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Bibliography of Pressure Hydrogenation (In Three Parts): [Part] 1. Review and Compilation of the Literature on Pressure Hydrogenation of Liquid and Solid Carbonaceous Materials

Description: From Introduction: This review contains abstracts of the technical literature and patents dealing material application of the Bergius and related processes for the hydrogenation, under greater than atmospheric pressures, of liquid and solid carbonaceous materials such as coal, lignite, their distillation and extraction products, pitches and tars, and petroleum and its distillation residues."
Date: 1950
Creator: Wiley, J. L. & Anderson, H. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogenation of Coal in the Batch Autoclave

Description: From Introduction: "This bulletin presents results of laboratory experiments performed between 1944 and 1956, which have particularly sought to improve the conversion of coal to liquids in small batch-type high-pressure reactors (autoclaves)."
Date: unknown
Creator: Hawk, C. O. & Hiteshue, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogenation of Coal and Tar

Description: From Abstract: "This bulletin traces the development of high-pressure, coal and tar hydrogenation technology, based on intensive review of the pertinent literature. The bulletin was written as a part of the Bureau of Mines research program on synthetic liquid fuels. It covers the history and economics of the process; the chemical aspect of hydrogenation of coal, tar, and middle oil; the engineer aspect of converting coal and tar to liquid fuels, principally gasoline; and the equipment of the process."
Date: unknown
Creator: Wu, W. R. K. & Storch, H. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physical Chemistry of the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

Description: From Summary: "This paper summarizes the results of physicochemical studies of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide) undertaken by the Federal Bureau of Mines as part of its program on improving processes for producing liquid fuels from coal."
Date: 1959
Creator: Anderson, R. B.; Shultz, J. F.; Hofer, L. J. E. & Storch, H. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogenation of Petroleum and Lignite Tar Distillates

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines regarding the operation of the Coal Hydrogenation Demonstration Plant in Missouri. This report summarizes the operating experience gained and the characteristics of the products created during operation of the plant. The report includes graphs, tables, and illustrations.
Date: April 1950
Creator: Clarke, E. A.; Chaffee, C. C. & Hirst, L. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal Solution and Hydrogenation of Green River Oil Shale: Experimental Investigations and Bibliography

Description: From Introduction: "This so-called thermal-solution process and a modification of it, wherein the conversion is carried out under a high partial pressure of hydrogen, have been studied at the Petroleum and Oil-Shale Experiment Station, Laramie, Wyo., to determine their applicability to Green River oil shale. The results of this work are presented in this report."
Date: 1953
Creator: Jensen, H. B.; Barnet, W. I. & Murphy, W. I. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of Tar Acids from Coal-Hydrogenation Oils

Description: From Introduction: "The purpose of this investigation was to separate and identify as many of the principal phenolic compounds produced by the mild hydrogenation of Pittsburgh-bed (Bruceton) coal as possible and to determine with the greatest possible accuracy the proportions in which they are present."
Date: 1950
Creator: Woolfolk, E. O.; Golumbic, C.; Friedel, R. A.; Orchin, Milton & Storch, H. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modification of Graphene Properties: Electron Induced Reversible Hydrogenation, Oxidative Etching and Layer-by-layer Thinning

Description: In this dissertation, I present the mechanism of graphene hydrogenation via three different electron sources: scanning electron microscopy, e-beam irradiation and H2 and He plasma irradiation. in each case, hydrogenation occurs due to electron impact fragmentation of adsorbed water vapor from the sample preparation process. in the proposed model, secondary and backscattered electrons generated from incident electron interactions with the underlying silicon substrate are responsible for the dissociation of water vapor. Chemisorbed H species from the dissociation are responsible for converting graphene into hydrogenated graphene, graphane. These results may lead to higher quality graphane films having a larger band gap than currently reported. in addition, the dissertation presents a novel and scalable method of controllably removing single atomic planes from multi-layer graphene using electron irradiation from an intense He plasma under a positive sample bias. As the electronic properties or multi-layer graphene are highly dependent on the number of layers, n, reducing n in certain regions has many benefits. for example, a mask in conjunction with this thinning method could be used for device applications.
Date: May 2012
Creator: Jones, Jason David
Partner: UNT Libraries

Special Equipment in the Coal-Hydrogenation Demonstration Plant

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over the equipment used in coal hydrogenation demonstration plants. Detailed descriptions of the equipment and machinery are presented. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: January 1950
Creator: Markovits, J. A.; Braun, K. C.; Donovan, J. T. & Sandaker, J. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanistic Studies at the Interface Between Organometallic Chemistry and Homogeneous Catalysis

Description: Mechanistic Studies at the Interface Between Organometallic Chemistry and Homogeneous Catalysis Charles P. Casey, Principal Investigator Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 Phone 608-262-0584 FAX: 608-262-7144 Email: casey@chem.wisc.edu http://www.chem.wisc.edu/main/people/faculty/casey.html Executive Summary. Our goal was to learn the intimate mechanistic details of reactions involved in homogeneous catalysis and to use the insight we gain to develop new and improved catalysts. Our work centered on the hydrogenation of polar functional groups such as aldehydes and ketones and on hydroformylation. Specifically, we concentrated on catalysts capable of simultaneously transferring hydride from a metal center and a proton from an acidic oxygen or nitrogen center to an aldehyde or ketone. An economical iron based catalyst was developed and patented. Better understanding of fundamental organometallic reactions and catalytic processes enabled design of energy and material efficient chemical processes. Our work contributed to the development of catalysts for the selective and mild hydrogenation of ketones and aldehydes; this will provide a modern green alternative to reductions by LiAlH4 and NaBH4, which require extensive work-up procedures and produce waste streams. (C5R4OH)Ru(CO)2H Hydrogenation Catalysts. Youval Shvo described a remarkable catalytic system in which the key intermediate (C5R4OH)Ru(CO)2H (1) has an electronically coupled acidic OH unit and a hydridic RuH unit. Our efforts centered on understanding and improving upon this important catalyst for reduction of aldehydes and ketones. Our mechanistic studies established that the reduction of aldehydes by 1 to produce alcohols and a diruthenium bridging hydride species occurs much more rapidly than regeneration of the ruthenium hydride from the diruthenium bridging hydride species. Our mechanistic studies require simultaneous transfer of hydride from ruthenium to the aldehyde carbon and of a proton from the CpOH unit to the aldehyde oxygen and support reduction of the aldehyde without its prior coordination to ruthenium. Another important ...
Date: November 14, 2012
Creator: Casey, Charles P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of catalytic hydrotreating selectivity with ammonia. [Quarterly] report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

Description: For the model reaction studied, the addition of NH{sub 3} increases the selectivity towards ring hydrogenation (generally desired) and away from dealkylation (generally undesired). However the overall reaction rate for a fixed temperature drops substantially. Selectivity is the greatest at the lowest temperatures. The effect of NH{sub 3} is less than proportional to its partial pressure. The results obtained here suggest how operating conditions might be adjusted to obtain an optimum amongst desired reaction rates, conversion and selectivity, in the presence of small concentrations of NH{sub 3} or other bases.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Satterfield, C. N. & Gultekin, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structure and Reactions of Carbon and Hydrogen on Ru(0001): A Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study

Description: The interaction between carbon and hydrogen atoms on a Ru(0001) surface was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), Density Functional Theory (DFT) and STM image calculations. Formation of CH species by reaction between adsorbed H and C was observed to occur readily at 100 K. When the coverage of H increased new complexes of the form CH+nH (n = 1, 2 and 3) were observed. These complexes, never observed before, might be precursors for further hydrogenation reactions. DFT analysis reveals that a considerable energy barrier exists for the CH+H {yields} CH{sub 2} reaction.
Date: September 9, 2008
Creator: Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Mugarza, Aitor; Cerda, Jorge & Salmeron, Miquel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Induced biochemical interactions in immature and biodegraded heavy crude oils

Description: Studies in which selective chemical markers have been used to explore the mechanisms by which biocatalysts interact with heavy crude oils have shown that the biochemical reactions follow distinct trends. The term biocatalyst refers to a group of extremophilic microorganisms which, under the experimental conditions used, interact with heavy crude oils to (1) cause a redistribution of hydrocarbons, (2) cause chemical changes in oil fractions containing sulfur compounds and lower the sulfur content, (3) decrease organic nitrogen content, and (4) decrease the concentration of trace metals. Current data indicate that the overall effect is due to simultaneous reactions yielding products with relatively higher concentration of saturates and lower concentrations of aromatics and resins. The compositional changes depend on the microbial species and the chemistry of the crudes. Economic analysis of a potential technology based on the available data indicate that such a technology, used in a pre-refinery mode, may be cost efficient and promising. In the present paper, the background of oil biocatalysis and some recent results will be discussed.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Shelenkova, L. & Zhou, W.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bibliography of the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Related Processes: (In Two Parts) I. Review and Compilation of the Literature on the Production of Synthetic Liquid Fuels and Chemicals by the Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide

Description: Report containing abstracts of the technical literature and patents dealing with the history, development, and commercial application of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and related processes for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide and the production of synthetic fuels and chemicals.
Date: 1954
Creator: Anderson, H. C.; Wiley, J. L. & Newell, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Semiempirical study of hydrogen addition to single-walled carbon nanotubes

Description: Single-walled carbon nanotube models have been constructed by insertion of 10-carbon bracelets into C{sub 70} to form C{sub 90} and C{sub 120}. Semiempirical heats of vicinal hydrogenation along the sides of the tubes are {approximately}40 kcal/mol more endothermic (less stable) than addition to the endcaps. Based on the similarity of the endcaps to C{sub 60}, hydrogenation of nanotubes is estimated to be approximately thermoneutral; therefore, only relatively high energy dienes or other species are likely to yield stable addended products.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Cahill, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal. Third quarterly report, 1 April 1993--31 June 1993

Description: This quarterly report covers the activities of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction of Coal during the Period April 1 -- June 30, 1993, at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. in Lawrenceville and Princeton, New Jersey. This DOE Contract Period is from December 8, 1992 to December 7, 1994. The overall objective of this program is to produce liquid fuels from coal by direct liquefaction at a cost that is competitive with conventional fuels. Specifically, this continuous bench-scale program contains provisions to examine new ideas in areas such as: Low temperature pretreatments, more effective catalysts, on-line hydrotreating, new coal feedstocks, other hydrogen sources, more concentrated coal feeds and other highly responsive process improvements while assessing the design and economics of the bench-scale results. This quarterly report covers work on Laboratory Scale Studies, Continuous Bench-Scale Operations, Technical Assessment and Project Management.
Date: July 1, 1993
Creator: Comolli, A. G.; Johanson, E. S.; Lee, L. K.; Pradhan, V. R. & Stalzer, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical report, May 9, 1991--August 8, 1991

Description: The efficient production of environmentally acceptable distillate fuels requires catalysts for hydrogenation and cleavage of the coal macromolecules and removal of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur heteroatoms. The goal of the proposed research is to develop new catalysts for the direct liquefaction of coal. This type of catalyst consists of fine clay particles that have been treated with reagents which form pillaring structures between the aluminosilicate layers of the clay. The pillars not only hold the layers apart but also constitute the active catalytic sites for hydrogenation of the coal and the solvent used in the liquefaction. The pillaring catalytic sites are composed of pyrrhotite, which has been previously demonstrated to be active for coal liquefaction. The pyrrhotite sites are generated in situ by sulfiding the corresponding oxyiron species. The size of the catalyst will be less than 40 nm in order to promote intimate contact with the coal material. Since the clays and reagents for pillaring and activating the clays are inexpensive, the catalysts can be discarded after use, rather than regenerated by a costly process. The proposed work will evaluate methods for preparing the fine particle iron-pillared clay dispersions and for activating the particles to generate the catalysts. Characterization studies of the pillared clays and activated catalysts will be performed. The effectiveness of the pillared clay dispersion for hydrogenation and coal liquefaction will be determined in several types of testing.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Olson, E. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress in donor assisted coal liquefaction: Hydroaromatic compound formation

Description: The role of hydrogen donor compounds in coal liquefaction has been extensively investigated since the mid 1960`s using model compounds and process derived hydrogen donor solvents. Our recent research and that of other investigators have shown that two model compounds in particular have great efficacy in solvating low rank coals. 1,2,3,10b tetrahydrofluoranthene (H{sub 4}Fl) and 1,2,3,6,7,8 hexahydropyrene (H{sub 6}Py) have been used to dissolve Wyodak coal to > 95% soluble material as measured by tetrahydrofuran (THF). Although these hydrogen donors are very effective, they may not be found in any significant concentrations in actual liquefaction process recycle solvents. Therefore, studies with process derived recycle materials are necessary to understand donor solvent chemistry. The objective of this paper is to present results of solvent hydrogenation experiments using heavy distillate solvents produced during testing at the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Test Facility. We evaluated the impact of hydrogenation conditions upon hydrogen donor formation in process derived distillates and compared these process derived solvents with the highly effective H{sub 4}Fl and H{sub 6}Py donors in coal liquefaction tests. This paper presents data on reaction conditions used for distillate hydrotreating and subsequent coal liquefaction, with an aim toward understanding the relationship between reaction conditions and donor solvent quality in recycle distillates.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Kottenstette, R. J. & Stephens, H. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Quarterly technical progress report, June--August 1990

Description: This report describes progress on research during the seventh quarter of this contract dealing with applications of coal pretreatment techniques in coal hydroliquefaction. The objectives of the project are to investigate various coal pretreatment techniques and to determine the effect of these pretreatment procedures on the reactivity of the coal. Reactivity enhancement will be evaluated under both direct hydroliquefaction and co-processing conditions. Coal conversion utilizing low rank coals and low severity conditions (reaction temperatures generally less than 350 {degrees}C) are the primary focus of the liquefaction experiments, as it is expected that the effect of pretreatment conditions and the attendant reactivity enhancement will be greatest for these coals at these conditions.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Baldwin, R. M. & Miller, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department