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Modeling and control of a hydraulically actuated flexible-prismatic link robot

Description: Most of the research related to flexible link manipulators to date has focused on single link, fixed length, single plane of vibration test beds. In addition, actuation has been predominantly based upon electromagnetic motors. Ironically, these elements are rarely found in the existing industrial long reach systems. This manuscript describes a new hydraulically actuated, long reach manipulator with a flexible prismatic link at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus is directed towards both modeling and control of hydraulic actuators as well as flexible links that have variable natural frequencies.
Date: December 1996
Creator: Love, Lonnie; Kress, Reid & Jansen, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of flexible robots with prismatic joints and hydraulic drives

Description: The design and control of long-reach, flexible manipulators has been an active research topic for over 20 years. Most of the research to date has focused on single link, fixed length, single plane of vibration test beds. In addition, actuation has been predominantly based upon electromagnetic motors. Ironically, these elements are rarely found in the existing industrial long-reach systems. One example is the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) designed and built by Spar Aerospace for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This arm operates in larger, underground waste storage tanks located at ORNL. The size and nature of the tanks require that the robot have a reach of approximately 15 ft and a payload capacity of 250 lb. In order to achieve these criteria, each joint is hydraulically actuated. Furthermore, the robot has a prismatic degree-of-freedom to ease deployment. When fully extended, the robot`s first natural frequency is 1.76 Hz. Many of the projected tasks, coupled with the robot`s flexibility, present an interesting problem. How will many of the existing flexure control algorithms perform on a hydraulic, long-reach manipulator with prismatic links? To minimize cost and risk of testing these algorithms on the MLDUA, the authors have designed a new test bed that contains many of the same elements. This manuscript described a new hydraulically actuated, long-reach manipulator with a flexible prismatic link at ORNL. Focus is directed toward both modeling and control of hydraulic actuators as well as flexible links that have variable natural frequencies.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Love, L.J.; Kress, R.L. & Jansen, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

Description: Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. & Love, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a Vertical Recirculation Well System for the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site

Description: The objective of this work is to examine and develop a remediation scenario to provide long term hydraulic control and remediation of the dissolved chlorinated solvent plume within the Western and Southern Sectors of the A/M Area. This scope includes the development and siting of a remediation system that will contain the 500 part per billion trichloroethylene isoconcentration contour within each sector.
Date: September 13, 1996
Creator: Jackson, D. G., Jr. & Looney, B.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An efficient approximate expression for unsteady pipe flow with high- viscosity fluid

Description: An approximate first-order expression for modeling frequency-dependent friction of unsteady pipe flow with high-viscosity fluid has been deveoped with the method of nonlinear square integral optimum in the frequency domain. This simple expression of first-order lag elements is more accurate and efficient than others in both the frequency and domain domains and can be applied to calculations of both frequency and transient response of unsteady pipe flow for oil hydraulic systems.
Date: June 1996
Creator: Cai, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid nitrogen-cooled diamond-wire concrete cutting. Innovative technology summary report

Description: Liquid nitrogen-cooled diamond-wire concrete cutting can be used to cut through thick concrete walls, floors, and structures without using water to cool the cutting wire. The diamond wire is cooled with liquid nitrogen in a 0.9-m (3-ft) long by 7.6-cm (3-in.) diameter pipe housing. The nitrogen evaporates, so no contaminated liquid waste is generated. Other than the use of liquid nitrogen, the system is a conventional diamond-wire saw assembly with remote hydraulic controls. Setup of the hydraulic-powered drive wheel and the diamond wire for cutting requires a relatively short period of time using people with minimal training. Concrete dust generated during the cutting is considerable and requires control. The production rate of this improved technology is 0.78 m{sup 2}/hr (8.4 ft{sup 2}/hr). The production rates of traditional (baseline) water-cooled diamond-wire cutting and circular saw cutting technologies are 1.11 m{sup 2}/hr (12 ft{sup 2}/hr), and 0.45 m{sup 2}/hr (4.8 ft{sup 2}/hr), respectively. The liquid nitrogen-cooled system costs 189% more than conventional diamond-wire cutting if contaminated liquid wastes collection, treatment, and disposal are not accounted for with the baseline. The new technology was 310% more costly than a conventional diamond circular saw, under the conditions of this demonstration (no wastewater control). For cutting a 0.9-m x 3.7-m (3-ft x 12-ft) wall, the improved technology costs $17,000, while baseline diamond-wire cutting would cost $9,000 and baseline circular-saw cutting would cost $5,500. The improved system may cost less than the baseline technologies or may be comparable in cost if wastewater control is included.
Date: December 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Description of a micro-mechanical testing system

Description: In recent years, technological advances have significantly enhanced the capability to produce milli- and micro-sized components which may be incorporated into the design of small, less costly, reproducible and more reliable nuclear weapons components. Two promising micro-scale processing technologies are Silicon surface micromachining (SMM), a process derived from microelectronics fabrication, and LIGA, a process involving electrodeposition of metals into a polymeric mask containing very fine, sharp features. Complicated SMM structures with micron sized features such as microengines, gears and pop-up mirrors have already been successfully developed. As part of an overall broad effort to develop mechanical test capability of millisized and microsized structures, a mechanical test system has been designed and assembled with the primary goal of characterizing the mechanical properties of LIGA synthesized structures and materials. The current system utilizes many off-the-shelf items including an MTS 3,000 pound 1.0 inch travel hydraulic actuator and an Interface 100 pound load cell. Load, stroke and displacement control is provided by an MTS TestStar system and two 0.100 inch LVDT displacement gages situated in a parallel arrangement at the specimen. Load resolution is on the order of 50 {micro} oz. and displacement resolution less than 45 {micro} inch. The system can test dynamically up to 100 hz at 0.005 inch actuator displacement and loads of 100 lb., statically at up to 250 lb. (limited by the load cell). The scope and flexibility of the microscale test system extends far beyond simply testing LIGA synthesized parts. A detailed description of the machine and a diverse set of results are presented in this report.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Schmale, D.T.; Bourcier, R.J. & Buchheit, T.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dual Arm Work Platform teleoperated robotics system. Innovative technology summary report

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has developed a Large Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. The Dual Arm Work Platform (DAWP) demonstration focused on the use of the DAWP to segment and dismantle the CP-5 reactor tank and surrounding bio-shield components (including the graphite block reflector, lead and boral sheeting) and performing some minor tasks best suited for the use of teleoperated robotics that were not evaluated in this demonstration. The DAWP system is not a commercially available product at this time. The CP-5 implementation was its first D and D application. The demonstration of the DAWP was to determine the areas on which improvements must be made to make this technology commercially viable. The results of the demonstration are included in this greenbook. It is the intention of the developers to incorporate lessons learned at this demonstration and current technological advancements in robotics into the next generation of the DAWP.
Date: December 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department