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Monitoring and Control Research Using a University Reactor and SBWR Test-Loop

Description: The existing hybrid simulation capability of the Penn State Breazeale nuclear reactor was expanded to conduct research for monitoring, operations and control. Hybrid simulation in this context refers to the use of the physical time response of the research reactor as an input signal to a real-time simulation of power-reactor thermal-hydraulics which in-turn provides a feedback signal to the reactor through positioning of an experimental changeable reactivity device. An ECRD is an aluminum tube containing an absorber material that is positioned in the central themble of the reactor kinetics were used to expand the hybrid reactor simulation (HRS) capability to include out-of-phase stability characteristics observed in operating BWRs.
Date: September 28, 2003
Creator: Edwards, Robert M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of a committed fusion site. Final report

Description: This report is divided into five technical sections. Section 2 is a summary. In Section 3, which covers device and site analyses the major characteristics of devices that might be placed at the site, as envisioned by major fusion laboratories, are described; the characteristics of a site (baseline site) which would accommodate these devices are defined; and various approaches to a committed site meeting the baseline site requirements are discussed. Section 4 describes the scenarios selected to represent possible site development outcomes; these scenarios are evaluated with respect to comparative cost and schedule effects. Section 5 presents a brief evaluation of the effects fusion-fission hybrids might have on the committed site. Major conclusions and recommendations are discussed in Section 6.
Date: July 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1978 source book for fusion--fission hybrid systems

Description: This study summarizes the promise and timing of the hybrid concept and culminates in a generic R and D timetable. This document emphasizes the meaningfulness of the concept to tomorrow's energy needs and energy production systems rather than strict analysis of technical feasibility. (MOW)
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Crowley, J.H.; Pavlenco, G.F. & Kaminski, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel design considerations for the Mirror Hybrid Reactor

Description: Fuel design considerations for a conceptual design of a commercial mirror hybrid reactor, optimized for breeding /sup 239/Pu, are briefly discussed. /sup 238/U/sub 3/Si fuel and lithium hydride breeding material are proposed, along with helium gas cooling. Selection of materials for the blanket follows conventional fission reactor practice. A table of reactor parameters is presented. The Mirror Hybrid Reactor offers potential economical production of fissile material. (RME)
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Bender, D.J.; Lee, J.D. & Schultz, K.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance parameters for fusion--fission power systems

Description: As a result of the diverse nature of the hybrid reactor, a number of general performance parameters are proposed which will permit comparison of various hybrid reactor configurations. In addition, the relationships developed are used to show that scientific feasibility or ''break-even'' for the hybrid reactor is near at hand in the fusion program and that attractive commercial reactors can be based on near-term plasma physics.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Bender, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Perspective on the fusion-fission hybrid reactor

Description: The hybrid reactor's role as a source of fuel for fission converter reactors is investigated. The role of the hybrid reactor in the energy economy, the interface between the hybrid reactor and the present fusion program, implications of the Carter Energy Plan, and the rationale for further hybrid reactor studies are discussed.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Bender, D.J.; Lee, J.D. & Moir, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical structure of the Mirror Hybrid Reactor Power Plant

Description: The mechanical structure of the LLL/GA Mirror Hybrid Reactor vessel is briefly discussed. Functional requirements and over-all design considerations leading to selection of a post-tensioned concrete reactor vessel and a modular blanket approach are indicated. Module design life of four years, module replacement, capability and remote fueling are provided by the chosen structural design. (RME)
Date: June 6, 1977
Creator: Culver, D.W. & Neef, W.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economics of fusion-fission (hybrid) reactors

Description: This paper analyzes the range of allowable performance characteristics (capital costs, operating costs, plutonium production rate and thermal-to-electrical conversion) which will result in net benefits to the public through reduced electrical costs at levels ranging from zero to $20 billion. These targets for performance will be established in light of nine different development scenarios for the remaining electric generating alternatives.
Date: March 1, 1977
Creator: Deonigi, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of an Advanced Bundle Divertor for the Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor

Description: The conclusion of this work is that a bundle divertor, using an improved method of designing the magnetic field configuration, is feasible for the Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR) investigated by Westinghouse. The most significant achievement of this design is the reduction in current density (1 kA/cm/sup 2/) in the divertor coils in comparison to the overall averaged current densities per tesla of field to be nulled for DITE (25 kA/cm/sup 2/) and for ISX-B/sup 2/ (11 kA/cm/sup 2/). Therefore, superconducting magnets can be built into the tight space available with a sound mechanical structure.
Date: January 25, 1979
Creator: Yang, T. F.; Lee, A. Y.; Ruck, G. W.; Prevenslik, T. V. & Smeltzer, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Systems analyses of fusion-driven fission

Description: Fusion-driven fissioning systems possess unique advantages not available in either pure fusion or pure fission systems. These systems can set a reasonably low maximum price for fissionable fuel, prevent the necessity of mining low-grade uranium ores, and possibly lead to the best way to exploit the vast fuel potential of our depleted uranium reserves. These systems are less demanding on the characteristics of the fusion systems making the advanced fusion fuels more accessible. By relieving the fission lattice of the need for criticality, more attractive fission system characteristics are allowed. Accurate economic predictions are not yet possible due to continuing uncertainty about the transport properties of reactor-grade plasmas. Hybrid systems have the potential to avoid the causes of most of the criticisms of nuclear power.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Mills, R G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tokamak Demonstration Hybrid Reactor. [Blanket specifications and cost estimation]

Description: In 1975, during the fusion reactor development planning exercises, Kulcinski and Conn had proposed the design and construction of a facility to test and demonstrate fusion-fission hybrid reactor operation. Battelle-Northwest, in cooperation with the University of Wisconsin has performed a preliminary conceptual design of a Tokamak Demonstration Hybrid Reactor (TDHR). A fuel breeding blanket has been designed and adapted to the fusion driver system of the Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor (TETR) which has been designed by the University of Wisconsin to produce a high neutron wall loading for engineering and materials testing. The design is based upon near-term technological developments for a system that could be operating in the late 1980's. The U.S. tokamak fusion reactor development program could provide the physics and technology base for proceeding with the design and construction of TDHR upon successful operation of TFTR and its predecessors.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Teofilo, V.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Perspective on the fusion-fission energy concept

Description: A concept which has potential for near-term application in the electric power sector of our energy economy is combining fusion and fission technology. The fusion-fission system, called a hybrid, is distinguished from its pure fusion counterpart by incorporation of fertile materials (uranium or thorium) in the blanket region of a fusion machine. The neutrons produced by the fusion process can be used to generate energy through fission events in the blanket or produce fuel for fission reactors through capture events in the fertile material. The performance requirements of the fusion component of hybrids is perceived as being less stringent than those for pure fusion electric power plants. The performance requirements for the fission component of hybrids is perceived as having been demonstrated or could be demonstrated with a modest investment of research and development funds. This paper presents our insights and observations of this concept in the context of why and where it might fit into the picture of meeting our future energy needs. A bibliography of hybrid research is given.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Liikala, R.C.; Perry, R.T. & Teofilo, V.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Antiproton driven microfission-fusion on closer inspection

Description: A closer look at the energetics of antiproton annihilation in real systems, coupled to hydrodynamics, materials strength, particle transport, equations of state, and related interactions is necessary to assess ultimate viability. The systematics of antiproton microfission-fusion are the subject of this analysis, as well as technology constraints.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Wienke, B. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic model of a relativistic electron beam hybrid reactor

Description: An optimization model of the economics of power generation using a relativistic electron beam hybrid reactor is briefly discussed. An assumed model structure is described. Projected plant costs vs. plant output are discussed. An optimization procedure is used to determine the lowest power and fissile fuel prices associated with a given model reactor concept. The levelized busbar energy cost is projected to be 30 m cents/kWh using the model. (RME)
Date: January 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tandem mirror hybrid reactor study (LLL Purchase Order 6887809 dated August 31, 1979)

Description: The results, bases, qualifications, and exclusions of the preconceptual cost estimate are presented below. This estimate is an order-of-magnitude assessment of the direct level POP Costs. The direct level cost consists of: (1) total cost of all materials forming the permanent part of the completed plant, and (2) total cost of all labor engaged in installing and erecting all materials forming the permanent part of the completed plant. A cost summary and a supporting breakdown of this estimate are shown.
Date: February 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1978 source book for fusion--fission hybrid systems. Executive summary

Description: The 1978 Source Book for Fusion--Fission Hybrid Systems was prepared by United Engineers and Constructors Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute. It reviews the current status of fusion--fission hybrid reactors, and presents the prevailing views of members of the fusion community on the RD and D timetable required for the development and commercialization of fusion--fission hybrids. The results presented are based on a review of related references as well as interviews with recognized experts in the field. Contributors from the academic and industrial communities are listed.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Crowley, J.H.; Pavlenco, G.F. & Kaminski, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic analysis of fusion breeders. Supplement

Description: Three fusion/fission hybrids and three converter reactors were considered in combination: (1) Li-Be (Opt-Li) blanket, (2) molten salt blanket (1.6 blanket energy multiplier), and (3) molten salt blanket (2.5 blanket energy multiplier). The following converter (fission) reactors were considered: (1) LWR, (2) HTGR, and (3) molten salt. In order to provide some perspective on the results of the hybrid analysis, LMFBRs were also examined: (1) methods applied consistently, and (2) range of LMFBR costs consistent with current thought on advanced designs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Delene, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fusion-breeder-reactor design studies

Description: Studies of the technical and economic feasibility of producing fissile fuel in tandem mirrors and in tokamaks for use in fission reactors are presented. Fission-suppressed fusion breeders promise unusually good safety features and can provide make-up fuel for 11 to 18 LWRs of equal nuclear power depending on the fuel cycle. The increased revenues from sales of both electricity and fissile material might allow the commercial application of fusion technology significantly earlier than would be possible with electricity production from fusion alone. Fast-fission designs might allow a fusion reactor with a smaller fusion power and lower Q value to be economical and thus make this application of fusion even earlier. A demonstration reactor with a fusion power of 400 MW could produce 600 kg of fissile material per year at a capacity factor of 50%. The critical issues, for which small scale experiments are either being carried out or planned, are: (1) material compatibility, (2) beryllium feasibility, (3) MHD effects, and (4) pyrochemical reprocessing.
Date: April 5, 1983
Creator: Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D. & Coops, M.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential commercial reactor based on a small tokamak hybrid design

Description: An ignition tokamak reactor design has been obtained which represents a starting point for the conceptual design of a 1000 MW/sub e/ commercial system. The design includes Nb/sub 3/Sn superconducting coils (TF, OH, and SF), water-cooled fissile blanket (e.g., uranium oxide), positive-ion based neutral beams with no direct energy recovery, and an ignited plasma with a = 0.9 m and an aspect ratio A = 4.0. The TF coil bore has a vertical bore of 7 m and a horizontal bore of 5 m both of which are a factor of two larger than the corresponding bore dimensions of the LCP (Large Coil Project) TF coil. The plasma is characterized as follows: stability factor q = 2.5, Z/sub eff/ approx. 1, poloidal beta ..beta../sub p/ less than or equal to A, a elongation delta in the range between 1.6 and 1.7. A number of potential operating conditions for the plasma and device have been identified for which the plasma beta ..beta.. lies within the range from 6.5% to 7.3%, and the plasma temperature has an average value between 11 keV and 12.5 keV. The design was obtained using the computer code COAST and represents a self-consistent sizing and costing result.
Date: January 25, 1979
Creator: Sink, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tokamak reactors. [Comprehensive over-view of the tokamak research program]

Description: The physical properties of nuclear fusion reactions govern the fuel choice and the selection of the operating plasma temperature. Scientific feasibility, or energy break-even, is one objective of the current research program. Engineering and economic feasibilities will depend on achievable plasma densities at thermonuclear temperatures and on technological questions of achievable magnetic field, effects of radiation damage, and mechanical design problems. A pure fusion reactor will have stringent requirements on its performance parameters. If achieved, it should provide clean, safe, abundant economic power, but from rather large central stations. Hybrid fission/fusion systems put far less stringent requirements on the plasma performance. They simplify the fission lattice design. They may provide a superior method for burning the vast reserves of uranium-238.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Mills, R.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of a helium-cooled molten salt fusion breeder

Description: A new conceptual blanket design for a fusion reactor produces fissile material for fission power plants. Fission is suppressed by using beryllium, rather than uranium, to multiply neutrons and also by minimizing the fissile inventory. The molten-salt breeding media (LiF + BeF/sub 2/ + TghF/sub 4/) is circulated through the blanket and on to the online processing system where /sup 233/U and tritium are continuously removed. Helium cools the blanket including the steel pipes containing the molten salt. Austenitic steel was chosen because of its ease of fabrication, adequate radiation-damage lifetime, and low corrosion rate by molten salt. We estimate the breeder, having 3000 MW of fusion power, produces 6400 kg of /sup 233/U per year, which is enough to provide make up for 20 GWe of LWR per year (or 14 LWR plants of 4440 MWt) or twice that many HTGRs or CANDUs. Safety is enhanced because the afterheat is low and the blanket materials do not react with air or water. The fusion breeder based on a pre-MARS tandem mirror is estimated to cost $4.9B or 2.35 times an LWR of the same power. The estimated present value cost of the /sup 2/anumber/sup 3/U produced is $40/g if utility financed or $16/g if government financed.
Date: February 1, 1985
Creator: Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Fulton, F.J.; Huegel, F.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Sherwood, A.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EPFL (Swiss) fusion-fission hybrid experiment. Progress report, November 1, 1981-January 31, 1982

Description: The trip provided an opportunity for extensive discussions with the staff of the Institut de Genie Atomique (IGA) of the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL). The discussions covered both the planning of the first series of experiments to be performed in the Hybrid Experiment (hereafter referred to as LOTUS) and the status of calculational work being performed at the University of Washington in support of the LOTUS project.
Date: February 8, 1982
Creator: Woodruff, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mirror hybrid (fusion--fission) reactor

Description: The reference mirror hybrid reactor design performed by LLL and General Atomic is summarized. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing fissile fuel for consumption in fission power reactors. As in the past, we have emphasized the use of existing technology where possible and a minimum extrapolation of technology otherwise. The resulting reactor may thus be viewed as a comparatively near-term goal of the fusion program, and we project improved performance for the hybrid in the future as more advanced technology becomes available.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Bender, D.J.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.S.; Devoto, R.S.; Galloway, T.R.; Fink, J.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department