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Investigation of the Hydraulics of Horizontal Drains in Plumbing Systems

Description: From introduction: "In this paper, data obtained by Hunter and by the author are reported from laboratory investigations of (1) surge flow introduced into empty simply drains, (2) attenuation of surges in simple drains, (3) continuous full-section flow in simple drains under substantially steady, uniform conditions, (4) steady flow in compound drains, and (5) surge flow introduced through a branch drain into the side or top of a main drain carrying steady flow."
Date: December 18, 1964
Creator: Wyly, Robert S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mobile Radiological Measuring Unit: Description and Operating Information

Description: From Introduction: "This report contains a description of the MRMU, detailed operating information, emergency procedures, and health physics operating regulations. Also included are parts lists (Appendix A), an electrical system schematic (Appendix B), a hydraulic system schematic ( Appendix C), and EG &G Drawing No. NE-1054, which shows the shell assembly of the multiple-source pig (Appendix D)."
Date: February 1965
Creator: Burson, Z. G.; Summers, R. L. & Brashears, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air-Water Analogy and the Study of Hydraulic Models

Description: From Summary: "The author first sets forth some observations about the theory of models. Then he established certain general criteria for the construction of dynamically similar models in water and in air, through reference to the perfect fluid equations and to the ones pertaining to viscous flow. It is, in addition, pointed out that there are more cases in which the analogy is possible than is commonly supposed."
Date: July 1953
Creator: Supino, Giulio
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Specifications for Selected Hydraulic-Powered Roof Supports: With a Methods to Estimate Support Requirement for Longwalls

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines discussing hydraulic-powered roof support specifications. As stated in the abstract, "this report presents observations made by Bureau engineers regarding hydraulic-powered roof supports that are currently being used or have been used on nearly all operating long-walls in the United States" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: September 1969
Creator: Barry, A. J.; Nair, O. B. & Miller, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of Portable Hydraulic Dredges

Description: From abstract: This report summarizes the results of a comprehensive survey conducted to identify and characterize portable dredges available in the United States.
Date: March 1983
Creator: Hydraulics Laboratory (U.S.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

General Considerations on the Flow of Compressible Fluids

Description: This paper presents an introduction to the subject of the flow of compressible media. Information regarding steady potential flow, flows with "subsonic" velocities, higher approximations of subsonic velocities, flow with supersonic velocities, an approximate method for general two-dimensional supersonic flow, passage through the velocity of sound, and the application to airfoils is provided. Historical development and hydraulics are omitted.
Date: October 1936
Creator: Prandtl, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Terrace Outlets and Farm Drainageways

Description: "This bulletin is a compilation of the best information now available for farmers on the construction and use of terrace outlets and the protection, improvement, and maintenance of other sloping drainageways. The term "drainageways" as used in this bulletin refers primarily to channels of surface drainage in the upper reaches of watersheds or in unit drainage basins. 'Outlet' is a more restricted term and refers only to drainageways that are provided to receive and convey the discharge from the ends of terraces. The scope of this material is limited to surface runoff-disposal measures required in upland or rolling terrain where slopes are steep enough to cause channel erosion. It does not cover surface drainage or underdrainage of flatlands where natural drainage is inadequate." -- p. ii
Date: 1939
Creator: Hamilton, C. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remote Plastic Bag Passout Unit for High-Level Radiochemical Operations

Description: A system is designed for making remote sealed-bag passouts from a multicurie-level chemistry processing enclosure. The polyethylene bags are changed remotely without exposing contaminated surfaces while always maintaining a low leak rate seal. The system employs an interchange box (passout box) attached to the chemistry enclosure. Integrated with the box is a hydraulically operated jack that raises and lowers the bags, and a welder-cutter for sealing them. A single master-slave manipulator teamed with the above units handles all operations. (auth)
Date: August 1, 1961
Creator: Fleischer, E. S.; Parsons, T. C. & Howe, P. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluidelastic Instabilities in Tube Bundles Exposed to Nonuniform Crossflow

Description: A mathematical model is presented for fluidelastic instabilities in tube bundles exposed to nonuniform crossflow to develop an equivalent flow velocity. The model incorporates all motion-dependent fluid forces based on the unsteady flow theory. Published fluid-force coefficients are compiled and examined; all fluid-force coefficients are approximately independent of the reduced flow velocity when it is large but are strongly dependent on reduced flow velocity when it is lower. The unsteady flow model is used to show that the mode-weighted averaging method is valid for large reduced flow velocity, but that it is incorrect at lower reduced flow velocity. In the lower reduced flow velocity range, an iterative procedure is needed to establish the critical flow velocity. The results from the unsteady flow model are compared with those of other mathematical models. A general procedure is recommended to predict the equivalent flow velocity under different situations.
Date: June 1989
Creator: Chen, Shoei-Sheng & Chandra, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Instability Characteristics of Fluidelastic Instability of Tube Rows in Crossflow

Description: An experimental study is reported to investigate the jump phenomenon in critical flow velocities for tube rows with different pitch-to-diameter ratios and the excited and intrinsic instabilities for a tube row with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.75. The experimental data provide additional insights into the instability phenomena of tube arrays in crossflow.
Date: April 1986
Creator: Chen, Shoei-Sheng & Jendrzejczyk, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flood Elevations for the Soleduck River at Sol Duc Hot Springs, Clallam County, Washington

Description: Abstract: Elevations and inundation areas of a 100-year flood of the Soleduck River, Washington, were determined by the U.S. Geological Survey for the area in the vicinity of the Sol Duc Hot Springs resort, a public facility in the Olympic National Park that under Federal law must be located beyond or protected from damage by a 100-year flood. Results show that most flooding could be eliminated by raising parts of an existing dike. In general, little flood damage is expected, except at the southern end of an undeveloped airstrip that could become inundated and hazardous due to flow from s tributary. The airstrip is above the 100-year flood of the Soleduck River.
Date: 1983
Creator: Nelson, Leonard M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site Central Plateau – A Status Report for the 200 West Area

Description: The Remediation Decisions Support (RDS) function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (managed by CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]) is responsible for facilitating the development of consistent data, parameters, and conceptual models to resolve technical issues and support efforts to estimate contaminant migration and impacts (i.e., the assessment process). In particular, the RDS function is working to update electronic data sources and conceptual models of the geologic framework and associated hydraulic and geochemical parameters to facilitate traceability, transparency, defensibility, and consistency in support of environmental assessments. This report summarizes the efforts conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists in fiscal year 2008 (FY08) that focused primarily on the 200 West Area, as well as a secondary effort initiated on the 200 East Area.
Date: August 27, 2009
Creator: Last, George V.; Thorne, Paul D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Parker, Kyle R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Review of the UNET2D Hydraulic Model

Description: The Kansas City District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is engaged in a broad range of river management projects that require knowledge of spatially-varied hydraulic conditions such as velocities and water surface elevations. This information is needed to design new structures, improve existing operations, and assess aquatic habitat. Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical hydraulic models are a common tool that can be used to provide velocity and depth information. Kansas City District is currently using a specific 2D model, UNET2D, that has been developed to meet the needs of their river engineering applications. This report documents a tech- nical review of UNET2D.
Date: May 18, 2009
Creator: Perkins, William A. & Richmond, Marshall C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RESTRUCTURING RELAP5-3D FOR NEXT GENERATION NUCLEAR PLANT ANALYSIS

Description: RELAP5-3D is used worldwide for analyzing nuclear reactors under both operational transients and postulated accident conditions. Development of the RELAP code series began in 1975 and since that time the code has been continuously improved, enhanced, verified and validated [1]. Since RELAP5-3D will continue to be the premier thermal hydraulics tool well into the future, it is necessary to modernize the code to accommodate the incorporation of additional capabilities to support the development of the next generation of nuclear reactors [2]. This paper discusses the reengineering of RELAP5-3D into structured code.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Guillen, Donna Post; Mesina, George L. & Hykes, Joshua M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF RELATIVE PERMEABILITY UPSCALING FROM THE MICRO-SCALE TO THE MACRO-SCALE

Description: The principal challenge of upscaling techniques for multi-phase fluid dynamics in porous media is to determine which properties on the micro-scale can be used to predict macroscopic flow and spatial distribution of phases at core- and field-scales. The most notable outcome of recent theories is the identification of interfacial areas per volume for multiple phases as a fundamental parameter that determines much of the multi-phase properties of the porous medium. A formal program of experimental research was begun to directly test upscaling theories in fluid flow through porous media by comparing measurements of relative permeability and capillary-saturation with measurements of interfacial area per volume. During this reporting period, we have shown experimentally and theoretically that the optical coherence imaging system is optimized for sandstone. The measurement of interfacial area per volume (IAV), capillary pressure and saturation in two dimensional micro-models structures that are statistically similar to real porous media has shown the existence of a unique relationship among these hydraulic parameters. The measurement of interfacial area per volume on a three-dimensional natural sample, i.e., sandstone, has the same length-scale as the values of IAV determined for the two-dimensional micro-models.
Date: December 1, 2001
Creator: Cheng, JiangTao; Yu, Ping; Headley, William; Giordao, Nicholas; Mustata, Mirela; Chen, Daiquan et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Can Cavitation Be Anticipated?

Description: The major problem with cavitation in pumps and hydraulic systems is that there is no effective (conventional) method for detecting or predicting its inception. The traditional method of recognizing cavitation in a pump is to declare the event occurring when the total head drops by some arbitrary value (typically 3%) in response to a pressure reduction at the pump inlet. However, the device is already seriously cavitating when this happens. What is actually needed is a practical method to detect impending rather than incipient cavitation. Whereas the detection of incipient cavitation requires the detection of features just after cavitation starts, the anticipation of cavitation requires the detection and identification of precursor features just before it begins. Two recent advances that make this detection possible. The first is acoustic sensors with a bandwidth of 1 MHz and a dynamic range of 80 dB that preserve the fine details of the features when subjected to coarse vibrations. The second is the application of Bayesian parameter estimation which makes it possible to separate weak signals, such as those present in cavitation precursors, from strong signals, such as pump vibration. Bayesian parameter estimation derives a model based on cavitation hydrodynamics and produces a figure of merit of how well it fits the acquired data. Applying this model to an anticipatory engine should lead to a reliable method of anticipating cavitation before it occurs. This paper reports the findings of precursor features using high-performance sensors and Bayesian analysis of weak acoustic emissions in the 100-1000kHz band from an experimental flow loop.
Date: April 25, 1999
Creator: Allgood, G.O.; Dress, W.B.; Hylton, J.O. & Kercel, S.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transient Inverse Calibration of Hanford Site-Wide Groundwater Model to Hanford Operational Impacts - 1943 to 1996

Description: This report describes a new initiative to strengthen the technical defensibility of predictions made with the Hanford site-wide groundwater flow and transport model. The focus is on characterizing major uncertainties in the current model. PNNL will develop and implement a calibration approach and methodology that can be used to evaluate alternative conceptual models of the Hanford aquifer system. The calibration process will involve a three-dimensional transient inverse calibration of each numerical model to historical observations of hydraulic and water quality impacts to the unconfined aquifer system from Hanford operations since the mid-1940s.
Date: May 2001
Creator: Cole, Charles R.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Thorne, Paul D.; Orr, Samuel & Mckinley, Mathew I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Core Sampling in Support of the Vadose Zone Transport Field Study

Description: Over 130 soil samples were collected from three soil borings in support of the VZFTS. The first boring was sampled just prior to the first injection test. The other two borings were sampled after completion of the injection tests. These soil samples were collected using a 7.6 cm (3 in) ID splitspoon sampler, with internal 15 cm (6 in.) long Lexan? liners. The samples ranged in depth from 4 to 17 m (13.5 to 56.5 ft), and were submitted to various laboratories for hydraulic property characterization and/or geochemical/tracer analyses. Preliminary results indicate that the major concentration front of the bromide tracer reached a relative depth of 5 m (below the injection point) 8 days after the final water injection and had migrated to a relative depth of about 7 m, 4 days later.
Date: March 9, 2001
Creator: Last, George V & Caldwell, Todd G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods of Shutting Off Water in Oil and Gas Wells

Description: Report discussing methods of shutting off water in oil and gas wells in California, the Midwest, and the Gulf. Emphasis is on the methods used in California and suggestions for modifying California methods to make them applicable in other localities.
Date: October 1918
Creator: Tough, F. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluating Transmissivity Estimates from Well Hydrographs in Karst Aquifers

Description: Hydrograph recessions from rainfall events have previously been analyzed for discharge at springs and streams; however, relatively little quantitative research has been conducted with regard to hydrograph analysis of recessions from monitoring wells screened in karst aquifers. In previous work a quantitative hydrography analysis technique has been proposed born which matrix transmissivity (i.e., transmissivity of intergranular porosity) and specific yields of matrix, fracture, and conduit components of the aquifer may be determined from well hydrography. The technique has yielded realistic results at three sites tested by the authors thus far (Y-12, Oak Ridge, TN; Crane, IN, and Ft. Campbell, KY). Observed field data, as well as theoretical considerations, show that karst well hydrography are valid indicators of hydraulic properties of the associated karst aquifers. Results show matrix transmissivity (T) values to be in good agreement with values calculated using more traditional parameter estimation techniques such as aquifer pumping tests and slug tests in matrix dominated wells. While the hydrograph analysis technique shows promise for obtaining reliable estimates of karst aquifer T with a simple, relatively inexpensive and passive method, the utility of the technique is limited in its application depending on site-specific hydrologic conditions, which include shallow, submerged conduit systems located in areas with sufficient rainfall for water levels to respond to precipitation events.
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Powers, J.g. & Shevenell, l
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Self-Consistent Approach for Calculating the Effective Hydraulic Conductivity of a Bimodal, Heterogeneous Medium

Description: In this paper, we consider an approach for estimating the effective hydraulic conductivity of a 3D medium with a binary distribution of local hydraulic conductivities. The medium heterogeneity is represented by a combination of matrix medium conductivity with spatially distributed sets of inclusions. Estimation of effective conductivity is based on a self-consistent approach introduced by Shvidler (1985). The tensor of effective hydraulic conductivity is calculated numerically by using a simple system of equations for the main diagonal elements. Verification of the method is done by comparison with theoretical results for special cases and numerical results of Desbarats (1987) and our own numerical modeling. The method was applied to estimating the effective hydraulic conductivity of a 2D and 3D fractured porous medium. The medium heterogeneity is represented by a combination of matrix conductivity and a spatially distributed set of highly conductive fractures. The tensor of effective hydraulic conductivity is calculated for parallel- and random-oriented sets of fractures. The obtained effective conductivity values coincide with Romm's (1966) and Snow's (1969) theories for infinite fracture length. These values are also physically acceptable for the sparsely-fractured-medium case with low fracture spatial density and finite fracture length. Verification of the effective hydraulic conductivity obtained for a fractured porous medium is done by comparison with our own numerical modeling for a 3D case and with Malkovsky and Pek's (1995) results for a 2D case.
Date: January 2, 2004
Creator: Pozdniakov, Sergey & Tsang, Chin-Fu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department