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Bibliography of Pressure Hydrogenation (In Three Parts): [Part] 1. Review and Compilation of the Literature on Pressure Hydrogenation of Liquid and Solid Carbonaceous Materials

Description: From Introduction: This review contains abstracts of the technical literature and patents dealing material application of the Bergius and related processes for the hydrogenation, under greater than atmospheric pressures, of liquid and solid carbonaceous materials such as coal, lignite, their distillation and extraction products, pitches and tars, and petroleum and its distillation residues."
Date: 1950
Creator: Wiley, J. L. & Anderson, H. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogenation of Coal in the Batch Autoclave

Description: From Introduction: "This bulletin presents results of laboratory experiments performed between 1944 and 1956, which have particularly sought to improve the conversion of coal to liquids in small batch-type high-pressure reactors (autoclaves)."
Date: unknown
Creator: Hawk, C. O. & Hiteshue, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogenation of Coal and Tar

Description: From Abstract: "This bulletin traces the development of high-pressure, coal and tar hydrogenation technology, based on intensive review of the pertinent literature. The bulletin was written as a part of the Bureau of Mines research program on synthetic liquid fuels. It covers the history and economics of the process; the chemical aspect of hydrogenation of coal, tar, and middle oil; the engineer aspect of converting coal and tar to liquid fuels, principally gasoline; and the equipment of the process."
Date: unknown
Creator: Wu, W. R. K. & Storch, H. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physical Chemistry of the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

Description: From Summary: "This paper summarizes the results of physicochemical studies of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide) undertaken by the Federal Bureau of Mines as part of its program on improving processes for producing liquid fuels from coal."
Date: 1959
Creator: Anderson, R. B.; Shultz, J. F.; Hofer, L. J. E. & Storch, H. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogenation of Petroleum and Lignite Tar Distillates

Description: Report issued by the U.S. Bureau of Mines regarding the operation of the Coal Hydrogenation Demonstration Plant in Missouri. This report summarizes the operating experience gained and the characteristics of the products created during operation of the plant. The report includes graphs, tables, and illustrations.
Date: April 1950
Creator: Clarke, E. A.; Chaffee, C. C. & Hirst, L. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal Solution and Hydrogenation of Green River Oil Shale: Experimental Investigations and Bibliography

Description: From Introduction: "This so-called thermal-solution process and a modification of it, wherein the conversion is carried out under a high partial pressure of hydrogen, have been studied at the Petroleum and Oil-Shale Experiment Station, Laramie, Wyo., to determine their applicability to Green River oil shale. The results of this work are presented in this report."
Date: 1953
Creator: Jensen, H. B.; Barnet, W. I. & Murphy, W. I. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of Tar Acids from Coal-Hydrogenation Oils

Description: From Introduction: "The purpose of this investigation was to separate and identify as many of the principal phenolic compounds produced by the mild hydrogenation of Pittsburgh-bed (Bruceton) coal as possible and to determine with the greatest possible accuracy the proportions in which they are present."
Date: 1950
Creator: Woolfolk, E. O.; Golumbic, C.; Friedel, R. A.; Orchin, Milton & Storch, H. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modification of Graphene Properties: Electron Induced Reversible Hydrogenation, Oxidative Etching and Layer-by-layer Thinning

Description: In this dissertation, I present the mechanism of graphene hydrogenation via three different electron sources: scanning electron microscopy, e-beam irradiation and H2 and He plasma irradiation. in each case, hydrogenation occurs due to electron impact fragmentation of adsorbed water vapor from the sample preparation process. in the proposed model, secondary and backscattered electrons generated from incident electron interactions with the underlying silicon substrate are responsible for the dissociation of water vapor. Chemisorbed H species from the dissociation are responsible for converting graphene into hydrogenated graphene, graphane. These results may lead to higher quality graphane films having a larger band gap than currently reported. in addition, the dissertation presents a novel and scalable method of controllably removing single atomic planes from multi-layer graphene using electron irradiation from an intense He plasma under a positive sample bias. As the electronic properties or multi-layer graphene are highly dependent on the number of layers, n, reducing n in certain regions has many benefits. for example, a mask in conjunction with this thinning method could be used for device applications.
Date: May 2012
Creator: Jones, Jason David
Partner: UNT Libraries

Special Equipment in the Coal-Hydrogenation Demonstration Plant

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over the equipment used in coal hydrogenation demonstration plants. Detailed descriptions of the equipment and machinery are presented. This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: January 1950
Creator: Markovits, J. A.; Braun, K. C.; Donovan, J. T. & Sandaker, J. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanistic Studies at the Interface Between Organometallic Chemistry and Homogeneous Catalysis

Description: Mechanistic Studies at the Interface Between Organometallic Chemistry and Homogeneous Catalysis Charles P. Casey, Principal Investigator Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 Phone 608-262-0584 FAX: 608-262-7144 Email: casey@chem.wisc.edu http://www.chem.wisc.edu/main/people/faculty/casey.html Executive Summary. Our goal was to learn the intimate mechanistic details of reactions involved in homogeneous catalysis and to use the insight we gain to develop new and improved catalysts. Our work centered on the hydrogenation of polar functional groups such as aldehydes and ketones and on hydroformylation. Specifically, we concentrated on catalysts capable of simultaneously transferring hydride from a metal center and a proton from an acidic oxygen or nitrogen center to an aldehyde or ketone. An economical iron based catalyst was developed and patented. Better understanding of fundamental organometallic reactions and catalytic processes enabled design of energy and material efficient chemical processes. Our work contributed to the development of catalysts for the selective and mild hydrogenation of ketones and aldehydes; this will provide a modern green alternative to reductions by LiAlH4 and NaBH4, which require extensive work-up procedures and produce waste streams. (C5R4OH)Ru(CO)2H Hydrogenation Catalysts. Youval Shvo described a remarkable catalytic system in which the key intermediate (C5R4OH)Ru(CO)2H (1) has an electronically coupled acidic OH unit and a hydridic RuH unit. Our efforts centered on understanding and improving upon this important catalyst for reduction of aldehydes and ketones. Our mechanistic studies established that the reduction of aldehydes by 1 to produce alcohols and a diruthenium bridging hydride species occurs much more rapidly than regeneration of the ruthenium hydride from the diruthenium bridging hydride species. Our mechanistic studies require simultaneous transfer of hydride from ruthenium to the aldehyde carbon and of a proton from the CpOH unit to the aldehyde oxygen and support reduction of the aldehyde without its prior coordination to ruthenium. Another important ...
Date: November 14, 2012
Creator: Casey, Charles P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of catalytic hydrotreating selectivity with ammonia. [Quarterly] report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

Description: For the model reaction studied, the addition of NH{sub 3} increases the selectivity towards ring hydrogenation (generally desired) and away from dealkylation (generally undesired). However the overall reaction rate for a fixed temperature drops substantially. Selectivity is the greatest at the lowest temperatures. The effect of NH{sub 3} is less than proportional to its partial pressure. The results obtained here suggest how operating conditions might be adjusted to obtain an optimum amongst desired reaction rates, conversion and selectivity, in the presence of small concentrations of NH{sub 3} or other bases.
Date: December 1, 1993
Creator: Satterfield, C. N. & Gultekin, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermolysis of silica-immobilized 1-(4{prime}-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenylethane under D{sub 2}. A hydroliquefaction model

Description: Important conclusions of this study are: Presence of D{sub 2}at 2000 psi does not alter the tendency of surface-attached radicals to rearrange. Hydrocracking is observed for hydropyrolysis of surface-attached materials. Radical D/H exchange is more efficient in the gas phase. Reaction of benzylic radicals with phenols has been documented. Phenoxyl radicals catalyze exchange between D{sub 2} and SiOH groups on silic which in turn promotes exchange at ortho and para ring positions in phenolic compounds.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Guthrie, R. D.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Davis, B. H.; Britt, P. F. & Buchanan, A. C. III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of hydropyrolysis-MS to probe the hydrocracking of diphenylalkane linkages in the solid state

Description: Results have indicated increasing the hydrogen pressure reduces the extent of retrogressive chemistry for all the model substrates investigated. The primary pyrolytic event at high hydrogen pressure, as characterized by the evolution of benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene/styrene, occurs at virtually the same temperature for a given alkane linkage in the different substrates used. The C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} linkages investigated are cleaved at ca 50-100{degrees}C lower than their C{sub 1} counterparts. The pyrolysis of immobilized diphenylmethane appears to be largely unaffected by the co-attachment of tetralin.
Date: September 1, 1994
Creator: Brown, S. D.; Sirkecioglu, O.; Ismail, K.; Andersen, J.; Snape, C. E.; Buchanan, A. C. III et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structure and Reactions of Carbon and Hydrogen on Ru(0001): A Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study

Description: The interaction between carbon and hydrogen atoms on a Ru(0001) surface was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), Density Functional Theory (DFT) and STM image calculations. Formation of CH species by reaction between adsorbed H and C was observed to occur readily at 100 K. When the coverage of H increased new complexes of the form CH+nH (n = 1, 2 and 3) were observed. These complexes, never observed before, might be precursors for further hydrogenation reactions. DFT analysis reveals that a considerable energy barrier exists for the CH+H {yields} CH{sub 2} reaction.
Date: September 9, 2008
Creator: Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Mugarza, Aitor; Cerda, Jorge & Salmeron, Miquel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Induced biochemical interactions in immature and biodegraded heavy crude oils

Description: Studies in which selective chemical markers have been used to explore the mechanisms by which biocatalysts interact with heavy crude oils have shown that the biochemical reactions follow distinct trends. The term biocatalyst refers to a group of extremophilic microorganisms which, under the experimental conditions used, interact with heavy crude oils to (1) cause a redistribution of hydrocarbons, (2) cause chemical changes in oil fractions containing sulfur compounds and lower the sulfur content, (3) decrease organic nitrogen content, and (4) decrease the concentration of trace metals. Current data indicate that the overall effect is due to simultaneous reactions yielding products with relatively higher concentration of saturates and lower concentrations of aromatics and resins. The compositional changes depend on the microbial species and the chemistry of the crudes. Economic analysis of a potential technology based on the available data indicate that such a technology, used in a pre-refinery mode, may be cost efficient and promising. In the present paper, the background of oil biocatalysis and some recent results will be discussed.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Shelenkova, L. & Zhou, W.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bibliography of the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Related Processes: (In Two Parts) I. Review and Compilation of the Literature on the Production of Synthetic Liquid Fuels and Chemicals by the Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide

Description: Report containing abstracts of the technical literature and patents dealing with the history, development, and commercial application of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and related processes for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide and the production of synthetic fuels and chemicals.
Date: 1954
Creator: Anderson, H. C.; Wiley, J. L. & Newell, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Semiempirical study of hydrogen addition to single-walled carbon nanotubes

Description: Single-walled carbon nanotube models have been constructed by insertion of 10-carbon bracelets into C{sub 70} to form C{sub 90} and C{sub 120}. Semiempirical heats of vicinal hydrogenation along the sides of the tubes are {approximately}40 kcal/mol more endothermic (less stable) than addition to the endcaps. Based on the similarity of the endcaps to C{sub 60}, hydrogenation of nanotubes is estimated to be approximately thermoneutral; therefore, only relatively high energy dienes or other species are likely to yield stable addended products.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Cahill, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal. Third quarterly report, 1 April 1993--31 June 1993

Description: This quarterly report covers the activities of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction of Coal during the Period April 1 -- June 30, 1993, at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. in Lawrenceville and Princeton, New Jersey. This DOE Contract Period is from December 8, 1992 to December 7, 1994. The overall objective of this program is to produce liquid fuels from coal by direct liquefaction at a cost that is competitive with conventional fuels. Specifically, this continuous bench-scale program contains provisions to examine new ideas in areas such as: Low temperature pretreatments, more effective catalysts, on-line hydrotreating, new coal feedstocks, other hydrogen sources, more concentrated coal feeds and other highly responsive process improvements while assessing the design and economics of the bench-scale results. This quarterly report covers work on Laboratory Scale Studies, Continuous Bench-Scale Operations, Technical Assessment and Project Management.
Date: July 1, 1993
Creator: Comolli, A. G.; Johanson, E. S.; Lee, L. K.; Pradhan, V. R. & Stalzer, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Quarterly technical progress report, June--August 1990

Description: This report describes progress on research during the seventh quarter of this contract dealing with applications of coal pretreatment techniques in coal hydroliquefaction. The objectives of the project are to investigate various coal pretreatment techniques and to determine the effect of these pretreatment procedures on the reactivity of the coal. Reactivity enhancement will be evaluated under both direct hydroliquefaction and co-processing conditions. Coal conversion utilizing low rank coals and low severity conditions (reaction temperatures generally less than 350 {degrees}C) are the primary focus of the liquefaction experiments, as it is expected that the effect of pretreatment conditions and the attendant reactivity enhancement will be greatest for these coals at these conditions.
Date: December 31, 1990
Creator: Baldwin, R. M. & Miller, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department