accelerator design proposals. Since the test beds have lower ion kinetic energy and beam pulse power as compared to reactor drivers, we achieve high-beam intensities at the focal spot by using short focal distance and properly designed beam optics. In this regard, the extremely low beam emittance of suggested multi-beam designs are very useful. Preliminary results suggest that intensities of greater than 100 TW/cm/sup 2/ are achievable. Given these intensities, deposition experiments with heating of disks to greater than 100 eV are expected. We could also expect as much as 1 to 3 kA of incident ion current on these disks with beam intensities almost comparable to that of reactor targets. Thus, if any anomalous plasma effects on deposition emerge, the conditions should be available for testing some of them. On the other hand, these deposition experiments have low ion kinetic energy per nucleon. About 4 to 5 MeV/nucleon is achievable if lighter ions such as sodium were used. But for lighter ions, plasma effects in deposition might be more severe because heavy-ion beams are more stiff.
Date: April 7, 1981
Creator: Mark, J.W.K.; Bangerter, R.O.; Fawley, W.M.; Yu, S.; Garren, A. & Krafft, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ERDA summer study of heavy ions for inertial fusion, Oakland/Berkeley, California, July 19--30, 1976. Final report

Description: Technical summaries are given for the following areas: (1) target and reactor design, (2) ion sources, (3) low-velocity acceleration, (4) atomic and molecular physics, (5) accelerator parameters, (6) beam manipulations, (7) induction linac, (8) final focusing and transmission to the target, (9) systems and cost studies, and (10) alternatives. Several groups of appendices are given that relate to these technical summaries. (MOW)
Date: December 1, 1976
Creator: Bangerter, R. O.; Herrmannsfeldt, W. B.; Judd, D. L. & Smith, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pellet fusion by high energy heavy ions

Description: Some advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to pellet fusion are discussed. The review covers beam transport, parametric studies, and ion source technology. (MOW)
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Burke, R.; Cho, Y.; Fasolo, J.; Fenster, S.; Foss, M.; Khoe, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department