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Structure-dependent hydrostatic deformation potentials of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes

Description: Summary: The hydrostatic pressure coefficients of interband transition energies of a number of single-walled carbon nanotubes with different chiralities were measured. Both optical absorption and photoluminescence experiments were performed on de-bundled, single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions with hydrostatic pressure applied by diamond anvil cells. The pressure coefficients of the first van Hove transition (bandgap) energies are negative and dependent on the nanotube structure, while the second van Hove transitions are much less sensitive to hydrostatic pressure. The hydrostatic deformation potentials of individual nanotubes are deduced within an elastic model. An empirical equation that relates the pressure coefficients to nanotube structure is presented and discussed.
Date: November 7, 2003
Creator: Wu, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Shan, W.; Bourret-Courchesne, E. D.; Ager, J. W., III; Yu, K. M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrostatic Mooring System

Description: This report is a summary of the following topics of the first quarter of 2000: (1) Han Padron Associates (HPA) provided conceptual structural design of the mooring buoy; and (2) they completed partial review of the HPA design and designed the sealing elements.
Date: April 25, 2000
Creator: Korsgaarb, Jens
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Hydrostatic Mooring System. Quarterly Report for the Period April-June 2000

Description: The following topics are summarized for the 2nd quarter of 2000: (1) We amended the structural design of the buoy, moving the horizontal bulkhead from the bottom to the top of the buoy. (2) We designed the main bearing using Hilman Rollers. We discarded a parallel design using Lubron slide bearings due to concerns about keeping dirt out of the sliding surfaces. (3) We performed a preliminary failure tree risk analysis for the system as required by ABS. (4) We made various drawings of the system and sub-components.
Date: July 15, 2000
Creator: Korsgaard, Jens
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shallow Flaws Under Biaxial Loading Conditions, Part II: Application of a Weibull Stress Analysis of the Cruciform Bend Specimen Using a Hydrostatic Stress Criterion

Description: Cruciform beam fracture mechanics specimensl have been developed in the Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a prototypic, far- field, out-of-plane biaxird bending stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear biaxial stresses resulting from pressurized-thernxd-shock or pressure-temperature loading of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shtdlow, surface flaws. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for RPV materials. Two and three- parameter Weibull models have been calibrated using a new scheme (developed at the University of Illinois) that maps toughness data from test specimens with distinctly different levels of crack-tip constraint to a small scale yielding (SSY) Weibull stress space. These models, using the new hydrostatic stress criterion in place of the more commonly used maximum principal stress in the kernel of the OW integral definition, have been shown to correlate the experimentally observed biaxiaI effect in cruciform specimens, thereby providing a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states.
Date: August 1999
Creator: Bass, B. R.; McAfee, W. J. & Williams, P. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure dependence of donor excitation spectra in AlSb

Description: We have investigated the behavior of ground to bound excited-state electronic transitions of Se and Te donors in AlSb as a function of hydrostatic pressure. Using broadband far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, we observe qualitatively different behaviors of the electronic transition energies of the two donors. While the pressure derivative of the Te transition energy is small and constant, as might be expected for a shallow donor, the pressure derivatives of the Se transition energies are quadratic and large at low pressures, indicating that Se is actually a deep donor. In addition, at pressures between 30 and 50 kbar, we observe evidence of an anti-crossing between one of the selenium electronic transitions and a two-phonon mode.
Date: January 16, 2002
Creator: Hsu, L.; McCluskey, M.D. & Haller, E.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A new hydrostatic leveling system developed for the Advanced Photon Source.

Description: As a result of the calibration tests performed with the first prototype units using the new measurement principle, we believe that the described leveling method is stable and accurate to the micron level with a sufficiently large range for the expected elevation changes of the support girders used in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Although long-term studies with this system have not been conducted, we believe that after installation this system requires little or no servicing for long periods of time. The methods described in this paper cover only the elevation changes of individual vessels. However, changes in the tilt of a girder must also be known. Therefore, a combination of tiltmeters in conjunction with this hydrostatic level system (HLS) would be most suitable for measuring the tilt and elevation changes of the APS girders.
Date: September 18, 1998
Creator: Kivioja, L. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Failure of a fiber composite lamina under three-dimensional stresses

Description: The efficient use of thick-section fiber composites requires a proven three-dimensional failure model. Numerous failure criteria have been proposed, but the lack of critical experimental results makes it difficult to assess the accuracy of these models. It is shown that the various predictions for failure of a lamina due to the simple state of uniaxial stress plus superposed hydrostatic pressure are disparate. These differences are sufficient to allow evaluation of failure criteria using data that has the normal scatter found for composite materials. A high-pressure test system for fiber composites is described and results for the effects of pressure on the transverse and longitudinal compression strengths of a carbon fiber/epoxy lamina are discussed. Results are compared with a few representative failure models.
Date: August 31, 1999
Creator: DeTeresa, S. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the quasihydrostatic flows of radiatively cooling self-gravitating gas clouds

Description: Two model problems are considered, illustrating the dynamics of quasihydrostatic flows of radiatively cooling, optically thin self-gravitating gas clouds. In the first problem, spherically symmetric flows in an unmagnetized plasma are considered. For a power-law dependence of the radiative loss function on the temperature, a one-parameter family of self-similar solutions is found. The authors concentrate on a constant-mass cloud, one of the cases, when the self-similarity indices are uniquely selected. In this case, the self-similar flow problem can be formally reduced to the classical Lane-Emden equation and therefore solved analytically. The cloud is shown to undergo radiative condensation, if the gas specific heat ratio {gamma} > 4/3. The condensation proceeds either gradually, or in the form of (quasihydrostatic) collapse. For {gamma} < 4/3, the cloud is shown to expand. The second problem addresses a magnetized plasma slab that undergoes quasihydrostatic radiative cooling and condensation. The problem is solved analytically, employing the Lagrangian mass coordinate.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Meerson, B.; Megged, E. & Tajima, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uniaxial Compression Experiments on PZT 95/5-2Nb Ceramic: Evidence for an Orientation-Dependent, ''Maximum Compressive Stress'' Criterion for Onset of the F(R1)()A(O) Polymorphic Phase Transformation

Description: Some time ago we presented evidence that, under nonhydrostatic loading, the F{sub R1} {r_arrow} A{sub O} polymorphic phase transformation in unpoled PZT 95/5-2Nb ceramic began when the maximum compressive stress equaled the hydrostatic pressure at which the transformation otherwise took place. More recently, we showed that this simple stress criterion did not apply to nonhydrostatically compressed, poled ceramic. However, unpoled ceramic is isotropic, whereas poled ceramic has a preferred crystallographic orientation and is mechanically anisotropic. If we further assume that the transformation depends not only on the magnitude of the compressive stress, but also its orientation relative to some feature(s) of PZT 95/5-2Nb's crystallography, then these disparate results can be qualitatively resolved. In this report, we first summarize the existing results for unpoled and poled ceramic. Using our orientation-dependent hypothesis and these results, we derive simple arithmetic expressions that accurately describe our previously-observed effects of nonhydrostatic stress on the transformation of unpoled ceramic. We then go on to test new predictions based on the orientation-dependent model. It has long been known that the transformation can be triggered in uniaxial compression: the model specifically requires a steadily increasing axial stress to drive the transformation of a randomly-oriented polycrystal to completion. We show that when the stress is held constant during uniaxial compression experiments, the transformation stops, supporting our hypothesis. We close with a discussion of implications of our model, and ways to test it using poled ceramic.
Date: January 1, 1999
Creator: Carlson, L.W.; Grazier, J.M.; Holcomb, D.J.; Montgomery, S.T. & Zeuch, D.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HFIR Vessel Probabilistic Fracture Analysis, Considering Success of Hydrostatic Proof Tests

Description: Periodic hydrostatic proof testing and probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses are performed to demonstrate the structural integrity and useful life of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) pressure vessel. Calculations of the hydro-test conditions (pressure, temperature, and frequency) and of the probability of failure account for vessel degradation (flaw growth and radiation-induced embrittlement) that takes place between tests and of the credible worst-case-operating condition. The specified useful life of the vessel is limited by specified maximum permissible calculated probabilities of failure for hydro-test and worst-case-operating conditions. The probability of failure can be calculated with or without accounting for the success (absence of failure) of a test, but if success is accounted for, the calculated probabilities are less and thus the maximum permissible life greater. This report describes a simple method for including the success of a test.
Date: January 1, 1999
Creator: Cheverton, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Dielectric Properties and Phase Transitions of [Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}]{sub 0.905} (PbTiO{sub 3}){sub 0.095}: Influence of Pressure

Description: Studies of the influences of temperature, hydrostatic pressure, dc biasing field and frequency on the dielectric constant ({epsilon}{prime}) and loss (tan {delta}) of single crystal [pb (Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}]{sub 0.905} (PbTiO{sub 3}){sub 0.095}, or PZN-9.5PT for short, have provided a detailed view of the ferroelectric (FE) response and phase transitions of this technologically important material. While at 1 bar, the crystal exhibits on cooling a cubic-to-tetragonal FE transition followed by a second transition to a rhombohedral phase, pressure induces a FE-to-relaxer crossover, the relaxer phase becoming the ground state at pressures {ge}5 kbar. Analogy with earlier results suggests that this crossover is a common feature of compositionally-disordered soft mode ferroelectrics and can be understood in terms of a decrease in the correlation length among polar domains with increasing pressure. Application of a dc biasing electric field at 1 bar strengthens FE correlations, and can at high pressure re-stabilize the FE response. The pressure-temperature-electric field phase diagram was established. In the absence of dc bias the tetragonal phase vanishes at high pressure, the crystal exhibiting classic relaxor behavior. The dynamics of dipolar motion and the strong deviation from Curie-Weiss behavior of the susceptibility in the high temperature cubic phase are discussed.
Date: August 1, 2000
Creator: SAMARA,GEORGE A.; VENTURINI,EUGENE L. & SCHMIDT,V. HUGO
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Forward-in-Time Differencing for Fluids: Nonhydrostatic Modeling of Rotating Stratified Flow on a Mountainous Sphere

Description: Traditionally, numerical models for simulating planetary scale weather and climate employ the hydrostatic primitive equations-an abbreviated form of Navier-Stokes equations that neglect vertical accelerations and use simplified inertial forces. 1 Although there is no evidence so far that including nonhydrostatic effects in global models has any physical significance for large scale solutions, there is an apparent trend in the community toward restoring Navier-Stokes equations (or at least their less constrained forms) in global models of atmospheres and oceans. The primary motivation for this is that the state-of-the-art computers already admit resolutions where local nonhydrostatic effects become noticeable. Other advantages include: the convenience of local mesh refinement; better overall accuracy; insubstantial computational overhead relative to hydrostatic models; universality and therefore convenience of maintaining a single large code; as well as conceptual simplicity and mathematical elegancy--features important for education. The few existing nonhydrostatic global models differ in analytic formulation and numerical design, reflecting their different purposes and origins. Much of our present research improves the design of a high-performance numerical model for simulating the flows of moist (and precipitating), rotating, stratified fluids past a specified time-dependent irregular lower boundary. This model is representative of a class of nonhydrostatic atmospheric codes employing the an elastic equations of motion in a terrain-following curvilinear framework, and contains parallel implementations of semi-Lagrangian and Eulerian approximations selectable by the user. The model has been employed in a variety of applications; the quality of results suggest that modern nonoscillatory forward-in-time (NFT) methods are superior to the more traditional centered-in-time-and-space schemes, in terms of accuracy, computational efficiency, flexibility and robustness.
Date: March 31, 1999
Creator: Smolarkiewicz, P.K.; Grubisic, V. & Margolin, L.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrostatic Mooring System. Final Technical Report: Main Report plus Appendices A, B, and C - Volume 1 and 2

Description: The main conclusions from the work carried out under this contract are: An ordinary seafarer can learn by training on a simulator, to moor large tanker vessels to the Hydrostatic Mooring, safely and quickly, in all weather conditions up to storms generating waves with a significant wave height of 8 m. Complete conceptual design of the Hydrostatic Mooring buoy was carried out which proved that the buoy could be constructed entirely from commercially available standard components and materials. The design is robust, and damage resistant. The mooring tests had a 100% success rate from the point of view of the buoy being securely attached and moored to the vessel following every mooring attempt. The tests had an 80% success rate from the point of view of the buoy being adequately centered such that petroleum transfer equipment on the vessel could be attached to the corresponding equipment on the buoy. The results given in Table 3-2 of the mooring tests show a consistently improving performance from test to test by the Captain that performed the mooring operations. This is not surprising, in view of the fact that the Captain had only three days of training on the simulator prior to conducting the tests, that the maneuvering required is non-standard, and the test program itself lasted four days. One conclusion of the test performance is that the Captain was not fully trained at the initiation of the test. It may therefore be concluded that a thoroughly trained navigator would probably be able to make the mooring such that the fluid transfer equipment can be connected with reliability in excess of 90%. Considering that the typical standard buoy has enough power aboard to make eight mooring attempts, this implies that the probability that the mooring attempt should fail because of the inability to ...
Date: August 8, 2000
Creator: Korsgaard, Jens
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structural and Dynamic Characterization of Amorphous Solids and Associated Phase Transitions. Final Report

Description: The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the structure of glasses is not well understood. There is extensive evidence now indicating that glasses undergo structural transformation upon application of pressure. These transformations are usually evidenced by changes in density, sound velocity, and structural changes from diffraction measurements (x-ray and neutron). In vitreous GeO{sub 2}, a change in Ge-coordination from 4-6 is evidenced on the application of pressure. The coordination change reverts back to 4 on releasing the pressure indicating that the structural transformation is reversible with pressure. But a shift towards higher Q (inverse space) of the first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) on the pressure compacted v-SiO{sub 2} and v-GeO{sub 2} suggests that application of pressure has both reversible and irreversible components such that on the release of pressure, the glass remains in a permanently compacted state.
Date: August 15, 2000
Creator: Yarger, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Phases Formation Process in Initial and Mechanically Activated Ceramic Batches with Pyrochlore Formulations

Description: Formation of two pyrochlore ceramics with formulations CaZr0.25U0.75Ti2O7 and CaUTi2O7 within the temperature range 1000-1500 C from batches prepared by grinding of oxide powders in a mortar and an activator with hydrostatic yokes AGO-2U as well as soaking of a Ca, Zr, and Ti oxide mixture with uranylnitrate solution was studied. The pyrochlore ceramics are produced through intermediate calcium uranate formation. Phase formation reactions in the batch pre-treated in the AGO-2U unit were completed within the temperature range 1000-1100 C that is lower than in the batches prepared by two other methods.
Date: February 25, 2002
Creator: Stefanovsky, S. V.; Chizhevskaya, S. V. & Yudintsev, S. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure-dependent photoluminescence study of ZnO nanowires

Description: The pressure dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) transition associated with the fundamental band gap of ZnO nanowires has been studied at pressures up to 15 GPa. ZnO nanowires are found to have a higher structural phase transition pressure around 12 GPa as compared to 9.0 GPa for bulk ZnO. The pressure-induced energy shift of the near band-edge luminescence emission yields a linear pressure coefficient of 29.6 meV/GPa with a small sublinear term of -0.43 meV/GPa{sup 2}. An effective hydrostatic deformation potential -3.97 eV for the direct band gap of the ZnO nanowires is derived from the result.
Date: September 13, 2004
Creator: Shan, W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Ager III, J.W.; Yu, K.M.; Zhang, Y.; Mao, S.S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extensional wave attenuation and velocity in partially-saturated sand in the sonic frequency range

Description: Extensional wave attenuation and velocity measurements on a high permeability Monterey sand were performed over a range of gas saturations for imbibition and degassing conditions. These measurements were conducted using extensional wave pulse propagation and resonance over a 1 - 9 kHz frequency range for a hydrostatic confining pressure of 8.3 MPa. Analysis of the extensional wave data and the corresponding X-ray CT images of the gas saturation show strong attenuation resulting from the presence of the gas (QE dropped from 300 for the dry sand to 30 for the partially-saturated sand), with larger attenuation at a given saturation resulting from heterogeneous gas distributions. The extensional wave velocities are in agreement with Gassmann theory for the test with near-homogeneous gas saturation and with a patchy saturation model for the test with heterogeneous gas saturation. These results show that partially-saturated sands under moderate confining pressure can produce strong intrinsic attenuation for extensional waves.
Date: June 17, 2002
Creator: Liu, Z.; Rector, J.W.; Nihei, K.T.; Tomutsa, L.; Myer, L.R. & Nakagawa, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of hydrostatic pressure on degradation of CdTe/CdMgTeheterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates

Description: We have shown that external hydrostatic pressure leads to the creation of structural defects, mainly in the vicinity of the II-VI/GaAs interface in the CdTe/Cd{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}Te heterostructures grown by the molecular beam epitaxy method on GaAs substrates. These defects propagating across the epilayer cause permanent damage to the samples from the point of view of their electrical properties. In contrast, photoluminescence spectra are only weakly influenced by pressure. Our results shed light on the degradation process observed even without pressure in II-VI-based heterostructures.
Date: April 18, 2001
Creator: Wasik, D.; Baj, M.; Siwiec-Matuszyk, J.; Gronkowski, J.; Jasinski, J. & Karczewski, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extensional wave attenuation and velocity in partially saturated sand in the sonic frequency range

Description: Extensional wave attenuation and velocity measurements on a high permeability Monterey sand were performed over a range of gas saturations for imbibition and degassing conditions. These measurements were conducted using extensional wave pulse propagation and resonance over a 1-9 kHz frequency range for a hydrostatic confining pressure of 8.3 MPa. Analysis of the extensional wave data and the corresponding X-ray CT images of the gas saturation show strong attenuation resulting from the presence of the gas (Q{sub E} dropped from 300 for the dry sand to 30 for the partially-saturated sand), with larger attenuation at a given saturation resulting from heterogeneous gas distributions. The extensional wave velocities are in agreement with Gassmann theory for the test with near-homogeneous gas saturation and with a patchy saturation model for the test with heterogeneous gas saturation. These results show that partially-saturated sands under moderate confining pressure can produce strong intrinsic attenuation for extensional waves.
Date: August 10, 2001
Creator: Liu, Z.; Rector, J.W.; Nihei, K.T.; Tomutsa, L.; Myer, L.R. & Nakagawa, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure Induced Phase Transformation of Pb(Zr(0.95)Ti(0.05))O(3) Based Ceramics: Grain Size Dependence

Description: A substantial decrease in hydrostatic ferroelectric (FE) to antiferroelectric (AFE) transformation pressure was measured for Pb(Zr{sub 0.949}Ti{sub 0.051}){sub 0.989}Nb{sub 0.0182}O{sub 3} ceramics with decreasing grain size. The 150 MPa decrease in hydrostatic FE to AFE transformation pressure over the grain size range of 8.5 {micro}m to 0.7{micro}m was shown to be consistent with enhanced internal stress with decreasing grain size. Further, the Curie Point decreased and the dielectric constant measured at 25 C increased with decreasing grain size. All three properties: dielectric constant magnitude, Curie point shift and FE to AFE phase transformation pressure were shown to be semi-quantitatively consistent with internal stress differences on the order of 100 MPa. Calculations of Curie point shifts from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, using internal stress levels derived from the hydrostatic depoling characteristics, were consistent with measured values.
Date: December 21, 1999
Creator: TUTTLE,BRUCE A.; VOIGT,JAMES A.; SCOFIELD,TIMOTHY W.; ASELAGE,TERRENCE L.; RODRIGUEZ,MARK A.; YANG,PIN et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DENSITY-FUNCTIONAL CALCULATIONS FOR Ce, Th, AND Pu METALS AND ALLOYS

Description: The phase diagrams of Ce, Th, and Pu metals have been studied by means of density-functional theory (DFT). In addition to these metals, the phase stability of Ce-Th and Pu-Am alloys has been also investigated from first-principles calculations. Equation-of-state (EOS) for Ce, Th, and the Ce-Th alloys has been calculated up to 1 Mbar pressure in good comparison to experimental data. Present calculations shows that the Ce-Th alloys adopt a body-centeredtetragonal (bct) structure upon hydrostatic compression that is in excellent agreement with measurements. The ambient pressure phase diagram of Pu is shown to be very poorly described by traditional DFT but rather well modeled when including magnetic interactions. In particular, the anomalous {var_sigma} phase of Pu is shown to be stabilized by magnetic disorder at elevated temperatures. The Pu-Am system has also been studied in a similar fashion and it is shown that this system, for about 25% Am content, becomes antiferromagnetic below about 400 K that corroborate the recent discovery of a Curie-Weiss behavior in this system.
Date: April 5, 2004
Creator: Landa, A & Soderlind, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department